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Copyright 2012-15 © Sunmitra Education Technologies Limited, India
Programming Fundamentals with
OOPs concept
(Java Exampl...
OUTLINE
Programming Concepts
Programming Logic
Program Running
Components of a Program
Programming Paradigms
Structu...
Programming Concepts - 1
 Computer Programming: It is a
predefined way of telling the
computer that what task is to be
pe...
Programming Concepts - 2
 Computer Languages (Full-Fledged):
High Level Programming Languages:
Usually English Like Instr...
Programming Concepts - 3
 Computer Languages (Specific
Purpose):
Formatting and Interface Languages:
Languages made prima...
Programming Logic and Algorithm
 Logic/Algorithm: Formulation
Involved in performing a task. For e.g.
◦ Fahrenheit to Cel...
Program Running
 Interpretation:
◦ Process of parsing the program instructions
one by one so that it directly produces th...
Programming Instruction Types (Based on Its Purpose)
 The Primary Purposes of
Programming Instructions are.
◦ To take Inp...
/* A Sample Java Program */
package com.mycom.app
import java.util.Scanner;
public class Tokens
{
public static final Stri...
Programming Terms
 Statements: The actions that a program takes
are expressed as Statements. It is usually
considered as ...
Programming Paradigms
 Declarative: What computation should be
performed and not how to compute it.
 Imperative (requiri...
Structured Programming Models
 Procedural: Grouping of series of
instructions as a procedure (routine, function,
subrouti...
Object Oriented Programming
 Class: A template definition of data items(properties) and
actions(Methods). For example the...
Instance Creation Example
 In a real programming situation instances
(objects) are often created by using the "new"
keywo...
OOPS - Inheritance
 Inheritance: One can observe that
even the template definitions have
more definitions of categories w...
Inheritance Example
 In a real programming situation inheritance is often done using the
extends keyword (in java).
 Inh...
OOPS: Polymorphism
 Polymorphism: Values of different data types to be handled using a uniform
interface . For e.g. if we...
Polymorphism Example
 In a real programming situation polymorphism is often implemented
using difference in argument coun...
OOPS – Encapsulation & Abstraction
 Encapsulation: It is the way where actual methodology of
achieving a result is hidden...
OOPS – Encapsulation & Abstraction
 Abstraction: In previous example we can see that user is
only required to know about ...
Bibliography
 http://www.landofcode.com
 http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java
 http://www.javatpoint.com/
 http://docs.o...
THANK YOU…
 Ask me and guide me at
sunmitraeducation@gmail.com.
 Share this information with as many people
as possible....
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Programming Fundamentals With OOPs Concepts (Java Examples Based)

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This presentation gives you various types of programming models, A clear concept of object oriented languages, Classes and Object Concept, Different types of programming paradigms, program tokens, statements, expressions, Concepts of Inheritance, Encapsulation, Abstraction, Polymorphism, Interface etc.

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Programming Fundamentals With OOPs Concepts (Java Examples Based)

  1. 1. Copyright 2012-15 © Sunmitra Education Technologies Limited, India Programming Fundamentals with OOPs concept (Java Examples Based) "Fun of programming doubles if the fundamentals are crystal clear."
  2. 2. OUTLINE Programming Concepts Programming Logic Program Running Components of a Program Programming Paradigms Structured Programming Object Oriented Programming Inheritance Interfaces Polymorphism Interface Encapsulation and Abstraction Bibliography
  3. 3. Programming Concepts - 1  Computer Programming: It is a predefined way of telling the computer that what task is to be performed. It is the implementation part of the activity of "SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT"  Computer Program: It is a set of sequence of instructions, that a computer will understand and try to execute. One or a related set of computer programs may be called a "COMPUTER SOFTWARE"
  4. 4. Programming Concepts - 2  Computer Languages (Full-Fledged): High Level Programming Languages: Usually English Like Instruction set with a power to build application logic. Usually have an extremely strict syntax rules. e.g. C, Java, C++, C# etc. Low Level Programming Languages: Set of Hardware related Mnemonics for direct control over processing and input/output functions. E.g. Assembly Language
  5. 5. Programming Concepts - 3  Computer Languages (Specific Purpose): Formatting and Interface Languages: Languages made primarily for the purpose of User side rendering of information. E.g. HTML, DHTML, XML Etc. Data Query Languages: Languages to get and post to structured system of records called a database. SQL etc. Data Definition Languages: Languages to define properties of Data or any type of content items. E.g. XML Schema (XSD), SQL-DDL (create table etc.)
  6. 6. Programming Logic and Algorithm  Logic/Algorithm: Formulation Involved in performing a task. For e.g. ◦ Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion Formula. ◦ Writing of Data in a file one character at a time or one block at a time. ◦ Compression of image file to a smaller size file. ◦ Method of following a protocol such as the HTTP protocol. Usually these words are interchangeably used but the word algorithm is more suitable for specific tasks which has a mathematical model . e.g. image compression is more appropriately called algorithm while writing to a file may just be called a simple logic.
  7. 7. Program Running  Interpretation: ◦ Process of parsing the program instructions one by one so that it directly produces the desired output. ◦ For e.g. JavaScript is interpreted at the browser to run the given functionality. ◦ Errors in the program code are caught at the time of running the program and are likely hinder application workflow.  Compilation: ◦ Process of parsing the program instructions in one go and produce an intermediate file that can be directly run by the host system. ◦ Errors are required to be removed before compilation is successfully completed. ◦ Application workflow is usually not hindered as basic errors are removed initially. Only unexpected input conditions produce errors.
  8. 8. Programming Instruction Types (Based on Its Purpose)  The Primary Purposes of Programming Instructions are. ◦ To take Input. ◦ To give Output ◦ To perform operations. ◦ To run a program section based on a condition selection. ◦ To repeat a section of code based on condition.  Think that a computer is a generic machine that can emulate other machines based on the program it runs. INPUT OUTPUT OPERATE SELECTION REPETITION
  9. 9. /* A Sample Java Program */ package com.mycom.app import java.util.Scanner; public class Tokens { public static final String s = "Java"; public static void main(String[ ] args) { int i; int sum = 0; int num ; Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter a no."); num = in.nextInt(); for (i = 1; i<= num; i++) { sum = sum + i; } System.out.println("Summation of "+num +" is :" +sum); } } Keywords: The instruction word used in a certain language. For eg. public, class, int, for, static, final, void, while etc. Literals: User provided strings or numbers etc. Literals do not change.Operators: Things like =,+, -, *, /, I , &, ++, ^ etc. Identifiers: User defined data item, function or class names etc. Separators: Things like { }, ( ), [ ] , ; etc. Comments: Text not to be processed. Programming Components (Tokens)
  10. 10. Programming Terms  Statements: The actions that a program takes are expressed as Statements. It is usually considered as one full instruction step to be executed at a time. ◦ Declaration and Assignment (int a=0;) ◦ Expression (area = 3.14*(radius*radius); ) ◦ Selection or Iteration (if, switch, do, for etc.) ◦ Jump (break, continue, return etc.)  Expressions: A sequence of one or more operands and zero or more operators that can be evaluated to a single output. ◦ ((x<10)&&(x>5))||((x > 20)&&(x < 25))
  11. 11. Programming Paradigms  Declarative: What computation should be performed and not how to compute it.  Imperative (requiring attention): That define sequence of tasks to control flow of computational algorithm. ◦ Non-Structured: Allows Jumping randomly by line numbers or labels. E.g. Basic, Assembly, Cobol, Batch Files. ◦ Structured: Use only sequence, selection(condition) or iteration(loop) methods to provide instructions. E.g. C, C#, Java etc.
  12. 12. Structured Programming Models  Procedural: Grouping of series of instructions as a procedure (routine, function, subroutine, method, module) that can be called from multiple places to undertake the same task again.  Object Oriented: Allows to define templates generally called classes, similar to real life definitions that encapsulates various properties and methods. For. E.g. real life template “CAR” would mean properties like: Colour, Body Style, Fuel Type and Methods like: Driving( ), Changing Gears( ), Opening( ) Doors etc.  The physical interpretations like MARUTI- ALTO, HONDA-CITY, HUNDAI-SANTRO, TATA-NANO are understood as the objects of the class CAR. Thus the name has been given as object oriented programming or OOP.
  13. 13. Object Oriented Programming  Class: A template definition of data items(properties) and actions(Methods). For example the diagram of a CAR or map of Building can be a real world metaphor to a class.  Object: The physical item based on the class definition is an object. For Example the real CAR or actual Building would be an Object. So one can say Objects are instances of Class.  It is clear that one can have any number of instances as the physical space permits. NOTE: Although OBJECTS are physical entities and CLASSES are simply templates, still OOPs concepts allow realisation(instance creation) of objects within a class as well.
  14. 14. Instance Creation Example  In a real programming situation instances (objects) are often created by using the "new" keyword.  Instances which are now called objects can directly call any method of the class. 14 public class Book{ public int bookNum; public void setNum(int Num){ bookNum =Num;} public static void main(String[ ] args){ Book myBook=new Book(); //Instance Creation myBook.setNum(2); //Calling method from the Instance System.out.println("Num of book:"+myBook.bookNum); //Using variable from the instance } }
  15. 15. OOPS - Inheritance  Inheritance: One can observe that even the template definitions have more definitions of categories within a template. For . E.g. Definition of a "Car" can be the main template and Definition of a "Small_Car" will be as such a category with in "Car" .  It is clear that the definition of a "Small_Car" will have all the definition items included in the definition of a "Car" . So we can say that class "Small_Car" can be inherited from its parent class "Car" . More properties may follow in the definition of "Small_Car" Class Car Class Car Class Small_Car Class Big_Car
  16. 16. Inheritance Example  In a real programming situation inheritance is often done using the extends keyword (in java).  Inherited classes are called the sub-class or child class, while the class above is called super class or parent class. 16 public class Inheri{ public static void main(String[] args){ CopyBook cb = new CopyBook(); cb.setNum(4); System.out.println("Book Number: "+cb.bookNum); System.out.println("Blank Pages: "+cb.blankPages); } } class Book{ //Parent Class public int bookNum; public void setNum(int Num){ bookNum =Num;} } class CopyBook extends Book { //Child Class public int blankPages=100; } child class can use variable or method from a parent class as well as its own class.
  17. 17. OOPS: Polymorphism  Polymorphism: Values of different data types to be handled using a uniform interface . For e.g. if we assume footControl( ) to be method in the class CAR then this method can actually be behaving in a polymorphic manner if the data parameter types are different, a clutch, a brake or an accelerator. Class CAR { property wheelSize; Method footControl(pedal clutch) { Detach Engine Rotor from Wheel Rotation Rod; } Method footControl(pedal brake) { Initiate Brake Fluid to Brake Drum; } Method footControl(pedal clutch, pedal accelerator) { Control Speed of the Car; } } //polymorphism can be based on parameter types or number of parameters
  18. 18. Polymorphism Example  In a real programming situation polymorphism is often implemented using difference in argument count or argument type  Polymorphism is another name of method overloading which can be used for a method or for an operator (assuming it to be a special case of method only as add(a,b) ). 19 public class Area { static int QArea(int s){return s*s;}//1 int argument static int QArea(int l, int b){return l*b;}//2 int args static float QArea(float s){return s*s;}//1 float arg public static void main(String args[]){ System.out.println("Square Area:"+QArea(5)); System.out.println("Rectangle Area:"+QArea(5,4)); System.out.println("Square Area (f):"+QArea(3.1f)); } } Here QArea is a polymorphic or overloaded method with different number of arguments and argument types.
  19. 19. OOPS – Encapsulation & Abstraction  Encapsulation: It is the way where actual methodology of achieving a result is hidden from the external world users. For e.g. we can define a class CAR as follows. Class CAR { property colour; Method Steering(turn) { if turn is anticlockwise make the front wheel go left; if turn is clockwise make the front wheel go right; } } Here we see that method Steering( ) is actually hidden behind the class CAR and details of the method are hidden to the external world and whenever the designer wants he can change the design of achieving the goal of turning the steering handle. This is called ENCAPSULATION.
  20. 20. OOPS – Encapsulation & Abstraction  Abstraction: In previous example we can see that user is only required to know about turning the steering and he is not required to bother about internal system of turning a wheel. So we can call the method Steering is as such an ABSTRACT method made by ENCAPSULATING the action that is taken when turning is done. The purpose of an abstract method would be distinctly different from any other method of the class CAR. The purpose we achieve out by encapsulation is called ABSTRACTION.  In Java, one can also use abstract keyword with a class to indicate that it contains some methods that are abstract, which contain only the declaration of method and not the body of method.
  21. 21. Bibliography  http://www.landofcode.com  http://www.tutorialspoint.com/java  http://www.javatpoint.com/  http://docs.oracle.com/
  22. 22. THANK YOU…  Ask me and guide me at sunmitraeducation@gmail.com.  Share this information with as many people as possible.  Keep visiting www.sunmitra.com for programme updates.

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