The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010)

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The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010) presented by the FAA Office of Runway Safety Great Lakes Region

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The Successful Cross Country Part 1 (2010)

  1. 1. The Successful Cross-Country Part 1 Federal Aviation Administration
  2. 2. The Successful Cross-Country Part 1 The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 2
  3. 3. Some helpful tips for using this presentation… Most slides of this presentation contain an associated “NOTES” Page. These “notes” are designed as “Instructor’s Talking Points.” They are global in nature and intended to remind the instructor of areas to emphasize and lessons-to-belearned. To ensure all notes are displayed, utilize the scroll down feature. xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 3
  4. 4. Some helpful tips for using this presentation… To access the NOTES page from the full screen presentation, press Esc on the keyboard and right mouse click the notes page ICON. To return to the full screen presentation with animation, select the full screen ICON. ICON to access the NOTES page ICON to run the full screen presentation with animation and no displayed notes. xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 4
  5. 5. Some helpful tips for using this presentation… Those slides with a black X on a yellow background in the lower left corner contain no “notes”. Indicates slide has no associated notes section. xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 5
  6. 6. Part 1 – Lessons 1. Operating from a part-time towered airport 2. Understanding the airport diagram 3. Review of signs markings and lighting 4. Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS) roles and useful publications 5. Understanding the Airport/Facility Directory (AFD) xThe Successful Cross Country 6. The “Taxi Rule” Federal Aviation Administration 6
  7. 7. This document has been prepared for training purposes only and sets forth general principles and guidance concerning good operating procedures for avoiding surface incidents and runway incursions. It is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature. The Successful Cross Country x Federal Aviation Administration 7
  8. 8. What’s the number one causal factor for general aviation accidents?… Inadequate preflight planning The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 8
  9. 9. Build a margin of safety by planning ahead A/C Malfunction Confusion Unexpected Weather Complacency Unfamiliarity Fatigue The Successful Cross Country Don’t get “boxed in” Federal Aviation Administration 9
  10. 10. Know your limitations xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 10
  11. 11. Task Requirements Verses Capabilities Pilot/Aircraft Capabilities Margin of Safety Pilot/Aircraft Capabilities Task Requirements Exposure to accident/incident Approach & Landing Takeoff Taxi Takeoff Cruise Taxi Enroute Stop Taxi Cruise Approach & Landing Taxi Time Line The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 11
  12. 12. Leave yourself an “out” xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 12
  13. 13. Destination: Ottumwa Airport (OTM) FOD AFSS Chicago Center OTM IXD COU AFSS Kansas City Center The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 13
  14. 14. The Airports… Departure Federal Aviation New Century Air Center, Olathe, Kansas (IXD) Administration The Successful Cross Country 14
  15. 15. Ottumwa Industrial Airport, Ottumwa, Iowa (OTM) Stopover The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 15
  16. 16. Destination Eppley Airfield, Omaha, Nebraska (OMA) Aviation Federal The Successful Cross Country Administration 16
  17. 17. Before we get started with our planning, let’s quickly review a few rules and some critical areas and markings. xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 17
  18. 18. Bonus question time! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 18
  19. 19. “Black square You’re there” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 19
  20. 20. Non-movement area The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 20
  21. 21. Movement area Taxiways Ramp The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 21
  22. 22. Runway safety area Runways Taxiways The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 22
  23. 23. So, what’s the real difference between these three areas? Speed of operations and exposure to loss of life! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 23
  24. 24. ntry poin t Controlled areas Veh ic ular e E 9 250’ Runways – Runway Safety Area 1,000 9 27 27 1,000 Runway Hold Markings & Hold Position Signs 250’ A 9 B 9-27 C 9-27 D 27 Taxiways - movement area The Successful Cross Country Ramp – non movement area Federal Aviation Administration 24
  25. 25. Understand the boundaries of the Runway Safety Area. Maintain situational awareness The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 25
  26. 26. 75% of all pilot deviations result from a violation of this marking! ea! the boundaries of the runway safety ar It defines The runway hold marking is the most critical marking on any airport ……towered or non-towered! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 26
  27. 27. Runway hold signs will always be co-located with runway hold markings and will usually be located on the left side of the taxiway To offer “vertical development” and help pinpoint the location of the runway hold markings…. Runway Hold Signs are MANDATORY instruction signs The Successful Cross Country “RED – RUNWAY AHEAD!” Federal Aviation Administration 27
  28. 28. Runway hold markings are not always readily visible… WHY? Reflection of a spinning prop Focusing on tasks IN the cockpit instead of OUT Pilot “seating” height Lack of “vertical development” Sun glare and other environmental conditions The Successful Cross Country Actual Cockpit View Federal Aviation Administration 28
  29. 29. So remember, use the runway hold sign to help locate the runway hold marking. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 29
  30. 30. Exiting the Runway • • • No Clearance Is Required to Exit the Runway. Cross the Hold Marking With Dashed Lines Facing You. Do Not Exit the Landing Runway Onto an Intersecting Runway Unless Authorized by ATC. Remember “dash across the dash lines, stop at the solid lines.” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 30
  31. 31. 32R Runway safety area 14L/32R The green aircraft is expected to “clear” the landing runway (14R) and runway safety area and hold short of Runway 14L. Runway safety area 14R/32L The Successful Cross Country 32L 14R Following landing, the green aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 14L Federal Aviation Administration 31
  32. 32. 32R Runway Safety Area 14L/32R The orange aircraft is expected to HOLD AT THIS POSITION even if it HAS NOT cleared the landing runway and remains inside the runway safety area for Runway 14R/32L 14R 14R Following landing, the orange aircraft has been instructed to “hold short” Runway 14L The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 32L Runway Safety Area 14R/32L 32
  33. 33. Bonus question time! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 33
  34. 34. “Black square You’re there” xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 34
  35. 35. Taxiway location sign Taxiway direction sign The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 35
  36. 36. Question: You see these markings outside your windscreen and are advised by ATC to “hold short.” Which hold line applies? B A The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 36
  37. 37. Bonus question time! You are located on Taxiway A at the approach end of Runway 35. Describe the TYPE and COLOR of the sign(s) that will be located on the left side of this taxiway. “Black square The Successful Cross Country You’re there” “RED….. Federal Aviation 37 RUNWAY AHEAD!” Administration
  38. 38. Let’s get started on our planning! On the day of departure you receive a “standard weather brief” from COU AFSS which included airmets, sigmets, adverse weather conditions, synopsis of highs and lows, current conditions along the route, terminal forecasts, area forecasts, winds aloft and NOTAMS. In summary, for this flight you can expect clear skies The Successful Cross Country and southerly winds less than 10 knots. Federal Aviation below 12,000 38 Administration
  39. 39. Avoid the airspace in the vicinity of power plants. No circling or loitering authorized. Weather briefing complete. NOTAMS include…. All air operations are prohibited at or below 3000 feet within 3 nautical mile radius of a stadium with a seating capacity of 30,000 or more from 1 hour before until 1 hour after the scheduled event. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 39
  40. 40. Why get a briefing from AFSS? Get on record as receiving a briefing! And…. Federal Aviation AFSS is the only “official” source for TFRs. Administration The Successful Cross Country 40
  41. 41. Far 91.103 preflight action. Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. What does this mean? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 41
  42. 42. “…..become familiar with all available information concerning that flight.” Resource gathering and utilization The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 42
  43. 43. Kansas City, Chicago and Omaha sectionals are needed for this flight The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 43
  44. 44. What’s available at the FBO? Local procedures, noise abatement, mowing ops inAviation progress, Federal Administration airport sign guides, phone number(s) for ASOS/AWOS The Successful Cross Country 44
  45. 45. The AFD is published every 56 days. It contains data on airports that cannot be readily depicted on aeronautical charts such as: • Runway Information • Airport Remarks • Fuel • NAVAIDs • Frequencies • Updates to Visual Charts • Airport Diagrams • Runway Safety Information • Services Available • Important Phone Numbers • Procedures Unique to that Airport Is it current? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 45
  46. 46. Airport diagrams are also available at the FAA’s airport diagram website: www.faa.gov/go/runwaysafety Airport Diagram xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 46
  47. 47. Airport diagrams are also available at the FAA’s airport diagram website: www.faa.gov/go/runwaysafety For additional information about central region airports (MO, IA, KS, NE) click “Regions” here xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 47
  48. 48. Let’s first look at the airport remarks for IXD, our departure point. LAHSO PAGE 310? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 48
  49. 49. The first thing we notice is that IXD is attended at certain hours. LAHSO PAGE 310? What does “attended” mean? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 49
  50. 50. Another item we notice is that Taxiway F is obscured from the tower’s view. Where is “TWY F” on this airport sketch? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 50
  51. 51. Look at the airport diagram for greater detail Hangars! Why would the tower’s view of Taxiway F be obscured? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 51
  52. 52. MALSR & VASI are activated by “mike clicks” when tower is closed. LAHSO PAGE 310? What do the black circles mean?. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 52
  53. 53. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 53
  54. 54. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 54
  55. 55. Traffic pattern altitudes and direction of turns LAHSO PAGE 310? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 55
  56. 56. The airport remarks also has a note about land and hold short operations section. Where Is This Section Located? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 56
  57. 57. Go to the back of the AFD, operations section Scan of page 310 listing IXD hold short of 17/35 when landing 22 The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 57
  58. 58. 17 Landing RWY Hold short point Measured distance 35 2,700 FEET 3,300 FEET 3,650 FEET The Successful Cross Country 35 Federal Aviation Administration 58
  59. 59. Runway 4-22, 35-17 intersection Runway hold sign The LAHSO surface hold marking extends the entire width of the runway. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 59
  60. 60. We also notice that IXD is a part time tower. LAHSO PAGE Depending on my 310? departure time, the tower may or may not be open? If the tower is not open when you depart, will that effect your taxi and radio procedures? What frequency will you be broadcasting on? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 60
  61. 61. Determine the boundaries of the movement/nonmovement and runway safety areas The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 61
  62. 62. Study the airport diagram to determine taxiway/runway crossing points. The Successful Cross Country What is status of this runway? Federal Aviation Administration 62
  63. 63. Bonus question time! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 63
  64. 64. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 64
  65. 65. Runway boundary sign: Taxi past this sign to ensure you are clear of the runway safety area when EXITING! The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 65
  66. 66. Once you’ve planned the flight… it’s time to fly the plan The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 66
  67. 67. BONUS QUESTION What is POFZ? xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 67
  68. 68. Precision Obstacle Free Zone xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 68
  69. 69. The POFZ is defined as a volume of airspace above an area beginning at the runway threshold, at the threshold elevation, and centered on the extended runway centerline, 200 feet long by 800 feet wide. Maintaining the POFZ clear during low ceiling/low visibility conditions protects both the landing aircraft and holding aircraft or vehicle. The POFZ is in effect for vertically guided approaches when the ceiling is below Federal 4000 250 feet and/orCross Country less than ¾ statute mile (or RVR below Aviationfeet), and an 69 xThe Successful visibility Administration aircraft is on final approach within two miles of the runway threshold.
  70. 70. Typical POFZ 200 Feet 400 Feet When the POFZ is in effect, the wing of an aircraft holding on a taxiway waiting for runway clearance may penetrate the POFZ; however, neither Federal Aviation the The Successfulnor the tail may infringe on the POFZ. In addition, no ground 70 xfuselage Cross Country Administration vehicles may be in the POFZ when it is in effect.
  71. 71. POFZ Holding Positions ILS Airports with a taxiway located prior to the runway threshold may result Federal POFZ in The Successful Cross Country 71 xan aircraft being located in the POFZ when it is active.Aviation holding Administration positions may be needed at these locations.
  72. 72. If a hold position is used to protect the POFZ, an ILS hold is used. A1 30L Runway holding position ILS critical area or POFZ boundary A second sign on the right side is required in some situations. ILS xThe Successful Cross Country ILS critical area or POFZ Federal Aviation Administration holding position 72
  73. 73. Far 91.129 (i) “The takeoff, landing and taxi clearance rule” Part 1: No person may, at any airport with an “operating” control tower, operate an aircraft ON a runway or taxiway, or The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation take off, or land, without an ATC clearance. 73 Administration
  74. 74. X Executing the taxi instructions xThe Successful Cross Country YOU ARE HERE X YOU’REFederal Aviation GOING HERE Administration 74
  75. 75. With the tower operating, what surfaces require an ATC clearance to taxi, takeoff or land? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 75
  76. 76. How can you confirm your location? “Black square, You’re there!” RED…Runway Ahead! By the Taxiway B location sign. The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 76
  77. 77. As you continue your taxi on Taxiway A you approach the runway hold marking for Runway 22-4. Do you have to stop? 2 4- 35-17 ? 2 17-35 A Hold Line Parallel to the Holding Runway You have been issued the following taxi clearance, “N252KT taxi to The Successful Cross Country 35.” Runway Federal Aviation Administration 77
  78. 78. You do not have to hold at the intersection of Taxiway A and Runway 22-4 because Taxiway A does not cross the The Successful Cross Country Federal assigned Runway 35 at this location. Aviation Administration 78
  79. 79. Also, notice the “jog” in the Taxiway A? A to the aligned parallel 4-22 is terline line for Runw ay the taxiw ay cen tice the hold No dicular to y not be perpen runway and ma The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 79
  80. 80. View from the cockpit As you continue your taxi southbound on Taxiway A you finally reach the approach end of Runway 35. Is ATC authorization required for departure? The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 80
  81. 81. If the tower is open, ATC approval is required. A “New century tower, N252KT is ready to go Runway 35, VFR northeast.” “N252KT, hold short Runway 35.” A 35 “N252KT, New Century Tower, hold short landing traffic.” 35 “N252KT, Runway 35, position and hold.” “N252KT, Runway 35, position and hold.” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 81
  82. 82. “N252KT, Runway 35, cleared for takeoff.” A A 35 35 35 “N252KT, cleared for takeoff.” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 82
  83. 83. If the tower is closed and it’s VFR, what frequency will you announce your position and intention prior to departure? A The Successful Cross Country A 35 “New Century traffic, N252KT departing Runway 35 northeast, New Century”. 35 Federal Aviation Administration 83
  84. 84. If tower is closed, monitor CTAF during departure for arriving and departing aircraft at IXD A A 35 xThe Successful Cross Country x 35 Federal Aviation Administration 84
  85. 85. “Kansas City Approach, N252KT” “N252KT frequency change approved” The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 85
  86. 86. “Kansas City Approach, N252KT 5 north New Century, climbing VFR to 5,500 for flight following to Ottumwa.” “N252kt Kansas City Approach, go ahead” TFR – Arrowhead Stadium… Ummm! xThe Successful Cross Country x Federal Aviation Administration 86
  87. 87. What about this blue line? Bonus question time! What does this magenta line represent? The Successful Cross Country What about the number 36 in dashed Federal Aviation box? 87 Administration
  88. 88. VFR Flyways under Class Bravo Airspace The Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration 88
  89. 89. Unfamiliarity om C cy n ce a pl Lack of Communications Fatigue I ie er xp ne ce n Lack of Planning xThe Successful Cross Country Federal Aviation Administration END PART89 1
  90. 90. Part 1 – Lessons 1. Operating from a part-time towered airport 2. Understanding the airport diagram 3. Review of signs markings and lighting 4. Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS) roles and useful publications 5. Understanding the Airport/Facility Directory (AFD) xThe Successful Cross Country 6. The “Taxi Rule” Federal Aviation Administration 90
  91. 91. Part 2 – Lessons 1. 2. 3. 4. Operating at a Non-Towered Airport Using the Airport/Facility Directory (AFD ) Utilizing AFSS, ARTCC, ASOS and ATIS Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) xThe Successful Cross Country x Federal Aviation Administration 91
  92. 92. Part 3 – Lessons 1. Operating at a busy 24 hour towered commercial airport 2. Using the AFD 3. Understanding the airport diagram 4. Utilizing AFSS, ARTCC, ASOS and ATIS The Successful Cross Country x 5. Communicating with the tower Federal Aviation Administration 92
  93. 93. Part 4 – Lessons 1. The Anatomy of a Close Call X Successful Cross Country The 2. Conclusion Federal Aviation Administration 93

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