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Best Practices When Communicating with Air Traffic Control


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Best Practices When Communicating with Air Traffic Control

  1. 1. Best Practices When Communicating with Air Traffic Control Section 7
  2. 2. Pilots should use the phonetic alphabet when identifying their aircraft during initial contact with air traffic control facilities. A…..Alfa B….. Bravo C….. Charlie D…..Delta E….. Echo F….. Foxtrot G…..Golf H….. Hotel I….. India J….. Juliett K….. Kilo L….. Lima M…..Mike N….. November O…..Oscar P….. Papa Q….. Quebec R….. Romeo S….. Sierra T….. Tango U….. Uniform V….. Victor W…..Whiskey X….. Xray Y….. Yankee Z….. Zulu
  3. 3. Air Traffic Control Tower Light Gun Signals Aircraft on Ground Vehicle and Personnel Movement Cleared for Takeoff Cleared for Taxi STOP Taxi Clear of Runway Return to Starting Point on Airport Exercise Extreme Caution Cleared to Cross, Proceed or Go Not Applicable STOP Clear the Taxiway/Runway Return to Starting Point on the Airport Exercise Extreme Caution
  4. 4. Taxi Scenarios Crossing Runways during Taxi Taxi into Position and Hold (TIPH) Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) Using a Runway as a Taxiway Intersection Takeoffs
  5. 5. A clearance to “taxi to” the takeoff runway is NOT a clearance to cross the ASSIGNED takeoff runway, or to taxi on the ASSIGNED takeoff runway at any point, but it is a clearance to cross OTHER runways that intersect the taxi route to the assigned takeoff runway. Crossing Runways During Taxi
  6. 6. Crossing Runways During Taxi <ul><li>Use the Airport Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Know where you are </li></ul><ul><li>Know where you’re going </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aircraft is issued taxi instructions that authorize the crossing of all runways that intersect the taxi route. “Runway 14, taxi via Echo and Juliet, hold short Runway 14”. Answer: NO. The taxiing aircraft is expected to hold short at the intersection of Taxiway E and Runway 14. Further ATC clearance is required to cross Runway 14 enroute to the approach end. Can the taxiing aircraft proceed to the approach end of Runway 14 without having to hold anywhere? Crossing Runways During Taxi
  8. 8. A/C 1 A/C 2 Aircraft #1 is instructed to taxi into position and hold Runway 35R and to “expect an immediate departure” while aircraft #2 has been issued landing clearance to same runway. ATC has informed each pilot as to the other’s location. As the pilot of either aircraft, what should you expect to hear? Answer: Aircraft #1 will be told about traffic on final and should expect takeoff clearance soon after reaching position and hold. Aircraft #2 will be told about the traffic in position and should expect clearance to land on short final. If already cleared to land and A/C #1 has not departed, A/C #2 should question the tower. If no response, execute a go around and advise ATC. Never land over another aircraft in position on the runway. Taxi into Position and Hold
  9. 9. Aircraft #1 is told “Runway 30, cleared to land, hold short of Runway 36, traffic, C172 departing Runway 36”. Aircraft #2 is holding in position Runway 36 and receives the following clearance “Traffic, C172 landing Runway 30, will hold short of intersection, Runway 36, cleared for takeoff.” A/C 1 A/C 2 What should each aircraft and ATC listen for? Answer: ATC and A/C 2 should hear A/C 1 acknowledge (read back) the land and hold short instructions. A/C 1 should understand that A/C 2 has been given takeoff clearance and will be crossing in front from left to right. A/C 1 should not proceed beyond the TIPH hold marking until advised by ATC. The critical communication loop involves a complete understanding between ATC, A/C 1 and A/C 2. Land and Hold Short Operations
  10. 10. Using a Runway As a Taxiway <ul><li>Actively listen for traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Expedite your taxi time on the runway </li></ul>
  11. 11. Performing Intersection Takeoffs Visually check for landing or departing aircraft before moving onto the runway.
  12. 12. Listen before transmitting. Think before transmitting. Monitor ATIS before transmitting. When Communicating with Air Traffic Control
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ensure you understand all ATC instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Do not hesitate to ask for progressive taxi instructions if unfamiliar with airport or confused </li></ul>
  14. 14. Maintain a “sterile cockpit” during taxi, takeoff and landing Never stop on a runway after landing to ask for directions. Clear the runway first, then ask ground control for directions
  15. 15. <ul><li>An ambiguous clearance </li></ul><ul><li>An unintelligible transmission </li></ul><ul><li>A clearance that doesn’t “fit” </li></ul><ul><li>Someone else acknowledging your clearance </li></ul>Always Question
  16. 16. Readback All Hold Short Instructions
  17. 17. <ul><li>Cockpit workload increases </li></ul><ul><li>Distractions tend to increase </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue level increases </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to communications decrease. </li></ul>During Night Operations
  18. 18. Scan Outside the Cockpit – Especially When on Taxiways and Runways
  19. 19. Certain environmental conditions, such as snow, fog, or heavy rain may prevent visual confirmation by ATC of an aircraft’s position on the airport and adherence to taxi instructions. Inform ATC immediately if you become disoriented End of Section 7