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6th Semester CS / IS (2013-June) Question Papers

6th Semester CS / IS (2013-June) Question Papers






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    6th Semester CS / IS (2013-June) Question Papers 6th Semester CS / IS (2013-June) Question Papers Document Transcript

    • tr' c ( 39. -on I b9p .s.. -g '= 5o 6.:l .9. =o-B t< -..i ..i z o E 10AL61 USN Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June / July 2013 Management and EntrePreneurshiP Time: 3 hrs. Max' Marks:I00 Note; Answer any FIVE full questions, selecting atleast TWO questionfrom eaeh part. PART - A Give a briefaccount ofnature ofmanagement. (07 Marks) Explain qharacteristics of management. ..- . ' ,t (05 Marks) Briefly explain functions and roles of levels of management' (07 Marks) Define management. ..., ,- (01 Marks) Explain briefly Hierarchy of plans. (07 Marks) What is importance of planning? Why should managers plan? (05 Marks) What are steps involved in planning process? l, (07 Marks) Give five chart of qpes of planning premit.t. ,. ,.-. (01 Marks) Give the important characteristiii of organi.zation. (07 Marks) what are the types of organization? Explain with flow charr department tln" o.e*if;?tfl"r.o Explain the term centralization and decentralization with example. (04 Marks)c. d. What is Departmentation? 102 Marks) c. 8a. b. What is meaning of directioir? Explain steps involved in controlling. (07 Marks) Define motivation. Explain nature and different types g.f.motivation. (07 Marks) Define leadership. Explain briefly on types ofleaders 6r leadership styles. (04 Marks) What is purpose and importance of communication? Expl4i4:in_one statement. (02 Marks) PART-B ,,.,.... Give notes.dri tlpes of entrepreneurs, with examples. ,.1,- , (07 Marks) What are the functions of entrepreneur? Explain with examples. t -,r , (07 Marks) Who is an entrepreneur? What are the characteristics ofa unique entrepreneur? (04 Marks) Name the stages of entrepreneurship proces . - (02 Marks) Explain the meaning, concept and definition of small scale industry. ' :. (07 Marks) What are the essential characteristics of small scale industries? (O,{-Ma.rks) How small scale industries helps in India's economic development? (07llrlhrlis) Briefly discuss SIDBI and explain need for the institutional support for the SSI. (07 Marks) Briefly discuss the institutions that are providing technical and marketing support for S.S.I's. (07 Marks) What are the institutions at state level that are providing support to S.S.I's? (06 Marks) 3a. b. 1a. b. c. d. b. c. d. 4a. b. c. d. 5a. b. c. d. 6a. b. c. 7a. b. Briefly explain meaning ofproject and classifr projects. What are the steps involved in formulation ofproject report? Exp Briefly discuss Network analysis. What is PERT? Explain.
    • USN 10cs62 (10 Marks) (06 Marks) (04 Marks) "fcntt" API can be (10 Marks) (05 Marks) (05 Marks) (05 Marks) program is (05 Marks) illustrating' (10 Marks) Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June/July 2013 when the t: E {}e -^t .=A go tq o- 6. ,Jj y; -Q ;ii (-, < z E 2a. b. c. 3a. functions with an example C/C++ program 1 of 2 UNIX System Programming Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks:100 Note: 1. Answer FIVE futt questions, selecting atleast TIItO questions from each part. 2. Write comments for all the programs. PART-A a. What is POSIX standard? Explain the different subsets of POSIX $tandards. (05 Marks) b. Write a C/C++ POSIX complaint program to check the following,limits : i) Number of clock ticks ii) Maximum number of child processes iii) Maximum path length iv) Maximum characters in a filename v) Maximum number of open files per process. (10 Marks) c. Explain the common characteristics of API and describe the error status code. (05 Marks) Explain the different file tlpes available in UNIX or POSIX systems. Describe the LNIX kernel support for flrles. Differentiate between hard links and svmbolic links. Explain the importanceof file and record locking in LINIX. Show how used for file and record locking. b. Write a CIC++ prggram to emulate .tn command in LTNIX. c. Write a [/Q++ program to emulate mv command in UNIX. 4 a. Explain with a neat block diagram, the memory layout of a C prograrn b. For the following given C program, identifr the various segments executed : # include <stdio.h> inta=5; int b; int data [ 10]; constinti:5; int main( ) { int X; char+ptr:malloc(50); return 0; ) Explain the setjmp( ) and longimp( ) their usage.
    • r= 10cs62 PART-B ,o 5 a. What do you mean by fork( ) and vfork( ) functions? Explain both functions with example --- progr.rms (write-separate programs). (10 Mdtknl' '{ty., b. 'What is.lob control? Summarize the job control features with the help of neat diagram.- '3-f t 60 Mirxs) '*- """-'-' O a.CElplain the sigaction( ) function by giving the prototype and discuss its features. (08 Marks) b. Bdgfly explain the kill( ) API and the alarm( ) API. (06 Marks) c. WfiS$g g daemon process? Discuss its characteristics. il_., " (06 Marks) '",{: ! 'C. Discuss with an etom. ple (/Q++ program the b. Write short nHia6 gn the following i ,*L- l i.1 Message que(4( ,- i *. ii) Semaphores. v,,' . S (lo Marks) .,,? .:, 'ln. !, 8 a. Explain the concept of si@qnemory with an grffi C/C+r program. (10 Marks) b. What do you mean by passir1SftJe-descriptorq$$riben processes? Explain. (10 Marks) ti' , ,^( - i!" " ,/ r Wlt4* * * V" r- _- "d' 'r,.5. -(;- pr()-- "1".. t ,, .1' ) ;ds ,a ..-,,]t -- /r(/r- '1 -oU / ; l*" ..,- / i*1 .11 . '. 2 of2
    • USN 06cs62 (06 Marks) following code segment and explain the (10 Marks) (08 Marks) (08 Marks) (04 Marks) Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June/July 2013 E {}e -- Ee q= Eq -o =a-5ca E: rJ< -i ..i z ts o E 2a. b. c. Bring out the usefuhess of major and minor device numbers. MI won by 98 runs. Update this information to the file. With programming snippets, demonstrate i) Lock promotion ii) lock splitting iii) dead locks. Explain "dirfile" class for directory files. UNIX Systems Programming Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks:100 Note: Answer FIYE full questions, selecting atleast TWO questions from each parl. PART-A I u. Alisha and Soumyaskee have arguments on whether ANSI C or K & RC is better respectively who is right? Justify with examples. (0E Marks) 6. Write C++ programs to i) Print its filename and number of lines in the source code ii) To find out actual implemented configuration limits on max length of path name, filename and number of links a file may have. (08 Marks) .. Substantiate the following statements 0 [INIX APIs can perform various fuhctions ii) Few UNIX conventions have diff'erent meanings according to POSIX standards. (04 Marks) (04 Marks) Differentiate : i) Stream pointers and file descriptors ii) Symbolic links and hard links. Demonstrate the UNIX kernel suppon lor the updation of data structures void main( ) 1 int fdl, fd2, ft13 fdl - open ("fl.c", O-RDONLY,0); 1i12 : open ("2.c", O - RDWR, 0); I seek (fdl, 8, SEEK - END) ; write (fc12, "virus", 5) ; fd3 : dup (fd1); fork( ); close (fcl1); close (fd2); I I 3 a. Consider the following cricket data base related to IPL. Team Won Lost RCB 3 0 MI 2 I RR 1 2 DD 0 J Write this information into a file "ipl.dot" using file APIs. In the match between MI and DD, c. 1of3
    • 4a. b. With a diagram, explain the memory layout of a C program. Find out the error in the following code segment and rectiflz the same : 06cs62 (07 Marks) int fl (int val) { int * prt ; if(val : : 0) { int val I val : 555 : ptr=&val; ) ..:. I retum (* plr.+ 1) ; ) (03 Marks) c. "Handling errdr qo4ditions that occur in a deeply nested function call requires a nonlocal goto" - substanftiie.. What is the effect of complier_ aptimization on global, static and automatic variables, dftlr a "long jmp". (06 Marks) d. A professor in a class wr'ltes down two statements on black board "know your environment" "some lines should never be crossed". He asks the students to correlate them with reference to processes. Give the solutions. (04 Marks) PA_RI.:B 5 a. Find out the error in the follbwing code segment and rectify the same int main( ) (.I .. pid tpid; ,'..' mkfifo C'fifol", S IRWXU); int ftl: open ("fifol", O_RDWR); pid = vfork( ); if (p,id::0); l,I read (ftl, buf, sizeof(bu|) ; exir(0) ; ) else{ wair (NULL) ; write (ftI, "problem', 6) ; ) ) With neat sketch, differentiate terminal and network login. Write a program to generate process accounting data. c. d. b. Give the prototlpes of all wait( ) functions and list atleast one unique feature of each. (04 Marks) (04 Marks) (06 Marks) (06 Marks) 2 of3
    • 06cs62 6 a. Write a program to implement "Encounter specialist" that is known for killing any specified plocess. (05 Marks) Classifl, the following signals as user, kernel and process driven signals stating the reasons for each ; SIG TERM, SIGPIPE, SIGSEGV and SIGUSR."BSD UNIX signal handlingis umeliable" - substantiate. (06 Nrr'rki, Maanya wants to send a "birthday" message to her friend after t hr from now. Implernent this scenario using "Timers". (0SMarks) Give the coding rules for a daemon process. (04 Marks) . , . 'i Discuss the applications of FIFOs. I (04 Marks) Write an IPC program, in which a parent process sends the message 'thannel - No 7" and child proceqs,replies with'NDTV - Imagine". Implement this scenario u.h8 pip"i;r rrrur) What is socket? With irea-t.diagram explain socket API calling sequence for server and client iiil3t;n". notes on: (toMarks) i) Oul of band data ii) Asynchronous I/O and nonblocking. (10 Marks) -.....,., ; ***** '...: r:1. 'il" , - ' b. d. b. c. 8a. b. 3 of3
    • USN 10cs63 Max. Marks:100 (06 Marks) (04 Marks) (07 Marks) (03 Marks) string "acdb", also explain recmsive (07 Marks) (08 Marks) Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June/July 2013 o. E I. .it 39 ;rl _-t Etr aq :s-t o) 'ia o-6. 5d (r= 'El (r< ...i .i o z E E (08 Marks) (12 Marks) (04 Marks) (04 Marks) Gompiler Design Time: 3 hrs. Note: Answer FIVE full questions, selecting ot leqst TWO questions from each part PART-A I a. Explain three types of software productivity tools. b. Define sentinels. Give lookahead code with sentinels. c. Enlist algebraic laws for regular expressions. d. Give transition diagram for unsigned numbers. 2 a. Write an algorithm to eliminate left rgcursion from a grammar, also give the syntax of the production. (05 Marks) 6. Consider the production: S -+ aAb A -+ cd/C. Show that recursive-descent parsing fails for the input descent algorithm. c. Find First and Follow for the given grammars: i) stmt_sequence -) stmt stmt_sequetce' stmt_sequence' -) ; stmt sequence/€ stmt -) s ii) S -+,GH; G-+aF F -+ bF/e H-+KL K -+ m/e L -+ nJe a. What axe two types ofconflicts during shift reduce parsing? Give examples. (04 Marks) b. ForthegivengrammarE+E+r/n.ConstructparsingtabteofLL(1).Verify3+4+5and show each step ofverification with reference to parsing table. (08 Marks) c. How to verifu whether grammar is LL(1) or not? Show that: S -+ AaAb/BbBa A-+e B-+e is LL (1), without constructing any table. 4 a. Construct the DFA of LR(0) items and SLR parsing table for the grammar: Stmt sequence -+ stmt_sequence; stmt/stmt Stmt + S Identifu Kernel and non Kemal items in state I+. b. Discuss the behaviour of the LR parser. c. For the grarnmar A -+ (A)ia, construct LR(l) set of items. 1of2
    • 5 .:. a.., 6 10cs63 PART_B a. Write annotated parse tree for 3x5 + 4n using Top down approach. Write semantic rules for each step. (08 Marks) b. Discuss S-attributes and L-attributes with respect to SDD (Syntax Directed Definition). (04 Marks) s. By considering an array type intt3]t3], write syntax directed translation with semantic rules. (08 Marks) a. '-€rrlist any four common tkee address instruction forms. (04 Marks) b. -.Dafine quandruples, triples and static single assignment form. (06 Marks) c. lf1fud.,syntax directed definition for flow ofcontrol statements. (10 Marks) a. Write dl'rrersion of quick sort, in ML style using the nested functions. Give any four additional {biitiues of ML. (08 Marks) b. "Most prograirii€xhibit a high degree of locality", explain the- statement. (05 Marks) c. "Garbage collecti@is seldom used in real time applications", justifl, the statement. How language design af&Q!s, the characteristics of memory 1s4ge . (07 Marks) a. How register allocationiiil,evaluation order plays dn important role in a code generation? Discuss. (06 Marks) b. Write an intermediate code to set d 10 x lO.mtrtrii to an identity matrix. (10 Marks) c. Define flow graph. How it is construc!-ed? -. (04 Marks) ,-.,.. - i***h* ,.'..,], ':' 2of2
    • I]SN 10cs64 (08 Marks) t = 2,3, 6,9, 11, 16,23, content and identify any (08 Marks) (04 Marks) (08 Marks) (08 Marks) (04 Marks) (08 Marks) (08 Marks) (04 Marks) (08 Marks) (08 Marks) (04 Marks) Time: !] 'ri [la. :D. d L. 9.' t9 o; D. ': + a u= J a. _.: h ?^ c. 6* 4 a. =5 b. OE E^, :,ts I a. 5i3 D. 9'= ats s. 5(! ,; a $ a- ;3 hi, (E g; t a. o= n E3 :1 8 a. .. b. _9 C. E to Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June/July 2013 Gomputer Networks ll 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 100 Note: Answer FIVE full questions, selecting at least Tll/O questions from each part. PART_A Differentiate between connection-oriented and connectionless services. (04 Marks) Explain and derive delays in datagram packet switching. (08 Marks) Define routing algorithm. Explain the Bellman-Ford algorithm with an example. (08 Marks) Explain the FIFO and priority queue scheduling for managing traffrc at packet level. Suppose that ATM cells arrive at a leaky bucket policer at times 24,25,26 and 30. Assume I = 4 and L : 6. Plot:the bucket non-con lorming cells. Write a note on traffic management at the flow aggregate level. Explain the format of IPV4 format header. With a neat diagram, explain UDP dalagram. Write a note on intemet control message protocol (ICMP). With a neat diagram. explain the format of the TCP segment. Explain the Border Cateway Protocol 1BCP.1. Write a note on Network Address Translation (NAT). ,.::ri PART - B Explain the remote login protocols. Explain the RSA algorithm with an example. Write a note on fuewals. With a neat diagram, explain the integrated services QoS. (08 Marks) Explain multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) operation and packet format. (08 Marks) . Write a note on virtual private networks. (04 Marks) List and explain the compression methods without loss. (08 Marks) Wilh a neat diagram. explain the session inilialion prorocol 1SIP.1. (08 Marks) Write a note on real-time media transport protocols. /.,,:a;--|a:,,..,,., (04 Marks) Briefly explain the classification of routing protocol. ' ,. ,;o (06 Marks) Explain the DEEP clustering algorithm. , - .-.. (06 Marks) Explain the intracluster and-inte-rcluster routing protocols.' (Oe N4"rt .)
    • I]SN 06cs63 Max. Marks:100 (10 Marks) (04 Marks) (06 Marks) (04 Marks) (06 Marks) (10 Marks) (06 Marks) (10 Marks (05 Marks) (10 Marks) (05 Marks) Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June/July 2013 Time: 3 hrs. J> Yo) =i 6 .9. 6= 9:- ^: E= o- :: 9< -..i ..i z o E 1a. b. c. 2a. b. 5a. b. 4a. b. PART - B Describe S-attributed and L-attributed definitions. (04 Marks) Define syntax-directed definition. Write the syntax-directed definition for simple desk calculator and give annotated parse tree for the expression (7 - 2) x (8 - 1)n. (10 Marks) Explain any two syntax-directed translation schemes. (06 Marks) Gompiler Design Note: Answer FIVE fall questions, selecting at least TIItO questions from each part. PART-A Explain the different phases of compiler, with a block diagram. How is input buffering of lexical analyzer implemented? Construct transition diagrams for the following: i) Relop ii) Identifier iii) Unsigned number Explain any two error-recovery stralegies in parser. Consider the fbllowing grammar: E-+rlE+ElExEl(E) I-+a blla Ib I0 lIl i) Check whether the grammar is ambiguous or not for the given input string w : a * b + a. ii) Ifambiguous construct an equivalent unambiguous grarnmar. c. Construct LL( 1) parsing table for the grammar given below: E-+E+TlT T+id+Tlid during shift-reduce parsing. c. Construct SLR(l) parsing table for the following gralnmar: S+SAA A-+a Write an algorithm for constructing LR(1) items. Construct LALR( 1) parsing table for the following grammar: S-+CC C-+cCd c. Briefly explain Yacc generator. 3 a. Define bottom-up parsing. Check the acceptance of the input string "bbb+b++" for the grammar: E-+EE+lEE*lb (04 Marks) b Explain different actions in shift-reduce parser with an example. Also describe the conflicts 1 of 2
    • 6 a. Briefly explain different types of intermediate codes, with the expressior; a:=b*_c+b*_c. b. Corstruct a DAG for the expression given below: ((x + y) - ((x + y)) {, (x - y)))+ ((x + y) * (x - y)) 06cs63 (12 Marks) (04 Marks) (04 Marks) (08 Marks) , (06 Marks) ' (06 Marks) Give SDTS (Syntax-Directed Translation scheme) for switch-statement. b.",:j$gt is Garbage collector? Design goals for garbage collector. c. Biid.Sy explain activation records. Explain the concept ofheap management. Give the memory hierarchy ofa computer. a. What'ar6i6dsic blocks? Write an algorithm for panitioning into basib blocks. (06 Marks) b. Explain code $neration algorithm. Generate the code for the following expression: w = (a - b)'1,(a - c) + (a - c) (lo Marks) c. Briefly explain Ge$eg function. (04 Marks) 'r':l!' .'-:': . r *.k {.,t !k '." .: 1 t-'a- . . . r .l . r.,.t- ' .., 2 of2
    • USN 06cs64 (06 Marks) (10 Marks) (04 Marks) (10 Marks) (04 Marks) (06 Marks) , (06 Marks) (10 Marks) (04 Marks) (10 Marks) (08 Marks) (08 Marks) (04 Marks) (10 Marks) : (I0 Marks) Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June/July 2013 Gomputer Networks - ll Time: 3 hrs. Max. Marks:100 PART-A I a. Explih virtual circuit pu"ket s*itchEfrlo-rg*ith delays and routing tables. (08 Marks) b. Explaiii.hierarchical and deflection routing. (08 Marks) c. What are thc drawbacks of leaky bucket algorithm? Explain how token bucket algorithm eliminates thoiie drawbacks (04 Marks) 2 a. With neat diagram, explain IPV4 header'format. . : (06 Marks) b. What is ARP? Explain.,working principle of ARP. (04 Marks) c. What is fragmentation? What are the causes for fragmentation? (04 Marks) d. What is subnetting and subnet masking? Explain subnet addressing for class B networks. i,...'. (06 Marks) 3 a. Explain the following related to IPV6. : Note: Answer FIVE full questions, selecting at leost TWO questions from each parl E .=A i.) ..a) o.a Eg 5d qE olo 6= i-.) < -.i ..i o Z o i) Network addressing ii) Extension headers. b. With neat diagram. explain lormat of TCP segment. c. What are the functionalities of BGP? 4 a. Describe working of AAL % process. b. List any lour source traffic descriptor parameters. c. Wrile a note on: i) ATM addressing iD LrNI sigrnlling PART_B 5 a. With neat diagram, explain three components of network management architecture. a. b. c. 6 t' 7 8 a. What is VPN? What are its beneflts, explain remote-access and site-to-site VPN. (10 Marks) b. What are the QOS methods in integrated service? Explain admission control and RSVP b. Briefly explain DES algorithm. c. What is key distribution center and certificate authority? protocols. Explain DCT, quantization and encoding in JPEG process. Explain in brief, H.323 protocol. Write a note on CDN. a. Explain DSDV and WRP in Ad-hoc network. b. With neat diagram, explain sensor node structure.
    • ::-: . 'Time 3 hrs. USN 1a. b. c. 2a. b. 3a. b. c. 10rs665 (09 Marks) (06 Marks) (04 Marks) (09 Marks) (10 Marks- ) (10 Marks). ' (10 Marks) (10 Marks) Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June / July 2013 Gomputer Graphics and Visualizations Max. Marks:100 PART_A E b9p .9.n ra(J AE o. h'j E: 9< -..i ..i o z a Note: Artswer any FIVE full questions, selecting atleast TWO question from each part. Discuss the graphics pipeline architecture, with the help of a furrctional schematic diagram. '.' (10 Marks) With neat diad&m, explain the human visual system. (06 Marks) Briefly explain anylyo applications of'computer graphics. (04 Marks) With a neat diagranr, d.jscuss the color formation. dxplain the additive and subtractive colors, Indexed color and'color solid concept. . . (ll Marks) Discuss the request mode, sample moile anC event modes, with figures wherever required. (10 Marks) ', a. Explain modeling a color.cUti in detail. 't, .: (10 Marks) b. Explain Affrne transformations. ,..: (10 Marks) PART-B -''.-.'.. a. What are Quafsrnious? With an example, explain its mathemaiidaliepresentations. (10 Marks) b. Explairn.the basic transformation in 3D and represent in matrix form. (10 Marks) a. Withireat sketches, explain the various type of views that are employed in -computer graphic .'Systems. (l I Marks) b.r' Derive equations for perspective projections and describe the specifications ofa.perspective List out different open GL primitives, giving e.*ample for each. Write a program to draw a rotaling square. List the various features that a good ilrtqractive program should include. camera view in open GL. Explain phong lighting model. Indicate the advantages and disadvantages. How is approximation ofa sphere done by recursive subdivision? Explain Liang Barsky line clipping algorithm in detail. Explain the Cohen - Sutherlans line clipping algorithm in detail. , '.t, , : a. b. a. b. 6 ... 7 8
    • USN 06cs6s (06 Marks) (06 Marks) (04 Marks) (10 Marks) (09 Marks) (06 Marks) (05 Marks) (06 Marks) (08 Marks) (06 Marks) (06 Marks) (08 Marks) Sixth Semester B.E. Degree Examination, June/July 2013 Time: i oi .9 Ela. dL 44. F"a 3 a. 9* ;E b. tz c. -i Es 4 a. =b b. o'E =L -a'i o 9" 5 a. d.g b. 5.: ;5 7,9 6 a. E; b. -:o E3 :o I A- .? h- t< ; 2 8a. 5 c. How are projections supported by openGl-? Discuss. (06 Marks) . Explain z-buffer algorithm, with its pseudo code. What is the role of "culling" in this What do you mean by 'aliashing'? Explain the technique to overcome this effect. (04 Marks) Explain Cohen-Sutherland line clipping algorithm. Illustrate two cases. (08 Marks) Discuss Bresenham's line rasterization algorithm. (08 Marks) Gomputer Graphics and Visualization 3 hrs. Max. Marks:100 Note: Answer FIYE full questions, selecting at ledst TWO questions from each part. , PART-A Whai is co-put"r Graphics? Discuss the applications of computer graphics. (06 Marks) Expkii:irite elements of a graphics system, with a neat diagram. (08 Marks) Explain different graphics architectures. (06 Marks) Explain the mir!{r groups of openGl functions. (07 Marks) Discuss additive colof model, subtractive color model andcolor solid. (06 Marks) Write an openGl recursive program for generating 3D Sierpinski gaskel. where view volume is 500 x 500 x 500. (07 Marks) What are the two major characteristics that describe logical behavior of input devices? Explain the various classes of l6gital devices. (08 Marks) What are the various input modes? Discuss. Enlist the various features that a good interactive program should include. Explain "Point-vector addition' and "Homogenqous Coordinates". Discuss modeling ofa color cube. Give suitable data structures. algorithm? Explain the classification of light-material interaction, in openGl. Explain the various methods of shading a polygonal mesh. Explain the different tlpes oflight sources supported by openGl. Explain bilinear interpglation method of assigning colors to points, inside a flat quadrilateral. r...:., o6 Marks) PART - B Discuss the basic 3-D transformations in homogeneous coordihbte system. How does openGl support transformations? Explain. What are Quatemions? Discuss how quaternions are used in 3-D rotation. Differentiate parallel projection from perspective projection.