The Successful Cross Country Part 3 (2010)

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The Successful Cross Country Part 3 (2010) presented by the FAA Office of Runway Safety Great Lakes Region

The Successful Cross Country Part 3 (2010) presented by the FAA Office of Runway Safety Great Lakes Region

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  • NEXT DESTINATION: OMA
    THIS IS A RELATIVE SHORT HOP. HOW BUSY DO YOU WANT TO BE APPROACHING OMA? THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION WILL BE DETERMINED BY HOW MUCH PLANNING YOU COMPLETE AHEAD OF TIME. MAKE A FREQUENCY LIST. WILL YOU ASK FOR VFR FLIGHT FOLLOWING? THERE WILL BE LITTLE TIME TO VISIT WITH PASSENGERS ON THIS LEG.
  • YOU WILL SOON BE CROSSING INTO MINNEAPOLIS CENTER AND INTO COLUMBUS AFSS AREA.
  • CONTINUE TO BUILD SITUATIONAL AWARENESS.
    LARGE COMMERCIAL AIRPORTS CAN BE COMPLEX AND CONFUSING..
    ARE TOWERED AIRPORTS SAFER THAN NON-TOWERED?
    DO YOU HAVE A FEAR OF OPERATING FROM THIS TYPE OF FACILITY?
  • CONTACT OLU AFSS FOR AN UPDATE ON LOCAL NOTAMS & NEW NOTAMS ISSUED FOR OMA.
    NOTAMS MAY HAVE BEEN ISSUED FOR OMA SINCE YOUR DEPARTURE FROM OTTUMWA.
  • BASED ON THE WX BRIEF – RUNWAY 18 AT OMA IS THE MOST LIKELY RUNWAY.
    HOWEVER, BE PREPARED FOR ANY RUNWAY.
    IS THE RUNWAY CLOSURE A LOCAL NOTAM ? YES IT IS.
    LOCAL NOTAMS FOR OMA WILL AVAILABLE FROM THE “SERVICING AFSS” ONLY. THE SERVICING AFSS IS OLU.
    THIS LOCAL NOTAM WILL MOST LIKELY BE ON THE OMA ATIS, BUT NOT ALWAYS.
    THIS SHOULD NOT BE USED IN LIEU OF ATIS. REMEMBER, YOU ARE A LONG WAY FROM OMA AND CONDITIONS CAN CHANGE.
  • PRIOR TO DEPARTURE FROM OTM, YOU REVIEWED THE AFD AND THE AIRPORT DIAGRAM FOR OMA.
    STUDY THE AFD AND KNOW THE SPECIFICS ISSUES CONCERNING THE OMA AIRPORT.
    EXAMPLE: A KING AIR 350 LANDED ON A RUNWAY WITHOUT REGARD TO THE WEIGHT BEARING LIMITATIONS OF THAT RUNWAY. THE KING AIR PILOT WAS CITED BY THE FAA FOR BEING CARELESS AND RECKLESS. WHAT IS PUBLISHED IN THE AFD IS THE LAW.
  • DURING YOUR PREFLIGHT PLANNING FOR OMA, YOU NOTICE NO “TPA” LISTED FOR OMA.
    FIELD ELEVATION NOTED IN AFD AND ON SECTIONAL.
    WHEN THE TPA IS NOT SPECIFIED USE 1000FT AGL.
  • THE STANDARD TRAFFIC PATTERN IS LEFT TRAFFIC AT MOST AIRPORTS UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED.
    THE AFD ENTRY FOR OMA INDICATES A NON-STANDARD TRAFFIC PATTERN FOR RUNWAY 32R.
    RIGHT TRAFFIC CAN ALSO BE NOTED ON THE SECTIONAL (SEE NOTATION FOR NORTH OMAHA AIRPORT NW OF OMA “RP35.”) THIS MEANS RIGHT TFAFFIC FOR RUNWAY-35 AT 3NO.
  • IF 32R WAS OPEN THERE COULD BE SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS ON BOTH PARALLEL RUNWAYS. WITH LEFT TRAFFIC FOR 32L AND RIGHT TRAFFIC FOR 32R. YOU MUST FLY THE CORRECT PATTERN AND BE ON THE “NUMBERS” TO MAINTAIN LATERAL SEPARATION.
  • ATTENDED CONTINUOUSLY MEANS THE “AIRPORT” IS ATTENDED 24/7.
    THE TOWER HOURS OF OPERATION ARE NORMALLY LISTED WITH THE OTHER FREQUENCIES.
    IMPORTANT NOTE….THE ABSENCE OF ATCT HOURS LISTED INDICATES THE TOWER IS OPERATED 24/7.
    WHY IS CTAF MISSING?
  • HAVE YOU EVER SEEN THE RESULTANT DAMAGE OF A BIRD STRIKE?
  • DEVELOPING THIS PARTICULAR SITUATIONAL AWARENESS COULD BE VERY USEFUL IF EXECUTING A “GO-AROUND” ON RUNWAY 18.
    WHY WAS THIS INFORMATION NOT PASSED TO YOU FROM AFSS DURING YOUR LAST ENFLIGHT BRIEFING? BECAUSE THIS IS PUBLISHED INFORMATION AND PUBLISHED INFORMATION IS NOT PROVIDED DURING A BRIEFING.
    YOU MUST ASK FOR PUBLISHED INFORMATION. AFSS ASSUMES YOU HAVE ALL APPLICABLE PUBLISHED INFORMATION.
    LOOKING AT PUBLISHED INFORMATION SHOULD BE PART OF YOUR PRE-FLIGHT PLANNING.
  • WITH YOUR OMA AIRPORT DIAGRAM, CAN YOU VISUALIZE WHERE THESE CRANES ARE LOCATED.
    AGAIN, BUILDING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS IS IMPORTANT TO ALL ASPECTS OF YOUR FLIGHT.
  • DIRECTION SIGNS AND LOCATION SIGNS.
    SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR DETAILS.
  • DIRECTION SIGNS WILL ALWAYS HAVE ARROWS AND CONTAIN INFORMATION FOR YOU TO ACT UPON. DIRECTION SIGNS WILL BE LOCATED PRIOR TO THE TAXIWAY.
  • THE AFD ENTRY WILL NOTE WHAT RUNWAYS ARE USED FOR LAHSO.
    ALWAYS CHECK TO SEE IF LAHSO IS USED AT THE AIRPORT OF YOUR INTENDED DESTINATION.
    THE RULES OF LAHSO: NO MIXING OF TRAFFIC… MUST BE GA WITH GA or AIRLINER WITH AIRLINER.
    BOTH AIRCRAFT INVOLVED IN A LAHSO OPS MUST BE ADVISED “OF EACH OTHER.”
    REFER TO THE AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL FOR MORE DETAIL ON LASHO PROCEDURES.
  • THIS IS VERY SIMILAR TO WHAT WAS SEEN WHEN YOU RESEARCH LAHSO AT IXD.
  • LAHSO IS NOT MANDATORY.
    IF YOU ACCEPT A LASHO CLEARANCE, YOU MUST HOLD SHORT OF THE POINT INSTRUCTED.
    LAHSO CANNOT MIX TRAFFIC. IT MUST BE WITH GA AND GA, AIRLINER OR AIRLINER, ETC.
    ALL A/C INVOLVED MUST ACCEPT THE RESTRICTION BEFORE BOTH CAN CONDUCT LAHSO.
    IF YOU SEE LAHSO MARKINGS ON THE RUNWAY, AND YOU HAVE NOT BEEN TOLD TO LAHSO, DISREGARD THE MARKING.
    THE SAME SITUATION AS IF YOU ARE TAXIING TO THE APPROACH END OF THE RUNWAY, AND YOU HAVE NOT REACHED THE HOLD LINES, AND YOU ARE TOLD YOU ARE CLEAR FOR TAKEOFF. IN THIS CASE, YOU DO NOT HAVE TO STOP AT THE HOLD LINES.
  • THERE WILL BE TWO RUNWAY HOLD SIGNS WHERE LAHSO RUNWAY HOLD MARKING IS LOCATED.
  • THIS IS SIMILAR TO WHAT YOU WOULD SEE, ONE SURFACE PAINTED HOLD MARKING AND TWO RUNWAY HOLD SIGNS.
  • START LISTENING TO ATIS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE (WITHIN RANGE).
    ATIS WILL PROVIDE MANY CLUES TO AID YOUR SITUATIONAL AWARENESS I.E. RUNWAYS IN USE, LOCAL NOTAMS, ETC.
    YOU MAY WANT TO WRITE DOWN ALL THE APPLICABLE FREQUENCIES YOU WILL BE USING ARRIVING INTO OMA.
    WHEN YOU CALL APPROACH CONTROL, BE SURE YOU HAVE ATIS AND ADVISE THEM ACCORDINGLY. STAY WITH APPROACH CONTROL UNTIL ADVISED TO SWITCH FREQUENCY.
  • IF YOU DAIL UP ATIS AND HEAR NOTHING, WAIT. TOWER MAY BE RECORDING A NEW ATIS. TYPICALLY AN UPDATED BRIEFING IS RECORDED JUST BEFORE TOP-OF-THE-HOUR.
  • CONTACT OMA APPROACH ON 124.5 AT APPROXIMATELY 20 MILES. IF YOU’RE WORKING WITH CENTER, THEY MAY HAND YOU OFF TO APPROACH FURTHER OUT THAN 20 MILES.
    TWO APPROACH FREQUENCIES ARE LISTED IN THE AFD, DEPENDING ON WHICH DIRECTION YOU ARE APPROACHING THE AIRPORT.
  • RADAR SERVICE. EXPECT VECTORING.
  • DUAL RADIO EQUIPPED? HAVE BOTH DAILED IN AND READY TO SWITCH.
    TIME FOR A STERILE COCKPIT.
    YOU WILL BE VERY BUSY LISTENING, COMMUNICATING AND AVIATING.
  • RADAR SERVICES ARE NOW TERMINATED….HOWEVER , MINNEAPOLIS CENTER MAY HAND YOU OFF TO OMA APPROACH. IF YOU ARE HANDED OFF TO OMA APPROACH, YOU ARE STILL UNDER RADAR CONTROL.
  • “EXPECT RUNWAY 18.”
    THIS IS JUST WHAT YOU HAD EXPECTED.
    BUT BE PREPARED AS THAT MAY CHANGE AND IT COULD CHANGE AT ANY TIME.
    YOU MAY BE VECTORED DIRECT TO THE BASE, ALTHOUGH EXPECTING A DOWNWIND.
  • YOU WILL MOST LIKELY BE VECTORED DOWNWIND FOR RUNWAY 18?
    HOWEVER, APPROACH MAY VECTOR YOU TO SOMETHING DIFFERENT.
    AS YOU QUICKLY REVIEW THE AIRPORT DIAGRAM,YOU NOTICE THE FINE PRINT BELOW.
  • SINCE YOU HAVE YOUR AIRPORT DIAGRAM READILY AVAILABLE, YOU ARE REMINDED THAT YOU MUST READBACK ALL HOLD CLEARANCES.
    YOU ALSO NOTICE THAT YOU SHOULD USE EXTREME CAUTION OPERATING NEAR TAXIWAY C AND RUNWAY 14R/32L.
    THE SPECIAL NOTE AT BOTTOM OF DIAGRAM IS THERE FOR A REASON. IT IS MEANT TO DRAW ATTENTION TO THE FACT THIS INTERSECTION IS COMPLEX AND YOU SHOULD BE “HEADS UP”.
  • AT TOWERED AIRPORTS, WHEN THE TOWER IS OPEN, AND THE ILS CRITICAL AREA IS BEING PROTECTED ( CEILING LESS THAN 800 FEET AND/OR VISIBILITY 2 MILES), TAXIING AIRCRAFT ARE REQUIRED TO STOP ONLY IF DIRECTED BY ATC.
    ILS CRITICAL AREAS ARE NOT PROTECTED AT NON-TOWERED AIRPORTS.
  • EXERCISE CAUTION WHEN APPROACHING AN ILS HOLD POSITION.
    WHEN THE TOWER IS CLOSED, OR AT A NON-TOWERED AIRPORT, YOU BE THE “CONTROLLER”. OFFER FELLOW PILOTS THE BENEFIT OF YOUR POSITION AND INTENTIONS BY MAKING THE TRANSMISSION ON CTAF.
    ANNOUNCE YOUR POSITION AND INTENTIONS ON CTAF.
  • TAXIING AIRCRAFT ARE REQUIRED TO STOP ONLY IF DIRECTED BY ATC.
    EXERCISE CAUTION WHEN APPROACHING A RUNWAY APPROACH AREA HOLD POSITION.
    WHEN THE TOWER IS CLOSED, OR AT A NON-TOWERED AIRPORT, VISUALLY SCAN THE APPROACH AREA AND THE OPPOSITE DEPARTURE END BEFORE PROCEEDING.
    YOU BE THE “CONTROLLER”. OFFER FELLOW PILOTS THE BENEFIT OF YOUR POSITION AND INTENTIONS.
    ANNOUNCE YOUR POSITION AND INTENTIONS ON CTAF.
  • LARGE SCALE DIAGRAM PROVIDES ADDITIONAL REFERENCE AS TO ITS LOCATION ON THE AIRPORT.
  • IF FACT, THIS PARTICULAR “HOT SPOT” HAS SUCH NOTORIETY, THERE IS A SPECIAL PUBLICATION FOR PILOTS TO EXPLAIN IN MORE DETAIL.
    THE HOT SPOT POINTS OUT A COMPLEX AND POTENTIALLY CONFUSING INTERSECTION.
    THIS HOT SPOT BROCHURE IS AVAILABLE AT WWW.FAA.GOV/RUNWAYSAFETY/ACE
  • THE HOT SPOT OF OMA!
    LOOK AT THE AMOUNT OF CONCRETE HERE. THIS IS A HUGE INTERSECTION WITH LOTS OF MARKINGS,SO REALLY EXAMINE AND STUDY THE DIAGRAM AND HOT SPOT BROCHURE
  • BACK TO OUR FLIGHT, YOU ARE NOW PASSED OFF TO TOWER.
  • DOWNWIND FOR RUNWAY 18.
    JUST WHAT YOU HAD EXPECTED AND PLANNED FOR.
  • CLEARED TO LAND WITH NO LAHSO INSTRUCTIONS.
    THINK ABOUT THE WAKE TURBULENCE, KEEP A STERILE COCKPIT AND EYES OUT!
  • TAXIWAY LOCATION SIGN AND RUNWAY HOLD POSITION SIGNS.
    SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR DETAILS.
  • WHERE’S MY TURNOFF?
  • A LEFT ON TAXIWAY CHARLIE WILL TAKE ME THROUGH THE AIRPORT’S HOT SPOT.
  • AS YOU ROLLOUT ON RUNWAY 18 YOU WILL SEE THE TAXIWAY CHARLIE DIRECTION SIGN POINTING TO A LEFT TURN OFF.
  • HOLD SHORT!! A HOLD SHORT INSTRUCTION IS A MANDATORY READ BACK INSTRUCTION.
    READING BACK ALONE DOES NOT INSURE THAT YOUR MIND REGISTERED THE HOLD SHORT. THE JOURNEY IS ABOUT COMPLETE, YOU ARE TIRED, BUT NOW IS NOT THE TIME TO LET YOUR GUARD DOWN. SOMEONE COULD BE LANDING ON RUNWAY 14 IN ERROR.
  • HOLDING SHORT.
    WHY?
    LOOK FOR TRAFFIC.
    JUST BECAUSE YOU DON’T SEE TRAFFIC ON THE RUNWAY DOESN’T MEAN THERE ISN’T TRAFFIC SOMEWHERE ON FINAL.
    YOU MAY HAVE BEEN STOPPED JUST AS A PRECAUTION.
  • HOLDING SHORT!
    HOLD SHORT FAR ENOUGH BACK THAT NO PART OF THE AIRCRAFT, NOT EVEN THE TIP OF THE NOSE SPINNER, IS ON OR OVER THE CLOSEST PART OF THE HOLD MARKING.
    IF ANY PART OF YOUR AIRCRAFT IS INSIDE THE SAFETY AREA, THE RUNWAY IS COMPROMISED.
  • KNOW THE ORIENTATION AND MEANING OF THE HOLD LINE.
    75% OF PILOT DEVIATIONS IS A MISTAKEN UNDERSTANDING OF THE MEANING OF THESE MARKINGS.
  • HOW CAN SOMETHING THIS SIZE BE MISSED….?
  • REMEMBER, EVERY HOLD MARKING HAS AN ADJACENT “VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT,” OR RUNWAY HOLD SIGN.
    LOOK FOR THE RED RUNWAY HOLD SIGN TO LOCATE THE SURFACE PAINTED RUNWAY HOLD MARKING.
  • CLEARED TO CROSS.
    IS THE RUNWAY ACTIVE OR STILL CLOSED?
    ASSUME IT IS ALWAYS OPEN & ALWAYS CROSS WITHOUT DELAY.
    YOU ARE NOT OPERATING ON A RUNWAY,YOU ARE CROSSING IT!
  • CROSSED THE RUNWAY – CLEAR OF THE RSA, THE “DANGER ZONE.”
    MORE SIGNS, BLACK SQUARE, YOU’RE THERE & YELLOW ARRAY POINTS THE WAY.
  • CROSSED THE RUNWAY – CLEAR OF THE RSA, THE “DANGER ZONE.”
    MORE SIGNS, BLACK SQUARE, YOU’RE THERE & YELLOW ARRAY POINTS THE WAY
  • SINCE YOU HAVE NOT CROSSED THE MOVEMENT BOUNDARY LINE, YOU ARE STILL REQUIRED TO BE IN CONTACT WITH ATC.
    ……..EXPLAIN DOUBLE EDGED TAXIWAY MARKING AND MEANING AND BOUNDARY EDGE MARKING AND MEANING
    DOUBLE SOLID YELLOW LINES ON THE SIDE OF A TAXIWAY MEANS THAT THE PAVEMENT ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE LINES IS NOT DESIGNED TO SUPPORT THE WEIGHT OF AN AIRCRAFT.

Transcript

  • 1. The Successful Cross-Country Part 3 Federal Aviation Administration
  • 2. The Successful Cross-Country Part 3 x Federal Aviation Administration 2
  • 3. Some helpful tips for using this presentation… Most slides of this presentation contain an associated “NOTES” Page. These “notes” are designed as “Instructor’s Talking Points.” They are global in nature and intended to remind the instructor of areas to emphasize and lessons-to-belearned. To ensure all notes are displayed, utilize the scroll down feature. Federal Aviation Administration 3
  • 4. Some helpful tips for using this presentation… To access the NOTES page from the full screen presentation, press Esc on the keyboard and right mouse click the notes page ICON. To return to the full screen presentation with animation, select the full screen ICON. ICON to access the NOTES page ICON to run the full screen presentation with animation and no displayed notes. Federal Aviation Administration 4
  • 5. Some helpful tips for using this presentation… Those slides with a black X on a yellow background in the lower left corner contain no “notes”. Indicates slide has no associated notes section. Federal Aviation Administration 5
  • 6. Part 3 – Lessons 1. Operating at a busy 24 hour towered commercial airport 2. Using the AFD 3. Understanding the airport diagram 4. Utilizing AFSS, ARTCC, ASOS and ATIS x 5. Communicating with the tower Federal Aviation Administration 6
  • 7. This document has been prepared for training purposes only and sets forth general principles and guidance concerning good operating procedures for avoiding surface incidents and runway incursions. It is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature. x Federal Aviation Administration 7
  • 8. DESTINATION: Eppley Airfield, Omaha, Nebraska Federal Aviation Administration 8
  • 9. Minneapolis Center Chicago Center FOD AFSS OLU AFSS OMA OTM Federal Aviation Administration 9
  • 10. How do I build situational awareness for operating at a complex towered airport? Federal Aviation Administration 10
  • 11. Building situational awareness I’ll contact OLU AFSS on 122.35 to check for any new NOTAM’s for OMA and check the weather. Federal Aviation Administration 11
  • 12. Building situational awareness Wind is from the south, I’ll plan for Runway 18, but be prepared for any other runway. OLU AFSS “…Omaha automated weather, sky clear below 12,000, visibility 10, Wind 190 at 9 kts, NOTAM Runway 14L/32R closed…” Federal Aviation Administration 12
  • 13. Building situational awareness Prior to departure from OTM, you reviewed the AFD for OMA and the airport diagram Federal Aviation Administration 13
  • 14. Building situational awareness Since the AFD entry does not list a TPA for OMA (traffic pattern altitude) look for field elevation to determine YOUR TPA. Federal Aviation Administration 14
  • 15. Building situational awareness Standard pattern… EXCEPT FOR RUNWAY 32R? Why? Federal Aviation Administration 15
  • 16. Building situational awareness A standard traffic pattern (left) for Runway 32R would put you in the approach corridor for Runway 32L/14R. Federal Aviation This is typical at airports with parallel runways. Administration 16
  • 17. Building situational awareness Attended continuously? “Attended continuously” means the airport is attended 24/7. The airport? The tower? The absence of operational hours listed with the ATCT frequencies indicates the tower is operated 24/7. Federal Aviation Administration 17
  • 18. Building situational awareness Birds on and in the vicinity of the airport? Federal Aviation Administration 18
  • 19. Building situational awareness x Federal Aviation Administration 19
  • 20. Building situational awareness Crane 195 feet AGL 1186’MSL, 1.8 nautical miles SSW from the Approach End Runway 36. Crane ? Crane 294’ AGL, 1281’MSL, 2.1 nautical miles SW of the Approach End Runway 36. Federal Aviation Administration 20
  • 21. Building situational awareness 195’ 294’ Federal Aviation Good information to have if required to “go-around” Administration 21
  • 22. Bonus question time! Federal Aviation Administration 22
  • 23. Yellow sign yellow array points the way! Federal Aviation Administration 23
  • 24. Building situational awareness Land & hold short ops? Federal Aviation Administration 24
  • 25. Building situational awareness Since OLU AFSS said the wind at OMA is now 190 at 9, if I land on Runway 18, I may have to hold short of 14R/32L. That gives me 3,500 feet of landing and stopping distance. Federal Aviation Administration 25
  • 26. Building situational awareness Note: At 3,500 feet down runway 18, there will be hold position signs on both sides of the runway and a hold position marking indicating where to stop. Federal Aviation Administration 26
  • 27. Building situational awareness 32L-14R Federal Aviation Administration 27 32L-14R
  • 28. Building situational awareness 32L-14R 32L-14R 3,500’ Typical view you would see when approaching the hold short position. Federal Aviation Administration 28
  • 29. My frequency list: OMA ATIS 120.4 Building situational awareness ATIS is 120.4. Federal Aviation Administration 29
  • 30. Building situational awareness Information TANGO: “Omaha Eppley Information Tango 1952 Zulu, Wind 170 at 9, Visibility 20, Sky Clear Temperature 15, Dew point -2, Altimeter 29.92. ILS Approach Runway 18 and 14R in Use Landing and Departing Runway 18 and 14R. Notice to Airman: Runway 14L/32R closed. Caution for migratory waterfowl. Advise on Initial Contact you Have InformationAviation TANGO” Federal Administration 30
  • 31. My frequency list: OMA ATIS 120.4 OMA APP 124.5 Building situational awareness Contact OMA approach control within 20 nm on 124.5 Federal Aviation Administration 31
  • 32. My Frequency List: OMA ATIS 120.4 OMA APP 124.5 Building situational awareness Indicates radar services: expect vectoring. Your plan may not go as expected Federal Aviation Administration 32
  • 33. My frequency list: OMA ATIS 120.4 OMA APP 124.5 OMA TWR 132.1 OMA GND 121.9 Building situational awareness Federal Aviation Administration 33
  • 34. Building situational awareness The airport diagram confirms the frequencies. x Federal Aviation Administration 34
  • 35. Minneapolis center discontinues VFR flight following “N252KT, contact Omaha approach 124.5”. Minneapolis Center Federal Aviation Administration 35
  • 36. “Omaha approach, Mooney N252KT”. “Mooney N252KT, Omaha approach”. Federal Aviation Administration 36
  • 37. “N252KT, Omaha approach, radar contact, 25 miles east of Eppley, expect Runway 18.” “Mooney N252KT, 24 east, 3,000 feet, VFR, inbound with information tango” x Federal Aviation Administration 37
  • 38. Building situational awareness Left downwind to Runway 18? Federal Aviation Administration 38
  • 39. Building situational awareness Federal Aviation Administration 39
  • 40. Bonus question time! x What surface marking will be painted across Taxiway Lima abeam this red sign? Federal Aviation Administration 40
  • 41. ILS hold position marking Do you have to stop: If you’re operating at a towered airport? Federal Aviation If you’re operating at a non-towered airport? Administration 41
  • 42. At some airports it may be necessary to hold an aircraft on a taxiway at a location other than at the runway entrance if the ILS is in use. Holding the taxiing aircraft at the ILS hold point will preclude ILS signal interference with an aircraft on ILS final approach. Remember: Taxiing aircraft are required to hold at this position only if directed by ATC. Federal Aviation Administration 42
  • 43. Bonus question time! What is POFZ? x Federal Aviation Administration 43
  • 44. Precision Obstacle Free Zone x Federal Aviation Administration 44
  • 45. The POFZ is defined as a volume of airspace above an area beginning at the runway threshold, at the threshold elevation, and centered on the extended runway centerline, 200 feet long by 800 feet wide. Maintaining the POFZ clear during low ceiling/low visibility conditions protects both the landing aircraft and holding aircraft or vehicle. x The POFZ is in effect for vertically guided approaches when the ceiling is below Federal 4000 250 feet and/or visibility less than ¾ statute mile (or RVR below Aviationfeet), and an 45 Administration aircraft is on final approach within two miles of the runway threshold.
  • 46. Typical POFZ 200 Feet 400 Feet x When the POFZ is in effect, the wing of an aircraft holding on a taxiway waiting for runway clearance may penetrate the POFZ; however, neither Federal Aviation the fuselage nor the tail may infringe on the POFZ. In addition, no ground 46 Administration vehicles may be in the POFZ when it is in effect.
  • 47. POFZ Holding Positions ILS x Airports with a taxiway located prior to the runway threshold may result Federal POFZ in an aircraft being located in the POFZ when it is active.Aviation holding 47 Administration positions may be needed at these locations.
  • 48. If a hold position is used to protect the POFZ, an ILS hold is used. A1 30L Runway holding position ILS critical area or POFZ boundary x A second sign on the right side is required in some situations. ILS ILS critical area or POFZ Federal Aviation Administration holding position 48
  • 49. Existing POFZ Holding Positions at Eppley Airfield 18 POFZ Holding Position on Twy Z x 18 POFZ Holding Position on Twy F Federal Aviation Administration 49
  • 50. If the POFZ is already protected by an existing ILS glide slope critical area holding position, an additional POFZ holding position is not needed. x The Rwy 18 Glide Slope ILS Hold Already Protects the POFZ for 18 Federal Aviation Administration 50
  • 51. Bonus question time! A 32 APCH You’re taxiing south on Taxiway A and notice this red sign. Do you have to stop? x Federal Aviation Administration 51
  • 52. Taxiing aircraft are required to hold at this position ONLY if directed by ATC. A 32 APCH If directed, you are expected to stop at the 32 APCH hold sign on Taxiway A. ATC has you holding on Taxiway A because either the approach or departure corridor for Runway 14/32 is active. Federal Aviation Administration 52
  • 53. Intersection of Taxiways C, A, F, Runway 14R/32L, and Runway 18/36 Federal Aviation Administration 53
  • 54. Federal Aviation Administration 54
  • 55. Intersection of Taxiways C, A, F, Runway 14R/32L, and Runway 18/36 Federal Aviation Administration 55
  • 56. “Mooney 2KT, contact Eppley tower 132.1”. “Mooney 2KT, Eppley Tower 132.1” Federal Aviation Administration 56
  • 57. “Mooney 2KT, Eppley Tower, enter left downwind Runway 18”. “Eppley Tower, Mooney 2KT is with you 5 east”. Federal Aviation Administration 57
  • 58. “2KT, 2 mile left base”. “Mooney 2KT, cleared to land 18.” “Mooney 2KT, Runway 18, cleared to land”. Federal Aviation Administration 58
  • 59. Bonus question time! Federal Aviation Administration 59
  • 60. x RED…Runway Ahead!! Federal Aviation Administration 60
  • 61. “MOONEY 2KT, turn left Taxiway Charlie, ground point niner leaving the runway”. C L 14 2R -3 Federal Aviation Administration 61
  • 62. C L 14 2R -3 “Mooney 2KT, left on charlie, ground ‘point niner’” Federal Aviation Administration 62
  • 63. Federal Aviation Administration 63
  • 64. “Mooney 2KT, Eppley Ground, hold short Runway 14L.” C L 14 2R -3 “Eppley ground, Mooney 2KT is clear Runway 18 at charlie to GA parking.” “Mooney 2KT, hold short Runway 14L.” Readback of all hold short instructions is mandatory. Federal Aviation Administration 64
  • 65. L 14 2R /3 C 14L-32R C L 14 2R -3 R 14 /3 2L 18/36 As you taxi closer to Runway 14L-32R, look for the runway hold sign, which provides the “VERTICAL development” to identify the runway HOLD position. This will be the first “VISUAL” to indicate the hold position. The runway hold sign Federal will be visible before the hold markings. Aviation Administration 65
  • 66. Building situational awareness C 14L- 32R RED…Runway Ahead!! Federal Aviation Administration 66
  • 67. Orientation of the hold marking to the flow of traffic and its meaning. S TOP AT THE S OLID LINES D ASH THROUGH THE D ASHED LINES Federal Aviation Administration 67
  • 68. 9 FEET 12 inches 12 inches Federal Aviation Administration 68
  • 69. Remember….Sometimes, the runway hold marking may be difficult to see…….Why? Reflection of a spinning prop Focusing on tasks IN the cockpit instead of OUT Pilot “seating” height Lack of vertical development Federal Aviation Administration Sun glare and other environmental conditions 69
  • 70. L 14 “Mooney 2KT, cross 14L, taxi to the ramp.” 2R /3 C L 14 32 R “MOONEY 2KT, cross Runway 14L, taxi to the ramp.” R 14 /3 2L 18/36 Federal Aviation Administration 70
  • 71. Bonus question time! x Are you on a runway or taxiway? Federal Aviation Administration 71
  • 72. Runway and taxiway markings Runway=W HITE x Taxiway= YELLOW Federal Aviation Administration 72
  • 73. Before crossing, look right !!! x Federal Aviation Administration 73
  • 74. Look left !!! x Federal Aviation Administration 74
  • 75. L C L  M C  L M C  L L  M C M Federal Aviation Administration 75
  • 76. Caution zone ATC authorization required to operate here. Safe zone No ATC authorization required to operate Here. Danger zone ATC authorization required to operate here. Federal Aviation Administration 76
  • 77. Movement boundary line No ATC clearance required to operate on this side. C M L Taxiway edge line Federal Aviation Administration 77
  • 78. Taxiway Edge Markings Pilots can cross dashed taxiway edge markings Pavement outboard of continuous double yellow lines is not available for aircraft use Double dashed Double continuous x Federal Aviation Administration 78
  • 79. End x Federal Aviation Administration 79