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Green Revolution


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Green Revolution

  2. 2. Agriculture before Green Revolution  Agriculture before the green revolution was pretty much limited to areas with a significant amount of rainfall or close to a body of water, has a high enough day length, and in fertile land. Beforehand, farmers could not harvest a high yield of crops enough to feed even the local population.  Food problems have haunted mankind since time immemorial. With few technological breakthroughs to increase yields, the food needs of growing populations were historically met by expanding the cultivated area. As the most fertile land became scarce, further expansion meant bringing poorer and lower yielding land into cultivation. By the 19th century, there was growing pessimism about the possibility of feeding ever-growing populations, as exemplified in the writings of Thomas Malthus . The task seemed even more daunting as advances in medicine and public health led to longer life expectancies and more children born.
  3. 3. Agriculture before Green Revolution in India I BEFORE INDEPENDENCE  Mr. R.Strachey who headed the 1880 Famine Commission, suggested the setting up of a department of agriculture in every province. Thus a new secretariat was formed in the centre in 1881.Following which some prominent provinces like Bombay, Madras, UP, Bengal, Assam and Punjab paid greater attention to agriculture and other related fields. The agriculture sector was backward and lacked scientific approach. To improve the condition of the agricultural sector the centre appointed Mr. JA Voeleker in 1889 as agricultural chemist. Years of extensive research resulted in the setting up of Agricultural Research Institute at Pursa, Bihar (in 1903).  In spite of the best efforts by the government, the productivity remained low. So the government set up the Royal Commission on Agricuin 1926.Based on their findings the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) was formed and during the period agricultural flourished. But during the period from World War II to Independence agricultural suffered setbacks. The famine of 1943 resulted in the death of millions.
  4. 4. Agriculture before Green Revolution in India II AFTER INDEPENDENCE  The partition of the country in 1947 had a negative impact on Indian agriculture. But the formation of Planning Commission in 1950 and the ad vocation of economic planning through five year plans, gave greater importance to agricultural growth and the agricultural sector gained in prominence. The government backed the agricultural sector by the way of research and by setting up Commodity Committees. The first agricultural university was set up in 1961 at Pantnagar in UP.  In the 1950' and 1960's improved agricultural practices, better seeds and use of fertilizer, soil and water conservation, land development, land consolidation, agricultural credit and marketing and price incentive resulted in improved agricultural productivity.
  5. 5. Agriculture before and after Green Revolution in India Increasing irrigation plans from 1959 to 2007
  6. 6. What is Green Revolution?  Between the eighth century and the eighteenth, the tools of farming basically stayed the same and few advancements in technology were made.  The agricultural revolution was a period of agricultural development in countries between 1960’s and 1970’s, which saw a massive and rapid increase in agricultural productivity and vast improvements in farm technology.  The Green Revolution in India began by using HYVS, chemical fertilizers and latest technology to increase agricultural production. The term was coined by Dr. William Gande and implemented in India by Dr. Norman Borlaug and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan
  7. 7. How did Green Revolution affect India?  India after witnessing the Green revolution has improvised a lot in agricultural sector.  MS Swaminathan has done a great job for India by introducing better yielding varieties of crops. Once upon a time we had to face droughts and famines quite often, but after Green revolution in India their frequency has drastically decreased.
  8. 8. Agriculture after Green Revolution • • • The adoption of HYVs occurred quickly. By1970 about 20percent of the wheat area and 30 percent of the rice area in developing countries were planted to HYVs, and by 1990, the share had increased to about 70 percent for both crops. Yields of rice and wheat virtually doubled. Higher yields and profitability also led farmers to increase the area of rice and wheat they grew at the expense of other crops. And with faster-growing varieties and irrigation, they grew more crops on their land each year. These changes more than doubled cereal production in Asia between 1970 and 1995, while population increased by 60 percent. Instead of widespread famine, cereal and calorie availability per person increased by nearly 30 percent, and wheat and rice became cheaper.
  9. 9. Conclusion  The Green Revolution was a major achievement for many     developing countries and gave them an unprecedented level of national food security. It represented the successful adaptation and transfer of the same scientific revolution in agriculture that the industrial countries had already appropriated for themselves. The Green Revolution also lifted large numbers of poor people out of poverty and helped many non poor people avoid the poverty and hunger they would have experienced had the Green Revolution not occurred. The largest benefits to the poor were mostly indirect, in the form of lower food prices, increased migration opportunities, and greater employment in the rural nonfarm economy. The direct benefits to the poor through their own on-farm adoption, greater agricultural employment, and empowerment have been more mixed and depend heavily on local socioeconomic conditions.