GROUP MEMBERS.Meela Upendo .J.Aldo Mwapinga .G.Mlay Francis .G.THE INTEGRATION OF FISH AND DUCKSFARMING
INTRODUCTIONIntegrated aquaculture is the concurrent orsequential linkage between two or more farmactivities, of which at least one is aquaculture.ORIs a combination of aquatic organisms (e.g. fishculture) with other forms of agriculture such aspoultry, piggery, duck rearing, cattle and goatrearing, in such a way that some of the byproductof this forms of agriculture that are considered aswastes can still be recycled for either direct orindirect consumption by fish.
INTROD CONT………..Integration systems- refer to the production,integrated management and comprehensive useof aquaculture, agriculture and livestock, with anemphasis on aquaculture.
INTRODUCTION CONT…….Advantages of integrating fish and ducksRaising ducks over fishponds fits very well with the fish polyculture system, as the ducks are highly compatible with cultivated fishes. The system is advantageous to farmers in many ways:
ADVANTAGES CONT……1. Ducks fertilize the pond by their droppings when given free range over the pond surface. Ducks have been termed as manuring machines for their efficient and labor-saving method of pond manuring, resulting in complete savings on pond fertilizer and supplementary fish feed which accounts for 60 percent of the total cost in conventional fish culture.
ADVANTAGES CONT………2. Ducks keep water plants in check.3. Ducks loosen the pond bottom with their dabbling and help in release of nutrients from the soil, which increase pond productivity.4. Ducks aerate the water while swimming; thus, they have been called «biological aerators.»
ADVANTAGES CONT……5.Duck houses are constructed on pond dikes; hence, no additional land is required for duckery activities.6. Ducks get most of their total feed requirements from the pond in the form of aquatic weeds, insects, larvae, earthworms, etc. They need very little feed, and farmers normally give kitchen wastes, molasses and rice bran, for the purpose.
WHY INTEGRATION To increase the productivity of water, land and associated resources while contributing to increased food fish production.
DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM1. Raising large groups of ducks in open waterThe ducks are generally let loose to allow free ranching in rivers, lakes and reservoirs during the day but are kept in pens at night. This method is advantageous to the large water body for promoting fish production. It also reduces inputs of animals and plant feeds. This method can be considered as an integrated management model for large water body development. But for those fish farms using fish ponds, this method of integration cannot effectively utilize the duck manure and the unconsumed or spilled feeds.
DESIGN CONT……..2. Raising ducks on pond shoreRelatively large duck pen is constructed on flat areas of pond shore with appropriate cemented area for dry and wet run. The duck manure and spilled feeds are flushed daily into the wet run. The dry and wet runs are being cleaned once a day. During cleaning, the sluice of the wet run is opened to allow organic manure being washed into the fish pond through a manure ditch. After this, the sluice is closed and fresh water is filled in the wet run. This method has the advantages for centralized management of fish-cum-duck farming and sharing of common facilities but is unable to fully utilize unconsumed feeds and undigested feed-stuff in duck manure as well as unable to take advantage of the “symbiotic” relationship of duck and fish.
DESIGN CONT………..Layout of the duck-fishpond system
DESIGN CONT………3. Raising ducks on surface of fish pondThis is the most uncommon method of integrated fish-cum-duck farming. The dikes of growout or two year old fingerling pond are partially fenced to form the dry run and part of the water area in the pond or the corner of the pond is fenced with used netting material to form the wet run. The ducks are hence reared at the surface of the pond. To economize the use of netting materials, the net-pen is installed 40–50 cm above and below water surface. In this way, fish can enter the wet run for food. In large-sized pond, a small “island” is constructed at the center of the pond for installation of feeding facilities. The stocking density currently practiced in China is higher than that practiced in other countries, averaging 4.5 individual/sq.m. of pen area including the dry run and 3–4 individual/sq.m. of wet run.
FISH AND DUCKS STOCKING DENSITYFISH AND DUCKS STOCKING DENSITYDucks are stocked at 200-300 ducklings/ha of fish pond. From duck excreta annual manure production is 45-55 kg/duck/yr, which besides fertilizing the fishponds and can be directly utilized as fish food. Apart from this, 10-20% feed/day/duck is wasted which is utilized in ponds. Duck dropping contains 81% moisture and 0.91% N and 0.38% P2O5.
STOKING DENSITY CONT…For culturing fish with ducks, it is advisable to release fish fingerlings of more than 10 cm size; otherwise the ducks may feed on the fingerlings. The stocking density of fingerlings also depends on the size of pond and number of ducks released in it. As the nitrogen-rich duck manure enhances both phyto- and zooplankton production, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp and zooplankton- feeding catla and common carp are ideal for duck-fish culture. The fish rearing period is generally kept as one year and under a stocking density of 20,000/ha, a fish production of 3,000-4,000 kg/ha/year has been obtained in duck-fish culture. In addition to this, eggs and duck- meat are also obtained in good quantity on an annual basis.
MANAGEMENT PRACTICESIn duck farming along with fish the following management practices are to be followed: Construction of duck house. Selection of duck for farming. Numbers of duck to be farmed. Housing of ducks. Feeding of ducks. Egg laying management. Health care. Production
MANAGEMENT CONT…..1. Construction of duck house.Since duck remains in the fish pond for the whole day therefore, there is no need of a big house for night shelter. Any unutilized house of fish farm can easily be converted to a duck house as night shelter. A low cost house can be constructed over the pond water surface or on the pond embankment using locally available materials like- bamboo, wood, etc.
MANAGEMENT CONT….Characteristics of a ducks houseDuck house should be made on the pond dyke or over the pond surface with the help of locally available material such as bamboo cane, thatches etc.In case of duck house over the pond surface, a small bamboo bridge is constructed from the duck house for feeding the ducks as well as for collecting eggs and duck from the house. Another bridge is constructed from the duck house to the pond surface for helping the ducks ascend or descend to pond water.Again duck house should be well ventilated for air circulation and exposed to direct sunlight. Periphery of the pond should be fenced for protection of ducks.Ducks are kept in duck house providing about 0.3-0.5 m2/bird. Again one male duck should be kept in every 5-6 female ducks. Ducklet especially up to 3-4 weeks old are very susceptible to disease, hence, care should be taken within this period.
MANAGEMENT CONT…….House of duck over the pond water surface can be constructed in 2 ways-1. Fixed house: Here in this system the duck house is constructed over the pond water surface using some wooden or bamboo made poles. The house in this system remains in the same place as it cannot move as mentioned in case of a moving house. So the duck droppings are falls into the pond water in the same place. So it suitable for small pond.
MANAGEMENT CONT……Whole size of the floor should be around 5cm2.-Each duck require 0.3-0.5m2 space for comfortable stay.-height of the house should be around 2.5m..Well circulation of air in the ducks house.The house should remains dry for the whole farmed period.
CONT…….From the house there should be arrangement, like- bridge (may be of bamboo or wooden made), for entry and exit of ducks into the pond.Along the periphery of the fish farm there should be fencing to prevent the outgoing of the ducks from the fish farms. -
CONT…………2.Moving house:Floating duck house over the pond water surface is constructed using mobile oil barrels or tyres of heavy vehicles as float. There is a hole in the floor of the house and because of this hole the duck droppings are directly fall into the pond water. Again because of floats the house move from one place to another, which helps in manuring the pond uniformly. Therefore, it is suitable for large ponds.
CONT………….Selection of duck for farming.Ducks for farming with fish are selected based on the following criteria- 1. Its disease resistant capacity. 2. Faster growth. 3. High egg laying capacity, etc.
HOUSING OF DUCKS3- 4 months aged ducklings are introduced into the duck house after 1 month of stocking the pond with fish seed. They are brought to the duck house after giving all prophylactic treatments against viral an bacterial diseases of ducks and after disinfecting the duck house and the materials that are going to use in the duckery practices. But this ducklings are not allowed the free range in the pond water till the cultured fish attain a fingerling size or 10- 15 cm in length.
FEEDING MANAGEMENTDucks get their most of their required food from the pond but that is not enough. Therefore, they are to be fed with balanced supplementary feed. In market no special food is available for ducks. A mixture of any standard balanced poultry feed along with good quality rice bran in the ratio of 1:2 by weight can be fed to the ducks at the rate of 100 gm/ day/ duck in 2 times i.e. morning and evening hours of a day. They can be fed at the duck house or at the pond embankment
EGG LAYING MANAGEMENT.Duck start laying eggs when they become 7 months old. Each duck lay about 90- 100 numbers of eggs in every year. They lay eggs from the late night to about 9 a.m. So they are allowed to go into the ponds after 9 a.m. For laying eggs they need nest. Therefore, some nest made of bamboo or wood or with tin is provided in the duck house by keeping some straw or hay inside the nest.
YIELDFrom the integration of duck-cum- fish culture from a pond of 1ha water spread area in 1 year 450- 500 kg. Fish, 3000- 3300 number of duck eggs and 30- 35 kgs duck meat can be produced.
CONCLUSIONTherefore, duck raised in fish ponds reduces the demand for protein in duck feeds. This direct fertilization of the pond has two merits: first, there is no loss in the availability of manure; second, direct fertilization is more homogeneous and avoids any heaping of duck dropping. For these reasons, raising ducks on fish ponds promotes fish growth, increases fish yields and eliminates pollution problems that might be caused by excreta in a duck pen.Fish-duck integration also promotes the recycling of nutrients in the pond ecosystem. In shallow areas, a duck dips its head to the pond bottom and turns the silt to search for benthos. By virtue of this digging action, nutritional elements deposited in the pond humus will be released. Ducks also act as pond aerators. Their swimming, playing, and chasing disturb the surface of the pond and aerate the water.