US Expansion


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US Expansion

  1. 1. Unit 2: Post Civil War America 1860’s-1900
  2. 2. The Birth of Modern America 1865-1900 <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. transformed from a rural nation, to an industrial nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of big business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rise of technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased immigration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unionization movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Populist Movement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. I – Mining <ul><li>The West held rich deposits of gold, silver and copper (served the needs of growing industries back East ). </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Strikes brought the first waves of settlers who wanted to strike rich fast. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placer Mining – using simple equipment like picks, shovels and pans to extract shallow deposits of ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quartz Mining – digging deep beneath the earths surface (large mining companies) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. I – Mining <ul><li>C. The Comstock Lode (Henry Comstock) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Mile Canyon, Western Nevada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First discovered (Grosh Brothers) 1857 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comstock (sheepherder) took over in 1859 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He sold claims for insignificant funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It didn’t become profitable until its bluish sand was found to be silver (silver ore) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the largest mineral strikes ever </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. I – Mining <ul><ul><li>This area became Virginia City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outpost to boomtown (30,000 people overnight) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera house, shops (European Fashion), several news papers, six story hotel (West’s first elevator) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1898 Comstock’s silver veins were exhausted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia City became a ghost town. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. II – The Cattle Industry <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many thought cattle could not survive in the west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water was scarce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern cattle could not survive off tough prairie grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranchers in Texas/Mexico let their cattle run wild </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over time the new breed – the longhorn – emerged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descended from Spanish cattle, brought two centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1865 (5 million roamed Texas) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. II – Cattle Industry <ul><ul><li>Open Range – a vast area of grassland owned by the government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cattle Drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the Civil War beef prices soared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1860 the railroad had reached the Great Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided a way to transport the cattle to markets back East. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cattle could be sold for 10 times the price they could get in Texas </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. II – Cattle Industry <ul><li>Hispanics, African Americans, former Confederate soldiers were hired by ranchers to head north on cattle (2,000 – 5,000) drives </li></ul><ul><li>1867-1871 nearly 1.5 million cattle were driven up the Chisholm Trail to Abilene, Kansas </li></ul>
  9. 9. II – Cattle Industry <ul><li>C. The Cowboy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican cow hands developed the tools and technology for rounding up and driving cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle drives were rough and dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often spent their entire wage once they got to town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dime Novel – Adventure book sold for a dime and helped spread the myths of the “Wild West” in the East </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. II – Cattle Industry <ul><li>Ranching Becomes Big Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle - sent to slaughter houses or sold to ranchers in Montana and Wyoming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Range Wars” - between competing ranchers (many died) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The invention of barbed wire enabled hundreds of square miles to be fenced off cheap and easy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New European breeds replaced the longhorn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investors (back east/Britain) caused an oversupply of animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping the prices causing ranchers to go bankrupt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The long cattle drive ended, the cowboy became a ranch hand </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. III – Farming on the Plains <ul><li>Open your text books to page 292 and skim section 2 </li></ul><ul><li>What geographic factors created challenges for settlers? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors played a key role in settlers moving west? </li></ul><ul><li>What hard times fell on the settlers? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write the questions in your notes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skip 5 lines in between </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. III – Farming on the Plains <ul><li>Open your text books to page 292 </li></ul><ul><li>What geographic factors created challenges for settlers? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity of wood - very little trees (only along rivers and streams) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity of water (wells needed to be drilled 300ft down) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 20 inches of annual rain fall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot summers (100 + degrees F) and extremely cold winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What factors played a key role in settlers moving west? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads (easy travel) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology - horse drawn binders, steel plows, seed drills, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homestead Act – for a $10 fee an individual could file for a 160 acre tract of public land that could be owned free and clear after 5 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat Belt – inexpensive land (U.S. largest wheat exporter) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard Times </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1890’s – too much wheat on the world market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought – many sold out or went bankrupt </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. “Our Original Sin” <ul><li>Would you rather be comforted, or told the truth? </li></ul><ul><li>“ If we look Indian history squarely in the eye, we are going to get red eyes. This is our past, however, and we must acknowledge it. It is time for textbooks to send white children home, if not with red eyes, at least with thought provoking questions.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Sol Tax, Anthropologist (1907 - 1995) </li></ul>
  14. 14. IV – Native Americans <ul><li>Background: </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabited N. America for more than 20,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>The horse was introduced in 1598 by the Spanish in New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>European invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brought diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small pox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guns were traded for by some, but not all tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Events: </li></ul><ul><li>The Oregon Trail (1841-1866) </li></ul><ul><li>The Gold Rush (1849) </li></ul><ul><li>The Transcontinental Railroad (1869) </li></ul><ul><li>Farming/Ranching </li></ul>
  15. 15. IV – Native Americans <ul><li>Indian Removal Act of 1830 (Congress/Andrew Jackson) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservations were meant to be temporary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put on land that settlers didn’t want </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assimilation/Civilize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boarding Schools </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. IV – Native Americans Tom Torlino (Navajo) as he appeared upon arrival to the Carlisle Indian School, October 21, 1882. Tom Torlino (Navajo) three years later
  17. 17. IV – Native Americans <ul><li>Current Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>563 Federally recognized tribal governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to form governments; enforce laws, to tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 300 Indian Reservation in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 are bigger than Rhode Island 9 bigger than Delaware </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Reservation Process <ul><li>“ High-handed officials, such as governor Isaac Stevens of Washington Territory, made no attempt at legitimate negotiations, choosing instead to intimidate or deceive Indian peoples into signing away their land.” </li></ul><ul><li>( Out of Many - Volume II) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Native American Reservations
  20. 20. Red Cloud – Oglala Sioux <ul><li>1822-1909 </li></ul><ul><li>His military success forced the U.S. to make treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Red Clouds War (1866-1868) over territory in Wyoming and Montana </li></ul><ul><li>1889 U.S. officials persuade the Sioux to relinquish 11 million acres of land to non-Indian settlers </li></ul><ul><li>His last days were spent at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Battle of Little Big Horn
  22. 22. The Battle of Little Big Horn <ul><li>Sitting Bull </li></ul><ul><li>1830’s - 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>Sioux Medicine Man </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of Lakota warriors who were part of the victorious battle against the U.S. 7 th Cavalry (June 25 th 1876) </li></ul><ul><li>Led his tribe into Canada until 1881 when he was granted amnesty by the U.S. government </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Battle of Little Big Horn <ul><li>General George Armstrong Custer, leader of the U.S. 7 th Cavalry </li></ul><ul><li>Was sent to subdue Natives near the gold rich Black Hills </li></ul><ul><li>Underestimated the Lakota/ Northern Cheyenne forces </li></ul><ul><li>His detachment was killed to the last man </li></ul><ul><li>The details of this battle are still highly debated </li></ul>
  24. 24. Battle/Massacre at Wounded Knee? <ul><li>Read Pages 301 and 302 in your text book titled “Tragedy at Wounded Knee” </li></ul><ul><li>Read contents from Wikipedia “Wounded Knee Massacre” </li></ul><ul><li>After reading write a paragraph summarizing the events at wounded knee in at least 6 sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Based on what you have read do you believe it to be a battle or a massacre? Describe your argument in at least 6 sentences </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Nez Perce Retreat <ul><li>Led by Chief Joseph and Chief Looking Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Wallowa valley wanted by settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Government was forcing them onto a reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Tribe decides to go to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to surrender at Bear’s Paw Mountain </li></ul>
  26. 27. Chief Joseph’s Surrender Speech October 8 th 1877 <ul><li>Tell General Howard I know his Heart. What He told me before I have in my heart. I am tired of fighting, Looking Glass is dead. too-Hul-hul-sote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say yes or no. He who led on the young men is dead. It is cold and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food; no one knows where they are--perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs. I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show <ul><li>Circus like attraction that toured the country </li></ul><ul><li>Included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annie Oakley “Little Miss Sure Shot.” Shot the ashes off Kaiser Wilhelm II’s cigar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffalo Bill gave a melodramatic reenactment of Custer’s Last Stand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting Bull often cussed at the crowd in his native language to their applause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the turn of the century in 1900 many historians claim that Buffalo Bill was the most recognizable celebrity on earth </li></ul>
  28. 29. The Buffalo/Bison <ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to the horse, buffalo were herded into large chutes, and then stampeded over cliffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided meat, leather, sinew for bows, grease, dried dung for fires, hooves for glue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the horse arrived a good horseman could easily lance or shoot enough bison for his entire family </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. The Buffalo/Bison <ul><li>Hunting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad companies wanted to destroy entire herds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large herds on tracks could damage locomotive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without the bison the tribes would leave, starve and die off </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bison skins were valuable for industrial machine belts, clothing (robes), and rugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge export trade to Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized teams of one or two professional hunters, skinners, gun cleaners, re-loaders, cooks, wranglers, blacksmiths, large number of horse wagons, bullet removers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro hunters could kill up to 100 in a single stand, thousands in a career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good hide was $3.00 in Dodge City, and a very good one (the heavy winter coat) $50.00 in a time when a laborer would be lucky to make dollar a day </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. The Buffalo/Bison <ul><li>The fate of the Buffalo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffalo Bill Cody spoke in favor of protecting the bison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Grant Pocket Vetoed a bill to protect them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1884 the American Bison was close to extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1890 as few as 750 existed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bronx Zoo maintained a remnant herd, some of which were transported to Yellowstone in the early 20 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The current population is estimated at 350,000, but this includes animals that carry cattle genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual approximation is from 5,000 – 15,000 purebred bison in the world </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. V – Railroads <ul><li>1862 – Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act </li></ul><ul><li>Union Pacific and Central Pacific (California - employed 10,000 Chinese laborers) created the transcontinental railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Land Grants – The government gave the companies land that they would turn and sell to settlers, real estate companies and other businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>1865 – 35,000 miles of track, all east of the Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>1900 – the nation had over 200,000 miles of track </li></ul><ul><li>1883 – The American Railway Association divided the country into four time zones. Ratified 1918. </li></ul>
  33. 34. III - Westward Expansion <ul><li>This 1891 cartoon expresses the views of those opposed to immigration into the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>The frock-coated politician is telling Uncle Sam that &quot;If immigration was properly restricted you would no longer be troubled with anarchy, socialism, the Mafia, and such kindred evils!'&quot; Captions on immigrants in the picture label them :Polish vagabond, Italian brigand, English convict, Russian anarchist, Irish pauper. </li></ul>