Agriculture before Green
Agriculture before the green revolution was pretty much limited to areas with a
significant amount of rainfall or close to a body of water, has a high enough day
length, and in fertile land. Beforehand, farmers could not harvest a high yield of
crops enough to feed even the local population.
Food problems have haunted mankind since time immemorial. With few
technological breakthroughs to increase yields, the food needs of growing
populations were historically met by expanding the cultivated area. As the most
fertile land became scarce, further expansion meant bringing poorer and lower
yielding land into cultivation. By the 19th century, there was growing pessimism
about the possibility of feeding ever-growing populations, as exemplified in the
writings of Thomas Malthus . The task seemed even more daunting as advances in
medicine and public health led to longer life expectancies and more children born.
Agriculture before Green
Revolution in India I
Mr. R.Strachey who headed the 1880 Famine Commission, suggested
the setting up of a department of agriculture in every province. Thus a
new secretariat was formed in the centre in 1881.Following which
some prominent provinces like Bombay, Madras, UP, Bengal, Assam
and Punjab paid greater attention to agriculture and other related
fields. The agriculture sector was backward and lacked scientific
approach. To improve the condition of the agricultural sector the
centre appointed Mr. JA Voeleker in 1889 as agricultural chemist.
Years of extensive research resulted in the setting up of Agricultural
Research Institute at Pursa, Bihar (in 1903).
In spite of the best efforts by the government, the productivity
remained low. So the government set up the Royal Commission on
Agricuin 1926.Based on their findings the Imperial Council of
Agricultural Research (ICAR) was formed and during the period
agricultural flourished. But during the period from World War II to
Independence agricultural suffered setbacks. The famine of 1943
resulted in the death of millions.
Agriculture before Green
Revolution in India II
The partition of the country in 1947 had a negative impact on
Indian agriculture. But the formation of Planning Commission in
1950 and the ad vocation of economic planning through five year
plans, gave greater importance to agricultural growth and the
agricultural sector gained in prominence. The government backed
the agricultural sector by the way of research and by setting up
Commodity Committees. The first agricultural university was set
up in 1961 at Pantnagar in UP.
In the 1950' and 1960's improved agricultural practices, better
seeds and use of fertilizer, soil and water conservation, land
development, land consolidation, agricultural credit and marketing
and price incentive resulted in improved agricultural productivity.
and after Green
Revolution in India
from 1959 to 2007
What is Green Revolution?
Between the eighth century and the eighteenth, the tools of farming
basically stayed the same and few advancements in technology were
The agricultural revolution was a period of agricultural development in
countries between 1960’s and 1970’s, which saw a massive and rapid
increase in agricultural productivity and vast improvements in farm
The Green Revolution in India began by using HYVS, chemical fertilizers
and latest technology to increase agricultural production. The term was
coined by Dr. William Gande and implemented in India by Dr. Norman
Borlaug and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan
How did Green Revolution affect
India after witnessing the Green revolution has improvised a lot
in agricultural sector.
MS Swaminathan has done a great job for India by introducing
better yielding varieties of crops. Once upon a time we had to
face droughts and famines quite often, but after Green
revolution in India their frequency has drastically decreased.
Agriculture after Green Revolution
The adoption of HYVs occurred quickly. By1970 about 20percent of the wheat
area and 30 percent of the rice area in developing countries were planted to
HYVs, and by 1990, the share had increased to about 70 percent for both crops.
Yields of rice and wheat virtually doubled. Higher yields and profitability also
led farmers to increase the area of rice and wheat they grew at the expense of
And with faster-growing varieties and irrigation, they grew more crops on their
land each year. These changes more than doubled cereal production in Asia
between 1970 and 1995, while population increased by 60 percent. Instead of
widespread famine, cereal and calorie availability per person increased by
nearly 30 percent, and wheat and rice became cheaper.
The Green Revolution was a major achievement for many
developing countries and gave them an unprecedented level of
national food security.
It represented the successful adaptation and transfer of the
same scientific revolution in agriculture that the industrial
countries had already appropriated for themselves.
The Green Revolution also lifted large numbers of poor people
out of poverty and helped many non poor people avoid the
poverty and hunger they would have experienced had the
Green Revolution not occurred.
The largest benefits to the poor were mostly indirect, in the
form of lower food prices, increased migration
opportunities, and greater employment in the rural nonfarm
The direct benefits to the poor through their own on-farm
adoption, greater agricultural employment, and empowerment
have been more mixed and depend heavily on local