*Charismatic Leaders who are building a group, whether it is a political party, a cult or a business team, will often focus strongly on making the group very clear and distinct, separating it from other groups. They will then build the image of the group, in particular in the minds of their followers, as being far superior to all others.
*The Charismatic Leader will typically attach themselves firmly to the identity of the group, such that to join the group is to become one with the leader. In doing so, they create an unchallengeable position for themselves.
Participative Spectrum *ttp://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/participative_leadership.htm Autocratic decision by leader Leader, proposes decision, listens to feedback, then decides Team proposes decision, leader has final decision Joint decisions with team as equals Full delegation of decision to team Not Participative Highly Participative
“ Relationship Between [Leadership] Decision-Making Style and Job Satisfaction”
* “As business has focused increasing attention on workplace and management practices that enhance employee satisfaction and productivity, the benefits of participative decision making (ie, that cultivates employee input into decisions and that recognizes the value of employee opinions) have been endorsed. 1 Studies in various organizational settings have found a moderately strong relationship between managers using participative decision making and employee job satisfaction. 2-12 …studies confirm that participative decision making is associated with greater professional satisfaction and growth, less sick leave, and higher retention... 13-24 ”.
The leader is the one who must constantly adapt and not the follower.
For example, A new person joins your team and you're asked to help him through the first few days. You sit him in front of a PC, show him a pile of invoices that need to be processed today and then excuse yourself to a meeting. He is at level D1, and you've adopted S4, an obvious mismatch. Everyone loses because the new person feels helpless and demotivated and you don't get the invoices processed.
Another example, imagine you're handing over your duties to an experienced colleague before you leave for a holiday. You've listed all the tasks that need to be done and given him a detailed set of instructions on how to carry out each one. He is at level D4, and you've adopted S1. The work will probably get done, but your colleague will despise you for treating him like an idiot.
the leader provides rewards if, and only if, subordinates perform adequately and/or try hard enough. It contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments.
*Manager by Exception
MBE is a conservative approach whereby additional resources are applied in response to any event falling outside of established parameters. It seeks to minimize the opportunity for exceptions by enforcing defensive management processes.
The degree to which the leader behaves in admirable ways that cause followers to identify with the leader.
Charismatic leaders display convictions, take stands and appeal to followers on an emotional level.
The leaders have a clear set of values and demonstrate these values in every action; thereby, providing a role model for their followers.
The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers.
Leaders with inspirational motivation
challenge followers with high standards,
communicate optimism about future goals,
provide meaning for the task at hand.
Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. Purpose and meaning provide the energy that drives a group forward. It is also important that this visionary aspect of leadership be supported by communication skills that allow the leader to articulate his or her vision with precision and power in a compelling and persuasive way.
Leaders with this trait stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers.
The degree to which the leader attends to each follower's needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower's concerns and needs. This also encompasses the need to respect and celebrate the individual contribution that each follower can make to the team (it is the diversity of the team that gives it its true strength). test Apart from its central role in transformational leadership theory, charismatic leadership has been the basis of its own distinct literature (Weber, 1921/1947, House (1997). Transformational leadership and charismatic leadership theories have much in common and complement each other in important ways.
*The approach of quiet leaders is the antithesis of the classic Charismatic (and often Transformational) leaders in that they base their success not on ego and force of character but on their thoughts and actions. Although they are strongly task-focused, they are neither bullies nor unnecessarily unkind and may persuade people through rational argument and a form of benevolent Transactional Leadership.
*In his book Good To Great , Jim Collins, identified five levels of effectiveness people can take in organizations. At level four is the merely effective leader, whilst at level five the leader who combines professional will with personal humility. The 'professional will' indicates how they are far from being timid wilting flowers and will march against any advice if they believe it is the right thing to do. In 'personal humility' they put the well-being of others before their own personal needs, for example giving others credit after successes but taking personal responsibility for failures.
*A 20th century explorer who, after his ship became frozen in the Antarctic life, brought every one of his 27 crew home alive, including an 800 mile journey in open boats across the winter Antarctic seas. It took two years, but Shackleton's sense of responsibility towards his men never wavered.