Project Report on Fish farmingPrepared byDurgesh Rajendra Shivade107PG D ABMfish farming in MaharashtraA fish model has been evolved for the agro-climatic environment, like that of Palampur valley in Distt.raighad. In this model, 3 species of exotic carps (Grass carp, Silver carp, Mirror carp) have beenrecommended to the farmers which is based on their growth performance, adaptability and other eco-biological parameters that have been investigated thoroughly.The pre-requisite for the fish farming is the availability of perennial water. As such the fish farmingin the hilly region may be practiced in the watershed areas, along the streams and river banks or anyplace where the water supply is assured either by irrigational channel or lift irrigation schemeSelection of siteFor fish culture such a site should be selected where the water is available through aregular source like spring, river, channel, etc. or even water¬logged land may be reclaimedfor this purpose. The soil should not be completely sandy but should be a mixture of sandand clay so that it has the capacity of retain¬ing the water. Alkaline soils are always betterfor good growth of fish. Before construction of pond, the physico-chemical properties of soilshould be tested.Construction of ponds:
The size and shape of the pond depends upon the availability of land and type ofproduction. For an economically viable project, the minimum size of pond should not be lessthan 300 sq.m and1.5 m deep. A typical pond should have an inlet for the entry of waterfixed with wire mesh so as to prevent the entry of unwanted indigenous fauna and an outletfor overflow of excess water fixed with wire mesh to prevent the exit of stocked spe¬cies.There should be a drain pipe at the bottom of pond and a harvesting pit to facilitate theharvesting and to dry the pond from time to time. The sides or dykes of the pond should bewell compacted, sloppy and planted with grasses or herbs to protect them from erosion. Thegullies and watershed area can also be converted into pond by raising an earthen dam.Preparation of ponds(i) Liming:Liming of the pond is necessary to eradicate the harmful insects, micro-organisms, torender soil alkaline and provide calcium to the growing fish. If soil is not acidic, the limecan be used at the rate of 25 g per sq m and if soil is acidic, increase the quantity of lime by50%. After broadcasting of lime in whole tank, it must be left dry for 4 days to one week.(ii) Manuring:Manuring is done with the objective to increase the plankton biomass, which form thenatural food of the fish. The rate of manure depends on the fertility status of soil. Theorganic manure such as cow dung is used @ 20 tones/ha i.e. 2 kg per sq m area in the midhill region. Initial manuring is to be done with 50% of total required manure andsubsequently the rest 50% should be used in the equal monthly installments. Fill the tankwith water just after manuringStocking:Judicious selection of compatible fast growing species is of vital importance inmaximizing fish production. A combination of three species viz. mirror carp, grass carpand silver carp fulfills the species selection requirements and this model has proven to bethe ideal combina¬tion for sub-temperate region of the State. Of these, mirror carp is abottom feeder, grass carp is a macro-vegetation feeder and silver carp is surface feeder.Species ratio:Selection of species ratio generally depends upon the local condi¬tions, seedavailability, nutrient status of pond, etc. The species ratio in the recommended model forZone II is - 2 mirror carp : 2 grass carp : 1 silver carpStocking details
Rate of stocking usually depends on the fertility of the pond and the measures adoptedto increase its bio¬logical productivity by manuring, artifi¬cial feeding, monitoring ofgrowth and maintaining good health of fish. The rate of stocking recommended for this zoneis 15,000 fingerlings per ha. with artificial feeding. It is good to stock the ponds withfingerlings of 40-60 mm size for better survival and higher production. It is better to stockthe pond after 15 days of manuring in early hours of day or in the evening. The cloudy dayor warmer part of day is to be avoided for stocking.Supplementary feeding:The level of natural food organisms in the fish culture ponds can not be maintained to therequired extent even after manuring. Hence, supplementary feeding with diet rich inprotein, carbohydrates and fats is essential for higher rate of fish growth. The ingredientsgenerally used for artificial feeding are groundnut oil cake and wheat bran in the ratio of1:1. Feed should be preferably provided in the form of pellets or bowls @ 2% of the totalbiomass and feed them by hand at different places in the ponds so that all the fishesmust get uniform quantity of feed for their uniform growth.Grass carps are to be fed with chopped succulent grass or discarded vegetable leaves.Kitchen refuse can also be used as supplementary feed for fish culture.A practical feed formula which is in practice at Fish Farm, CSK Himachal PradeshAgricultural University is given below:Ingredients (%) QtyFish meal 10 1.0 kgWheat bran 50 5.0kgGroundnut cake 38 3.8 kgDCP 2 0.2 kgSupplevit-M 0.5 0.05 kgSupplementary feeding @ 2-3% is necessary for better yield per unit area since the naturalproductivity of water in this zone is very less.Monitoring of growth:Besides nutrients, the abiotic factors like temperature, salinity and photoperiodinfluence the growth of the fish. After 2 months of stocking, the 20% of the stock should beharvested so as to evaluate the growth per month as well as to calculate the correct amountof feed to be supplied daily. Later on, this practice is to be repeated every month till the fish
stops artificial feed¬ing. Based on research data generated at Fish Farm HPKV, Palampur, itis seen that the fishes attain their growth during 8 productive months (i.e. middle of Marchto middle of November) under the existing climatic conditions. During four winter months(i.e. middle of November to middle of March), there is no growth. As such thesupplementary feed is to be given during the eight productive months. The results in termsof production efficiency of afore¬said model is computed as high as 5 tones per ha per year.HarvestingHarvesting is conveniently done either by drag netting or by cast netting (useful for smallponds) or by draining the pond. Supplementary feeding is stopped a day before the dateof harvesting. Har¬vesting is done during cool morning hours as per the demand ofmarket. For this region, the best time of harvesting is December and January which arenon-produc¬tive months for fish farming. The prefera¬ble time of stocking is mid ofMarch or first week of April. In this way the four non-productive winter months can beuti¬lised for the renovation, desilting and preparation of ponds.Calender for fish farmingJanuary:(i) Construction of tanks.(ii) Renovation of Ponds/tank which includes desilting and repairing of old tanks.February: Preparation of ponds(i) Liming: General rate 250 kg/ha or 25 g/sq m of water area.(ii) Manuring: After a week of liming, manuring should be done @ 20 tones/ha.Initially half of the total quantity and subsequently rest half in equal monthlyinstallments. For example 1 hectare area (10000 sq. m.) the total amount of manurerequired is 2000 kg i.e. 1000 kg to be applied in the beginning and rest to be applied @145 kg per month from March to October.(iii) Fill the pond with water just after manuring and leave it for 12-15 days.(iv) In case of old ponds, the unwanted weed fish, predatory fish and harmful insects etc.to be eradicated either manually or by poisoning the water.March to November:Stocking of ponds(i) Stocking should be done after 15 days of manuring when watercolour is green, whichis indicative of the presence of natural food in water. The cloudy day or warmer part ofthe day is to be avoided for stocking.(ii) Species to be stocked are common carp, grass carp and silver carps.
(iii) Species ratio- common carp 3:Grass carp 2: and silver carp 1.(iv) Stocking rate - 15,000 fingerlings/ha. For example 0.1 ha tank is to be stocked with1500 fingerlings, in the ratio of 750 common carp : 500 grass carp : 250 silver carp.(v) Stocking upto 15th March.Feeding:Feeding should be started after two days of stocking, at the rate of 3% of total biomass offish seed stocked, during first month i.e up to 15th of April. Subsequently the feeding rateshould be reduced to 2%. The chopped succulent grass should also be supplied to feed thegrass carp at lib. The feeding is to be done thrice daily.December:HarvestingHarvesting of table fish can be started w.e.f.15th of November on wards as per thedemand. There is no need of harvesting the entire stock at a time, this may be prolongedduring the three winter months as per the demand so as to get good price.