Cowboys And Cattlemen


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Cowboys And Cattlemen

  1. 1. Cowboys and Cattlemen Revision
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>The early cattle trade began in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>When railroads came, the cattle trade made a fortune </li></ul><ul><li>Cowboys drove millions of cows north on ‘Long Drives’ </li></ul><ul><li>Later ranching began on the Plains </li></ul><ul><li>The boom ended in the 1880’s </li></ul>
  3. 3. The early cattle trade <ul><li>By 1845 Texas became part of USA. There were large herds of unclaimed herds </li></ul><ul><li>The cows were tough Longhorns </li></ul><ul><li>Initially difficult to transport cattle north and because there was little money to be made there was little incentive to round the cows up </li></ul><ul><li>A few long drives took place </li></ul>
  4. 4. How did it develop? <ul><li>By the end of the civil war in 1865, there were 5 million longhorns, most unbranded and so could be taken by anyone </li></ul><ul><li>In the North-East an industrial revolution was happening, with an expanding population demanding meat! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Long Drives <ul><li>The railroad was also expanding into the west </li></ul><ul><li>So cattle that could be bought for as little as $3 in Texas could fetch $30 in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Longhorns were rounded up and driven north on the Long Drives to the railhead towns </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cow towns <ul><li>Cows were driven up the Chisolm, Sedalia (Shawnee) and Goodnight-Loving trails </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph McCoy established the first cowtown of Abilene. Other were to follow. For example Dodge City </li></ul><ul><li>Ranchers like Charles Goodnight and Jesse Chisolm blazed trails to cowtowns and made fortunes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ranching on the Plains <ul><li>During 1870’s people began to raise cattle on the open range to avoid the Long Drives </li></ul><ul><li>One of the first was Charles Goodnight </li></ul><ul><li>This happened because the railroads extended their networks and developed cold storage and refrigerator cars </li></ul><ul><li>Massive profits could be made </li></ul>
  8. 8. The end of Open Range <ul><li>Eastern markets demanded higher quality meat. John Iliff began cross breeding Longhorns with Herefords but the new breed needed more care than on open range </li></ul><ul><li>Herds became too big for the grazing areas </li></ul><ul><li>Two terrible winters in 1886 and 1887 sped up the decline </li></ul>
  9. 9. Factors? <ul><li>Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>The government - opening up lands, Manifest Destiny etc </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>The civil war </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who became Cowboys? <ul><li>Mexicans, ex-slaves, ex-soldiers from the civil war, outlaws </li></ul><ul><li>Young and single </li></ul><ul><li>Originally from Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions from Mexico </li></ul>
  11. 11. The job <ul><li>Tough and badly paid </li></ul><ul><li>Life on long drives was hard. Equipment needed was expensive and had to be provided by the men themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous - including stampedes, river crossings, blizzards, drought, Indian raids and conflicts with homesteaders and rustlers </li></ul>
  12. 12. Long Drives <ul><li>Could take 4 months from Texas to Abilene </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous and boring - often resulted in quarrels </li></ul><ul><li>Dust resulted in clothing like bandana and hat </li></ul><ul><li>Had to work as a team </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the drive cowboys ‘whooped it up’ in the bars and whorehouses </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other jobs <ul><li>In winter, watching cattle from line camps on edge of ranches </li></ul><ul><li>Guarding cattle from Indians and rustlers </li></ul><ul><li>Repairing fences </li></ul><ul><li>Spring round up, ‘cutting out’ and branding </li></ul>