How to Survive a Ramp Check: Aircraft Operator Maintenance Responsibilities

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How to Survive a Ramp Check: Aircraft Operator Maintenance Responsibilities

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  • 2012/08/23-017 (I) PP Greetings…………
  • I could quote a bunch of regs, but you would go to sleep! Address the slide bullets Some inspectors were asked, “If you have 10 minutes to look at an airplane, what do you check? This list was developed from their answers. Ask the inspectors in your office the same question, then develop a FSDO- specific list. It makes it fun when you can say that the inspectors like to look for a particular thing. It is also worthwhile to consider a method to address questions, concerns, cares, and woes that might come to the audience’s mind during the presentation. I’ve rushed through this presentation in as little as 45 minutes and I’ve discussed it for as long as 3 hours. I’m here to tell you that baffle seals were a big stink’in deal!
  • Read the Objectives
  • Here are two helpful references. Plane Sense and Advisory Circular (AC) 20-106 titled “Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner”. The addresses are just to show that they are available online. The last slide in this presentation is a duplicate of this one so you can copy the addresses if you desire. It might be good have a few copies of each to pass around for review or enough copies to handout…………………. if funding allows.
  • 3 3 3 3 3 Has anyone recently experience an FAA ramp check? Continue based on the response Surveillance Depending upon other priority assignments, an ASI’s may or may not plan a certain number of Part 91 ramp checks during the year. If none are planned, the opportunity may arise from other circumstances. Investigation We might be having a look at a particular aircraft for these reasons too. Records are included in this talk because we may ask for them during an investigation. Records also supply the answers to any anomaly to the properly altered condition that turns up during a ramp inspection. This does not mean that there is a requirement to carry records aboard the aircraft.
  • 4 4 4 4 4 The key to surviving a ramp check is Airworthiness Can anyone give me a succinct definition of the term, “Airworthiness”? But seriously, How can an airman determine that his aircraft is airworthy without a good understanding of the term? Let us examine the term “Airworthiness” and what the basic concept entails Airworthiness: Title 14 USC states that the “The Administrator shall issue an airworthiness certificate when the Administrator finds that the aircraft conforms to its type certificate and, after inspection, is in condition for safe operation. Note the two conditions. This will be discuss in more detail later in our discussion. Furthermore FAR 91 requires the operator/ pilot in command to make the determination of airworthiness. .
  • Here is the definition of the term “Operate” from 14 CFR part 1. What do they mean? (Next slide)
  • Operate means to: Use the aircraft as in fly it as in the pilot operates the aircraft. Cause to use. The manager of the aircraft causes it to be used. Authorize to use probably both the manager of the aircraft and the owner of the aircraft. So really it is three entities. Pilot, Manager, Owner. Even if someone borrowed or stole the aircraft for the purpose of navigating in the air, they would be operating the aircraft.
  • Well this is an interesting question. In a pragmatic world the answer is for the most part no. Why is that? It is because of the criteria of culpability the NTSB law judges use. Tests like known or should have known. If an airman didn’t know then they are not culpable, unless they should have known because of a check list or standard operating procedure, but didn’t know because they were just ignorant. In that case they are still culpable. If they knew then they are culpable. If they didn’t know and they shouldn’t have known, then they are not culpable. Simple right? Would a reasonable and prudent person of similar qualification doe the same thing. We hold people responsible for their expertise. It is only fair to hold a commercial pilot with an A&P certificate and privileges of an IA to a higher standard than a student pilot. Evidence, to be considered relevant, it must have some reasonable tendency to help prove or disprove some fact. It need not make the fact certain, but at least it must tend to increase or decrease the likelihood of some fact. Once admitted as relevant evidence, the finder of fact (judge or jury) will determine the appropriate weight to give a particular piece of evidence. A given piece of evidence is considered material if it is offered to prove a fact that is in dispute in a case. Competent evidence is that evidence that accords with certain traditional notions of reliability. So in other words our system is pretty fair, and not likely to hurt someone who doesn’t deserve it. Check out the NTSB website. Their opinions and orders have appealed cases. You can read how the board ruled. It is very interesting.
  • 5 5 5 5 5 We are all familiar with Orville and Wilbur’s accomplishment in 1903. The Wright flier flew for the first time at Kill Devil Hill, N.C. Optional question to the audience: Did you know that the Wright flier was known as a “Widow Maker”? If you ask it be sure to research and have the answer Research Hints: The story of the Vin Fizz and The story of the Selfridge crash (The source of my Wright Bros. stuff and just a great book is, The Bishops Boys, by Tom D. Crouch.) Lt. Selfridge Crash It was the first fatal general aviation crash. It was survivable. Orville was hurt, but survived. It was caused by a failed propeller. The prop failed due to a design flaw. The prop hit the rudder cable and caused the flier to spin in. Lt. Selfridge was thrown out of the aircraft. He hit his head on the ground and died a few days later. Lessons learned -Prop design is important. -Seat belts are also important. -Test pilots should wear helmets Between 1903 and 1926 no one really cared if aircraft were safe. They were primarily military aircraft and rich men’s dare devil toys. The industry began to grow in the 20’s. Business people had the need to convince the public that aircraft were safe. They also needed someone to pay for an aviation infrastructure. Such as a navigation system, weather reporting airman and aircraft certification. The “Fostering” part of our mission. This is when the Air Commerce Act of 1926 was passed. It established these things. In 1958 The current public law governing air transportation was passed. It was then recodified in 1994 and we now call it Title 49, United States Code. This is the law that we currently live with.
  • The aviation industry considered lessons learned, such as those of the Selfridge crash, and developed a long list of things that are safe about aircraft. -Such as seat belts, and propeller design This list is what we know as the Airworthiness Standards. Airworthiness Standards are contained in CAR 3, FAR 23,33,35,and 36 for small aircraft.
  • This is the overview of the airworthiness concept. All certification is a matter of, “The Right Stuff”. First we define “The Right Stuff”. Then we examine to determine if the applicant has “The Right Stuff”. Next, we present a certificate that proclaims to the world that the applicant has “The Right Stuff”. We then occasionally re-examine to assure that the applicant continues to have “The Right Stuff”. This is true of airman medicals, airman certificates, air agency and aircarrier certificates. So, just as pilots are required to meet written and practical test standards that demonstrate their ability to fly safely before they receive their pilots certificate, the individual aircraft is required to meet its type design before it receives an airworthiness certificate. Its type design in turn meets the airworthiness standards that apply. Those airworthiness standards define, “The Right Stuff” for a safe aircraft. This insures that the individual aircraft is safe. The two aspects of Airworthiness are; 1) Conformity to the type certificate - Properly altered condition 2) Condition for safe operation - Wear and Tear Once an aircraft receives its A/W certificate it needs to be maintained in a way that insures that it continues to meet the applicable A/W standards (CAR 3, FAR 23 for small fixed wing aircraft) The requirement to maintain continuity of the Type Design and therefore the safety of the aircraft is in block six of the A/W Certificate. FAR 21 Certification (Alteration) FAR 43 Maintenance (Recordation, Performance Rules) FAR 91 Operation (Airworthiness, Recordation, Required Maintenance, Required Inspection)
  • 9 8 8 8 7 It is now simple to explain what Inspectors check during a ramp inspection. We check for the two aspects of airworthiness; Missing Stuff, Added Stuff, and if we find missing or added stuff we will begin to ask questions about documentation. We check condition also, wear and tear or damage. Does this mean that you are required to have your permanent maintenance records aboard the aircraft? No. This talk is about ramp inspections but, when we find anything questionable or during an investigation we may ask to see records. For this reason we’ll speak to records today too.
  • 10 9 9 9 8 Fairings Wing strut fairings Landing gear fairings Example- A PA28-161 flys great without wheel pants and the attendant fairings on the gear legs. This doesn’t mean that you can remove them on a whim. Wheel Pants Missing wheel pants are like a beckoning call, “Pssst, Hey come ramp me!” They pose some questions to the inspector, 1. Is there provision in the type design for the aircraft to be without? 2. Is the alteration documented? Maint. records/ Return to service, W&B, Equipment list. Wingtips I included this to be silly , but stranger things have happened. I tell the story about a pilot who smashed a wing tip on a gas truck then flew home. But this is my story, you tell your own story! Spinners Some airplanes can be missing a spinner some may not. This is also a, “Pssst, Hey come ramp me!”
  • 11 10 10 10 9 Static discharge wicks These are so easy to see and check that they are a good example of the type thing we notice. We don’t have time in 10 or 15 minutes to do a thorough and searching inspection like an annual or 100 hour inspection so generally we check stuff that is easy and quick. Fuel cap chains They are part of the type design on Cessna aircraft. Fill port placards They are required by Airworthiness standards. Instruments This is an interesting item. When an ASI sees empty holes in the instrument panel or wires hanging out of the panel they just have to ask the question. Hey, whatsa deal here? Is it a required instrument or does it fit with 91.213?.
  • 12 11 11 11 10 Cooling baffle seal It is very easy to notice when cooling baffle seal has been changed. It is rarely ever replaced with black material. Normally it is “lipstick red”, orange or blue. It is possible to “properly alter” cooling baffle seal, however, it is not appropriate to change it “Willy Nilly”. 1. Installing O.E.M. parts would not be an alteration. It would be maintenance (minor) requiring a maintenance record entry. 2. Replacing baffle seals with material that is the same as the O.E.M. material and is made to a U.S. industry standard would not be an alteration. It would be maintenance (minor) requiring a maintenance record entry. 3. Installing an applicable P.M.A. kit (RAM has one, maybe others do too.) would be an alteration, but the application to the particular aircraft would be addressed in the P.M.A. It would be an alteration (minor) requiring a maintenance record entry. 4. Installing a baffle seal kit covered by an S.T.C. (RAM, Beryl D' Shannon, etc.) would be a major alteration. A 337 and a maintenance record entry would be required. 5. If the installation is an alternate means of compliance for an AD it is a major alteration. A 337 and a maintenance record entry would be required.
  • 6. Installing baffle seals in accordance with acceptable data that can be field approved (ACO letter, for instance) is a major alteration. A 337 and a maintenance record entry would be required. 7. Installing baffle material that has no certification basis or application basis is a major alteration. It cannot be field approved per Order 8300.10, Vol.2, Chp.1 para. 7A.(7). In order for the ACO to consider the approval they would require specifications for the material (primarily temperature specs), flame certification, and a Temp. to climb flight test. Fairings Some of the speed kit stuff can be pretty simple to install and an owner may easily install it, however they are generally a major alteration and require an IA or repair station to approve them for return to service. Landing Lights There are some alternative landing lights on the market. They are a change to the type design and need some type of documentation. They are also real easy to see. Quartz Halogen lamps have a very characteristic filament. It looks like a little photo flash bulb. Antennas Extra antennas often tip off ASI’s to suspect unauthorized avionics installations. They are also very easy to notice. Cell phone antennas, car radio antennas, etc. cause us to start asking questions.
  • 13 12 12 12 11 Recent paint job Recent paint jobs beg the ASI to ask, 1. Were the flight controls balanced. 2. Were the external placards reinstalled. 3. Was the weight and balance updated. 4. Were any antennas painted Avionics A fancy stack of radios might prompt the ASI to check documentation. Brackett air filters Brackett air filters are major alterations and need to be documented as such. They also have a couple of ADs on them. Instruments Namely fuel totalizers and engine analyzers. They are a major alteration. They need to be documented. Sometimes they cannot replace OEM equipment. Unusual appliances Cooling fans, Lights, Interior / Upholstery modifications. If the air plane looks like it just got out of a van conversion shop we’ll start asking questions. Proper installation Such as, O2 bottles or fire extinguishers or avionics. Such as, O2 bottles attached to a hat rack or avionics installed with velcro or ty-wraps.
  • 14 13 13 13 12 This is the minimum requirement for a major alteration.
  • 15 14 14 14 13 The sort of dents looked for are dents and wrinkles that show underlying problems such as damaged spars, ribs, stringers, etc. Cracks, for example Cessna wing flap trailing edge. The trailing edge is riveted and the rivet holes grow together. The Maintenance manual actually has a criteria for the dimensions of these cracks. Windshield cracks and crazing. Working rivets cause “Fretting corrosion” which looks like gray powder. The powder is blown aft on the skin surface and forms the appearance of an arrow that points at the loose rivet. The little transponder stub antenna that seems to get knocked off during the aircraft washing evolution. I’m sure this never happens in this group, but sometimes when people push their aircraft back into their hangars they alter the trailing edge of the aircraft’s wings, control surfaces, etc. ASI’s check for that. Strange “scabby patches”, bondo, stuff like that.
  • 16 15 15 15 14 Tires are kind of a hard call. Each manufacture has a different specification for wear. Sometimes its pretty obvious though. Flat spots, cord showing, stuff like that. Flat oleo struts are quite noticeable. Props are checked for nicks, cuts and erosion that will concentrate stress and cause a fatigue crack. Once a crack starts it is only a matter of time before the blade fails. Grease/oil leaks can be from cracked hubs. How many of you either know or have heard of someone who has had a prop failure. (You’ll be surprised how many folks will have a story.)
  • 17 16 16 16 15 De-ice boots and hot prop pads are rubber and very readily weather check. Hoses that are fire sleeved are hard to inspect. A good indicator that they are leaking is that they get sticky on the outside of the fire sleeve. Any fluid leak (pool of fluid on the ground) will draw our attention. A fuel smell in the cabin is not normal! Don’t let people tell you so.
  • 18 17 17 17 16 The point of the clip art is the acronym “ARROW” Airworthiness Certificate Registration Radio License (Overseas) Operators handbook (AFM) Weight and Balance If inspectors are able to get inside the aircraft they will check for this list of things. Registration A/W certificate -A/W certificate must be an original. No copies. -Funny thing about an A/W certificate is that …………IT IS NOT not valid without a valid Registration. Those aircraft that require an approved flight manual, have flight manuals that are signed and dated by a representative of the FAA. Inspectors look for a signature and a date on the title page or some other appropriate place. They will also want to see the appropriately revised weight and balance and equipment list.
  • 19 18 18 18 17 The fire extinguisher will be checked for proper installation and check that it is in good repair and appears to be operable. Seat Belts need to be TSO’d nowadays. What this means to an aircraft operator is that the belts need to be marked with TSO tags. Ask if all understand what TSO means………….in not…………explain it. Compass cards notoriously pop out of their holders and fall on the floor. They then get lost and you can’t fly without them. Placards are easy to check because the limitations section of the AFM has a required placards list. Examples of an unusual placard would be one attached to a tachometer that says, “Tach reads 50 RPM low” or “Do not fill” on a fuel tank. This sort of placard directs attention to a piece of inoperative equipment and explains what is wrong with it!
  • Missing yoke Control Lock is a very long -3 bolt Broken Broken Cowl Flap handle (does this meet type design?) Is this a permanent installation? If so is there a 337?
  • 20 19 19 19 18 Speaking of inoperative equipment, Yes indeed you can operate an aircraft with inoperative equipment. The catch is that you must do it in compliance with FAR 91.213 This is the requirement for non-air carriers. Cannot be required equipment (this requirement is driven by the type of operation per FAR 91.205, VFR Day, IFR. The equipment must be disabled or removed and that maintenance must be entered in the aircraft’s maintenance records. If the maintenance required is “Preventive Maintenance” then a certificated pilot can accomplish it.
  • 21 20 20 20 19 Unapproved parts, not only hardware store parts, but there are more subtle parts problems. For example, Pit Pins, Pop rivets, Bearings, Push- pull (engine) controls, Batteries, Tires, Exhaust components, Pitot tubes, Landing light lamps, anything that does not meet the aircraft’s type design. Log book entries- show some samples if available (Be sure they are sterile to protect identites) Missing placards- The limitation section of the flight manual has a list of required placards. It is a simple matter for the inspector to check the aircraft’s installed placards against the list. Seat Belts have a tag or label attached that indicates they are TSO seat belts. Easy to check and for some reason tags or labels are often found missing. Too often aircraft are found without equipment lists and occasionally without weight and balance data.
  • 22 21 21 21 20 At FSDO’s, the problem is that a 337 or sometimes a field- approval is now required for installations that used to be considered minor alterations. Please be assured folks that your local FSDO ASI will work with you to get the job done right. I tell a story about a 1956 Cessna 182 in which I found a completely new instrument panel, wind screen and interior with no documentation. The point being that I was born in 1956. It is pretty difficult to know by experience that an airplane is in its original configuration when it is as old as I am. If you can or desire………….. provide some examples of some common paperwork problems
  • Operator This is a good time to explain that the operator is: -The owner -The person who causes the aircraft to be operated (FBO) -The pilot in command (renter) Discuss AD’s such as : Mandatory, address unsafe conditions, so critical that each AD issued is an amendment to FAR Part 39, etc. This rule really makes sense because even in the non-aviation world the owner of any machine would be responsible for its condition. Other rules make less sense superficially, but when analyzed become clear. For instance, who’s responsible that the appropriate entries have been made in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been returned to service?
  • 25 24 24 24 23 Can you believe that! The owner is even responsible that the mechanic puts the proper entry in the maintenance records! That’s not fair! Well, perhaps it is fair after all. This is significant in at least two ways. The most important is that the owner needs to contract a maintenance professional who can keep him out of trouble. This is an area in which the old adage “You get what you pay for” should be considered. Find a sharp mechanic and then keep him in business. Don’t fly your aircraft until the appropriate entries have been made in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been returned to service. Don’t let that “maintenance professional” make the log book entries when he gets a round tuit. This usually sounds like, “Oh, don’t worry I’ve recorded the work on a work order, you can go. The approval for return to service is on the next slide.
  • 26 25 25 25 24 Check for the Approval for Return to Service as required by FAR 43.9 or 43.11. Generally the approval for return to service is a description of the work accomplished, the date, signature, certificate number and type. Total time would be included for an inspection entry. Major repairs and alterations are covered in another talk. The main point here is visually check for the Approval for Return to Service before you fly. Its your responsibility!
  • 27 26 26 26 25 Total time is required for inspections. Status of life limited parts is not a big deal with most single engine aircraft but larger twins and helicopters need to track this status. The method usually is a list of these parts similar to an AD list. The inspector will check to see if the aircraft has the appropriate log entry for its inspection system. They will also check your Airworthiness Directive status list. It must includes AD’s on props, engine, airframe and appliances. All the possible ADs are listed and if one is not applicable it is indicated on the list as N/A and the reason is noted. The listing has the method of compliance, the AD number, revision date, and the time and date of the next action if recurring. There is a space for an approval for return to service, but if the same information is recorded in the text of a corresponding maintenance record entry then it doesn’t need to be included on the list.
  • 28 27 27 27 26 337 This is the Document that will answer most of the more pesky questions that an inspector might ask during a ramp inspection. The owner is responsible to keep a copy with the permanent maintenance records. SAT Due each 24 months. Must be accomplished by aircraft manufacturer, repair station, or airframe mechanic (static test only). ELT Expiration date of battery must be marked on the outside of the transmitter and in the aircraft maintenance record Maintenance record and placard required when ELT is removed for maintenance. Maintenance record entry -Date of removal, ELT, Make, Model, Serial Number, Reason for removal. Placard -“ELT not installed” Time limit - 90 days This is the inspection that seems to be commonly missed. It is a fairly new requirement. Inspection each 12 Calendar Months (Check AC43.13-1B) Proper Installation Battery Corrosion Operation of Controls and Crash Sensors Sufficient Signal Radiated from Antenna
  • Read and reiterate the summary items
  • 29 28 28 28 27 “ Questions are like cockroaches! If you see one, then that means there are twelve in the walls!” * Cockroaches kind of gross me out, so I put a “bug” on the slide. After Q&A put a pitch in about faasafety.gov; AMT on-line Awards Program; GA Awards Program; Wright Bros and the CT Awards.
  • The last slide is a duplicate of this one you saw earlier in this presentation. I will leave it up you can copy the addresses if desired.
  • How to Survive a Ramp Check: Aircraft Operator Maintenance Responsibilities

    1. 1. Presented to:By:Date:Federal AviationAdministrationHow to SurviveA Ramp CheckAircraft OperatorMaintenanceResponsibilities<Audience><Presenter’s Name, Title><Date>
    2. 2. 3 3Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Objectives• Learn what airworthiness means• Understand who is responsible for theairworthiness of the aircraft you fly.• Know to carry out that responsibility.
    3. 3. 4 4Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Referenceshttp://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/media/faa-h-8083-19A.pdfhttp://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/22051/
    4. 4. 5Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>What Ramp Check?• Has anyone had the experience?• Under what conditions do we checkaircraft?– Ramp Surveillance– Investigation• Accident• Incident• Complaint• Violation
    5. 5. 6Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Airworthiness FAR 91.7• No Person may operate acivil aircraft unless it is in anairworthy condition.• The PIC is responsible fordetermining whether theaircraft is in a safe conditionfor flight and shall discontinuethe flight when unairworthyconditions occur.
    6. 6. 7 7Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Operate FAR 1“Operate,” with respect to aircraft, meansuse, cause to use or authorize to useaircraft, for the purpose (except as providedin 91.13 of this chapter) of air navigationincluding the piloting of aircraft with orwithout the right of legal control (as owner,lessee, or otherwise)
    7. 7. 8 8Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Means:use Pilotcause to use FBO/Aircarrierauthorize to use FBOaircraft for the purpose of air navigation includingthe piloting of aircraft with or without the right oflegal control (as owner, lessee, or otherwise)Owner/FBO/Renter Pilot/Borrower/ThiefOperate FAR 1
    8. 8. 9 9Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Renter PilotsIs a renter pilot really responsible?TESTS– Known or Should Have Known– Reasonable and Prudent– Material, Relevant, Competentwww.ntsb.govLegal MattersOpinions & Orders
    9. 9. 10Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Background• 1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright’s first flight– Importance of design• 1926 Congress passes the Air Commerce Act– Establishes Aircraft Certification• 1958 Federal Aviation Act– Recodified to U.S. Code Title 49– Current Public Law for Aviation
    10. 10. 11Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Airworthiness Standards• A list of things that make an aircraft safe– Seat Belts– Circuit Protection– Master switch– Carburetor Heat– Lights– Placards– Factor of safetyA/WStandards
    11. 11. 12 12Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>StandardCondition forSafe OperationConformity toType DesignWear and TearProperlyAltered ConditionAirworthinessMaintenance andDocumentationFAR 21, 43,91ManufacturersType DesignAirworthiness StandardsFAR 23,25,27,33
    12. 12. 13Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Missing Stuff• Added Stuff• Documentation• Condition– Wear and Tear• Records
    13. 13. 14Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Missing Stuff– Fairings– Wheel pants– Wing tips– Spinners
    14. 14. 15Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Missing Stuff– Static discharge wicks– Fuel cap chains– Fill port placards– Instruments
    15. 15. 16Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Added Stuff– Cooling baffle seal– Fairings– STOL kits– Landing Lights– Antennas
    16. 16. 18Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Added Stuff– Recent Paint Job– Avionics– Brackett air filters– Instruments– Unusual appliances– Proper Installation
    17. 17. 19Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Documentation• Maintenance record entry• FAA Form 337• Equipment List• Weight and Balance
    18. 18. 20Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Condition/ Damage– Dents– Cracks– Working Rivets– Broken Antennas– Hangar rash– Funky Repairs
    19. 19. 21Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Condition/ Wear– Bald tires– Strut inflation– Propeller condition
    20. 20. 22Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Condition/ Wear– Deice boots / Hot Prop– Hose condition– Fluid leaks– Fuel smell
    21. 21. 23Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Interior– Registration– Airworthiness Certificate– Approved Flight Manual– Weight and Balance– Equipment list
    22. 22. 24Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Interior– Fire extinguisher– Seat Belt TSO– Compass correction card– Placards• missing• unusual
    23. 23. 25 25Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>
    24. 24. 26Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Interior– Inoperative Equipment– FAR 91.213• Cannot be required equipment• Must be removed or disabled• Placard installed• Maintenance recorded
    25. 25. 27Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Common Problems– Unapproved Parts– 100 Hour / Annual record entries– Missing Placards– Seat Belt TSO– Out of date or missing equipment lists
    26. 26. 28Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Ramp• Common Problems– Undocumented Avionics Installations• Intercoms– Undocumented modifications• Instrument panel• Interior
    27. 27. 29 29Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>FAR 91.403 (a)The owner or operator of anaircraft is primarilyresponsible for maintainingthat aircraft in an airworthycondition, including ADcompliance
    28. 28. 30Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>FAR 91.405 (b)• Each owner or operator of an aircraft shallensure that maintenance personnel makeappropriate entries in the aircraftmaintenance records indicating the aircrafthas been approved for return to service
    29. 29. 31Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>FAR 91.417• Records inspection– Maintenance records• Description of work performed• Date• Signature• Certificate number
    30. 30. 32Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>FAR 91.417• Records inspection– Total time– Status of life limited parts• Including time since overhaul– Annual / 100 Hour Inspection entry– Airworthiness Directive status
    31. 31. 33Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>FAR 91.417• Records inspection– 337– Static, Altimeter, Transpondercertification (SAT)– E.L.T. battery replacement due date– FAR 91.207 (d) Annual ELT operationalcheck
    32. 32. 34 34Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Summary• You should know what airworthiness means• Who is responsible for the airworthiness ofthe aircraft you fly.• How to carry out that responsibility.
    33. 33. 35Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Questions?
    34. 34. 36 36Federal AviationAdministration<Presentation Title – Change on Master Slide><Date of Presentation – Change on Master Slide>Referenceshttp://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/media/faa-h-8083-19A.pdfhttp://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/22051/

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