Ancient China
Geography Shapes Ancient China
Geographic Features of China Civilization centered around two rivers which brought  water and silt    Made farming possi...
Two River Systems Chang Jiang a.k.a. Yangtze Rivers    Central China Huang He (or Yellow River)    North China Ancien...
A Varied Climate Had varied climate    Western China: dry, mostly deserts & mts.; sparsely     populated & usable farmla...
The Shang Dynasty Shang Kings    1766 B.C. Shang family began to control some cities        Set-up dynasty (a family or...
Shang Families Respect for parents & ancestors was important Close tie to religion Spirits of ancestors could bring goo...
Developing Language Kings claimed to be able to influence gods    Received messages through oracle bones       Animal b...
The Zhou Dynasty Zhou moved down from the northwest    Clashed w/ Shang 1027 B.C.    Wu Wang led forces & defeated Sha...
The Zhou & the Dynastic Cycle New dynasty est. Dynasties rose & fell in a pattern   Dynastic Cycle   Trouble resulted ...
Zhou Government Central gov’t was weak    People w/ family ties or other trusted people were in charge Local rulers (lo...
The Time of the Warring States Invasion was a constant theme 800 B.C.    Nomads from the north & west invaded 771 B.C....
China’s Ancient Philosophies
Intro During Time of Warring States Chinese society  experienced much disorder Kings & Warlords fought over land, while ...
Legalism Belief that a powerful, efficient gov’t and a strict legal  system are the keys to social order    Feared disor...
Strict Laws & Harsh Punishments Legalists believed human nature was wicked    People do good only when forced to Gov’t ...
An Increase in Government Control Legalists believed rulers should reward those who  carried out their duties well   Pun...
Confucianism Confucius    Lived from 551-479 B.C. during time of unrest in China    Wanted to restore order    Believe...
The Five Relationships Code of proper conduct/behavior for people 5 basic relationships in Confucianism each with its ow...
Proper Conduct Confucius    Good conduct & respect began at home        Husband good to wives, wives obeyed husbands, b...
The Impact of Confucianism Chinese found ways to avoid conflict and live  peacefully Many rulers tried to live up to Con...
Daoism Laozi    500s B.C.    Book of his teachings was Daodejing The Way    Believed a universal force called the Dao...
Following the Way Daoists    Didn’t not argue about good and bad & didn’t try to change things         Accepted things ...
The Qin & the Han
The Qin Unified China New rulers of China New Emperor: Shi Huangdi   Unified & expanded China
A Legalistic Ruler 221 B.C.    Shi Huangdi began to end internal battles between     warring states       Believed in l...
Uniting China Huangdi wanted strong central gov’t To gain control    Tried to weaken China’s noble families        Too...
The Great Wall Wall along northern boarder to keep out nomadic  invaders Great Wall linked together other walls built du...
The Qin Dynasty Ends 210 B.C.    Shi Huangdi died       Buried in an elaborate tomb guarded by army of clay soldiers
The Han Dynasty Shi Huangi’s son was not an effective ruler    Rebellion & civil war broke out    Military leader Liu B...
Han Government Liu Bang kept Qin policies of strong central gov’t, but  lowered taxes Made punishments less harsh Peasa...
Empress Rules 195 B.C. Liu Bang died Wife Empress Lu ruled for their young son   Actually outlived her son & continued ...
Expanding & Unifying the Empire 141 – 87 B.C.    Wudi ruled China (descendant of Liu Bang)        Called Martial Empero...
Life in Han China Han were industrious people whose civilization prospered  for many decades Daily Life in Han China   ...
City living Cities were centers of trade, education, and gov’t    Merchants, craftspeople, & gov’t officials lived here...
The Legacy of Ancient China
The Silk Road Han Dynasty   Only Chinese knew how to make silk       it was important in opening trading routes to the ...
A Trans-Eurasian Link Silk Road: overland trade route    Traders carried silk & other goods on caravan trails        Fr...
Cultural Diffusion Ideas & cultural customs also moved on the Silk Roads    Known as cultural diffusion        Can occu...
The Spread of Buddhism Buddhist missionaries entered China during Han  Dynasty   Few followers at first After fall of H...
Influential Ideas & Beliefs Philosophies continued to influence China & the  world Standards of Confucianism remained si...
Chinese Inventions & Discoveries Population of China was growing Farming was the most important & honored profession Ag...
Paper A.D. 105    Paper was invented       Made from mixture of old rags, mulberry tree bark, & fibers        from the ...
Silk Allowed Chinese to get silver and gold from lands to the west   Was important because China did not have rich depos...
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Chapter 6 blog notes

  1. 1. Ancient China
  2. 2. Geography Shapes Ancient China
  3. 3. Geographic Features of China Civilization centered around two rivers which brought water and silt  Made farming possible Isolated by Barriers  Water barriers: Yellow Sea, East China Sea, & Pacific Ocean  Desert barriers: Gobi Desert & Taklimakan Desert  Mts.: Pamir, Tian Shan, & Himalaya mts.  Geographically isolated  Made spread of ideas & goods difficult  Few outside influences
  4. 4. Two River Systems Chang Jiang a.k.a. Yangtze Rivers  Central China Huang He (or Yellow River)  North China Ancient farming  Done between Chang Jiang & Huang He  Silt made fertile soil  Center of Chinese civilization
  5. 5. A Varied Climate Had varied climate  Western China: dry, mostly deserts & mts.; sparsely populated & usable farmland  Northeast China: cold winters & warm summers  Southeast China: mild winters & hot, rainy summers Climate variety lead to variety of crops produced  Rice, wheat, soybeans, & millet
  6. 6. The Shang Dynasty Shang Kings  1766 B.C. Shang family began to control some cities  Set-up dynasty (a family or group that rules for several generations)  Kings: responsible for religious activities  Ruled w/ god’s permission  Ruled central North China Plain  Used chariots to defend themselves against nomads
  7. 7. Shang Families Respect for parents & ancestors was important Close tie to religion Spirits of ancestors could bring good fortune  Animals were sacrificed Men ruled within the family
  8. 8. Developing Language Kings claimed to be able to influence gods  Received messages through oracle bones  Animal bones that were scratched to question the gods (became early form of writing)  Developed pictographs  Used huge # of symbols  Could read Chinese w/o being able to speak it  Helped to unify a large varied land
  9. 9. The Zhou Dynasty Zhou moved down from the northwest  Clashed w/ Shang 1027 B.C.  Wu Wang led forces & defeated Shang  Adopted many Shang ways  New ideas also introduced
  10. 10. The Zhou & the Dynastic Cycle New dynasty est. Dynasties rose & fell in a pattern  Dynastic Cycle  Trouble resulted from rulers losing heaven’s favor  Claimed last Shang ruler was bad & god took away Shang right to rule & gave it to Zhou Mandate of Heaven  Bad or foolish ruler = approval of the gods would be taken away  Examples: uprisings, invasions, floods, or earthquakes
  11. 11. Zhou Government Central gov’t was weak  People w/ family ties or other trusted people were in charge Local rulers (lords) owed loyalty & military service to king King promised in return to protect their lands Lords became more powerful as cities grew  More group under their power  Less dependent on king  Lords began to fight with each other & other peoples  Added lands expanded Chinese territory
  12. 12. The Time of the Warring States Invasion was a constant theme 800 B.C.  Nomads from the north & west invaded 771 B.C.  Invaders destroyed capital city of Hao & king was killed Kings were weak  Lords fought constantly  As their power grew they claimed to be kings of their own territories (Time of the Warring States)
  13. 13. China’s Ancient Philosophies
  14. 14. Intro During Time of Warring States Chinese society experienced much disorder Kings & Warlords fought over land, while scholars wondered what it would take to bring peace 3 ways of thinking developed  Legalism  Confucianism  Daoism
  15. 15. Legalism Belief that a powerful, efficient gov’t and a strict legal system are the keys to social order  Feared disorder  Strong gov’t & strict laws would restore order
  16. 16. Strict Laws & Harsh Punishments Legalists believed human nature was wicked  People do good only when forced to Gov’t should pass strict laws to control behavior in people  Needed to make people afraid to do wrong
  17. 17. An Increase in Government Control Legalists believed rulers should reward those who carried out their duties well  Punishment was, however, stressed more than rewards Shang Yang (Legalist)  Wanted people to report lawbreakers  Those who didn’t should be executed Legalists  Did not want people ? or complain about the gov’t  Arrested those that did  Burned books that contained different philosophies or ideas
  18. 18. Confucianism Confucius  Lived from 551-479 B.C. during time of unrest in China  Wanted to restore order  Believed more in peace to end conflict Respect for others was absolutely necessary for peace and order Gov’t leaders should set good example for people to see Ideas were collected in a book called the Analects  Became belief system of Confucianism
  19. 19. The Five Relationships Code of proper conduct/behavior for people 5 basic relationships in Confucianism each with its own duties and its own code  Father and son  Elder brother and younger brother  Husband and wife  Friend and friend  Ruler and subject*Two basic categories: proper conduct in the family & proper conduct in society
  20. 20. Proper Conduct Confucius  Good conduct & respect began at home  Husband good to wives, wives obeyed husbands, brothers kind to brothers, younger had to follow wishes of older Most important teaching  Filial piety: treating parents w/ respect Behavior in society  Authority should be respected  Ruler was to live correctly & respect subjects  Subjects should obey if they did  Peace in society would come if followed
  21. 21. The Impact of Confucianism Chinese found ways to avoid conflict and live peacefully Many rulers tried to live up to Confucius’s model for a good ruler Groundwork was laid for fair and skilled gov’t officials
  22. 22. Daoism Laozi  500s B.C.  Book of his teachings was Daodejing The Way  Believed a universal force called the Dao (or Way) guides things  All creatures, except humans, live in harmony w/ this force  Humans argue about right and wrong (arguments are pointless)  To relate to nature humans had to find individual was to follow  Each should learn to live in harmony w/ nature & their inner feelings Natural order was more important than social order  Social order would follow if everyone learned to live in their own individual harmony
  23. 23. Following the Way Daoists  Didn’t not argue about good and bad & didn’t try to change things  Accepted things as they were  Didn’t want to be involved with gov’t  Thought gov’t should leave people alone Yin and Yang  Two things that interact w/ each other and represent the natural rhythms of life  Yin (black): all that is cold, dark, & mysterious  Yang (white): all that is warm, bright, and light  Forces complement each other; forces always change and evolve  Helps people understand how they fit into the world Daoists pursued scientific studies  Astronomy & medicine
  24. 24. The Qin & the Han
  25. 25. The Qin Unified China New rulers of China New Emperor: Shi Huangdi  Unified & expanded China
  26. 26. A Legalistic Ruler 221 B.C.  Shi Huangdi began to end internal battles between warring states  Believed in legalism (killed 460 critics & Confucianists)  Also burned books w/ ideas he disliked
  27. 27. Uniting China Huangdi wanted strong central gov’t To gain control  Tried to weaken China’s noble families  Took their land & forced them to live at the capital  This strengthened emperor’s power  Linked lands together  Built highways & irrigation projects  Forced peasants to work & set taxes high to pay for projects  Set gov’t standards for weights, measures, coins, & writing  Made business easier everywhere in China
  28. 28. The Great Wall Wall along northern boarder to keep out nomadic invaders Great Wall linked together other walls built during Warring States period Peasants & criminals were forced to build the wall  Many died from hard labor  Great resentment among people
  29. 29. The Qin Dynasty Ends 210 B.C.  Shi Huangdi died  Buried in an elaborate tomb guarded by army of clay soldiers
  30. 30. The Han Dynasty Shi Huangi’s son was not an effective ruler  Rebellion & civil war broke out  Military leader Liu Bang ended civil war & reunited China (started Han Dynasty)
  31. 31. Han Government Liu Bang kept Qin policies of strong central gov’t, but lowered taxes Made punishments less harsh Peasants owed 1 month labor on emperor’s public projects  Built roads, canals, & irrigation projects Bureaucracy was set up  System of departments to carry out the work of the gov’t  Officials chosen by ruler ran offices  Helped enforce emperor’s rule Han put family members & trusted people in local gov’t  Later skills of people determined appointment  Set up system to find most educated & ethical people  Tested people on their knowledge of Confucianism
  32. 32. Empress Rules 195 B.C. Liu Bang died Wife Empress Lu ruled for their young son  Actually outlived her son & continued to place infants on the throne (allowed her to retain power because infants were too young to rule) When she died those loyal to Liu Bang executed every member of Empress Lu’s family
  33. 33. Expanding & Unifying the Empire 141 – 87 B.C.  Wudi ruled China (descendant of Liu Bang)  Called Martial Emperor because he used war to expand China  Brought southern Chinese provinces, northern Vietnam, & northern Korea under his control  Chased nomadic invaders out of northern China To unify:  Encouraged conquered people to assimilated (adopt China’s culture)  Chinese farmers sent out to settle newly colonized areas  Encouraged to marry conquered people to spread Chinese culture  Schools were set up to teach about Confucianism  Appointed local scholars to gov’t offices Han faced rebellions, peasant revolts, floods, famine, & economic disasters but strong gov’t & unified population helped them stay in power
  34. 34. Life in Han China Han were industrious people whose civilization prospered for many decades Daily Life in Han China  Most worked on farms  Farmers lived in villages near the land they worked  Lived in 1-2 story houses  Rich farmers had ox to pull plow, but poor had to pull plow themselves  Farmers had a few simple tools to make farming easier  They wore simple clothing & sandals  Grew wheat & millet in the north & rice in the south  Vegetable gardens were kept for additional food  Fish and meat were available, but expensive
  35. 35. City living Cities were centers of trade, education, and gov’t  Merchants, craftspeople, & gov’t officials lived here Cities were crowded & had many kinds of entertainment  Musicians, jugglers, & acrobats  Also had street gangs
  36. 36. The Legacy of Ancient China
  37. 37. The Silk Road Han Dynasty  Only Chinese knew how to make silk  it was important in opening trading routes to the west
  38. 38. A Trans-Eurasian Link Silk Road: overland trade route  Traders carried silk & other goods on caravan trails  From China-Asia-Mesopotamia-Europe  Called trans-Eurasian because they stretched across two continents 100 B.C  Silk Roads were well est.  Traders made fortunes carrying goods  Trips could take several years  Cities along the road provided food, water, shelter & goods for trade Goods traded: silk, paper, jade, pottery, sesame seeds, oil, metals, precious stones, & horses
  39. 39. Cultural Diffusion Ideas & cultural customs also moved on the Silk Roads  Known as cultural diffusion  Can occur whenever one group of people comes in contact w/ another group of people New goods, ideas, & customs began to enter China  i.e. military techniques, Buddhist teachings, western cultural style  Chinese art, silks, & pottery influenced the west
  40. 40. The Spread of Buddhism Buddhist missionaries entered China during Han Dynasty  Few followers at first After fall of Han Dynasty China suffered  The Buddhist promise of escape from suffering attracted many Chinese  Buddhism was modified by Chinese to better fit w/ their own traditions
  41. 41. Influential Ideas & Beliefs Philosophies continued to influence China & the world Standards of Confucianism remained significant in Chinese gov’t & education  Spread to Japan, Korea, & Vietnam Daoism had lasting influence in China  Became religion w/ priests, rituals, & volumes of writings  Remained primarily a Chinese belief system
  42. 42. Chinese Inventions & Discoveries Population of China was growing Farming was the most important & honored profession Agricultural Improvements  Perfected a two blade plow  Better iron farm tools  Both helped increase crop production  Collar harness for horses  Horses could pull heavier loads  Wheelbarrow  Water mills
  43. 43. Paper A.D. 105  Paper was invented  Made from mixture of old rags, mulberry tree bark, & fibers from the hemp plant  Inexpensive paper made book more available  Paper also affected the gov’t  Now gov’t documents were not recorded on wood, but paper; more convenient
  44. 44. Silk Allowed Chinese to get silver and gold from lands to the west  Was important because China did not have rich deposits of either mineral

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