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Green Revolution in Developing Countries

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Green Revolution in Developing Countries

  1. 1. MODERN GREEN REVOLUTION PRACTICES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD Aaron Wenger – Agron 342 November 7, 2008
  2. 2. WHAT IS THE “GREEN REVOLUTION”? <ul><li>Norman E. Borlaug </li></ul><ul><li>1940’s-1960’s developed various wheat and rice varieties to increase agricultural production worldwide and offset hunger and famine. </li></ul><ul><li>Breed plants known for high-yield characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed plants that had desirable traits, such as light insensitivity, high leaf area (vegetative material) and responsiveness to fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Began working with wheat varieties in Mexico, moved to rice in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly impacted these areas, production sky-rocketed, famine was halted, countries began exporting these crops to increase their income. </li></ul><ul><li>( www.geography.about.com ) “Green Revolution” </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE GREEN REVOLUTION TODAY <ul><li>Borlaug crossed plant varieties to achieve a genetically superior plant, now insect resistant genes, chemical resistant genes, and some environmental condition resistances are being inserted into the plant to increase their productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Transgenic / Bt (Bacillus Thuringiensis) naturally occurring gene found in the soil that when ingested by insects (larvae) they are killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common planted Bt crops in the world are: Cotton, Maize, Soybeans, and Rice. </li></ul><ul><li>(www.agbioforum.org) </li></ul>
  4. 4. BENEFITS OF BT CROPS www.agbioforum.org Impacted Areas Current Future Agricultural Practices -Less / More efficient use of pesticides -Increased productivity -More diversified agricultural products. -Pharmaceutical Crops Governmental / Social -Macroeconomic Gains -Higher efficiency of agricultural sector -Improved food / feed quality -Increased consumer confidence -Even greater improvements in food and feed quality (increases life expectancy) Economic Benefits-Growers -Improved control of weeds & insects -Reduced input costs; labor, chemical application, -Increased yields -Decreased exposure to harmful chemical products -Increased profit, more produced on a per acre basis -Trend will continue -Moving away from subsistence farming, will be able to sell surplus for income, increase standard of living. Economic Benefits-Consumers -Reduced food costs because of higher availability. -Less pesticide usage -Lower pathogen load, overall healthier item to eat -Greater range of affordable food choices.
  5. 5. BENEFITS CONT. <ul><li>Many countries are seeing the benefits of Bt crops in several ways. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers are receiving more income, in turn can increase their families standard of living and invest in their local economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops are not as labor intensive to grow with the use of pesticides and the crops natural defense mechanisms, decreased child labor requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surplus of food is grown, subsistence farming decreasing, fewer farmers are able to produce more food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food prices are declining because of the surplus, allows poorer families to purchase food again. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased agriculture production is strengthening the local economy, jobs are created. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family sizes can be decreased because of reduced labor req. women are not mired in homes and used for child-rearing purposes only. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CONCERNS <ul><li>Ethical Concerns about Bt crops has seen to be the largest hurdle in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Playing god by manipulating the genetic structure of a plant…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Unsure of the potential side effects…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rather than wasting time, energy, and lives… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an educated decision and focus on the positives that this technology can provide, not only for the country, but for the hungry families. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decrease genetic variability… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants or more importantly pest / insects will become resistant to the gene or chemical and we will be unable to effectively kill the desired pest. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/Y5160E/Y5160E00.HTM </li></ul>
  7. 7. ARE BT CROPS REALLY HELPING THE POOR? TABLE REFERENCING DISTRIBUTION OF BT COTTON ADOPTED BY SIZE OF FARM OR INCOME CLASS IN CHINA, 1999 % Bt crops found in observations (Lb/Ac) Yield Increase ($/Ac) Change in Cost ($/Ac) Change in Net Income Farm Size 0-1 Acre 86 +365 -$14.40 +$356.89 1-2.5 Acres 85 -119 -$475.26 +$414.74 2.5 + Acres 87 -110 -$161.98 +$164.65 Household Income ($) 1-1,200 85 +151.3 -$268.78 +$338.20 1,200 + 91 +57.85 -$48.06 +$139.73 Per Capita Income ($) 1-180 85 +405.84 -$191.35 +$396.94 180-360 83 +7.12 -$252.76 +$269.67 360+ 97 -53.40 +$0.89 -$13.35 http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/Y5160E/y5160e09.htm#P1_30
  8. 8. CONCLUSION <ul><li>For Bt Crops and Technology to continue to infiltrate developing countries there must be… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensured resources to cover the high costs of inputs and developments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building an enabling environment for the promotion of Bt Technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating Bt Technology with conventional research programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing corporate control, market power, and distribution implications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring consumer protection and acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing the stability of Bt Technology programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If these can be diligently worked on cooperatively, the future for Bt Crops and their role in aiding developing countries offset hunger and impoverishment, is a bright and exciting future. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/Y5160E/y5160e13.htm#P41_16455 </li></ul>

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