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PRESENTED BY: SAURABH
KUMAR
M.Sc. BIOSCIENCE
IV SEMESTER
WHAT IS AQUACULTURE ?
 Aquaculture is organized production of
a crop in the aquatic medium. The
crop may be that of an an...
OBJECTIVES OF AQUACULTURE
 Production of protein rich, nutritive, palatable and easily digestible
human food benefiting t...
ORGANISATION OF AQUACULTURE
 a) Semi-intensive-Adoption of mid-level
technology, partial dependence on natural
productivi...
KINDS OF AQUACULTURE
 Static water ponds.
 Running water culture.
 Culture in recirculating systems
 Culture in rice f...
Pond Culture
 Static freshwater pond :
1. Ordinary fresh water fish culture
ponds are still-water ponds
2. They vary a gr...
RUNNING WATER CULTURE
 At places where there is abundant supply
of water, common carp is cultured in
running water ponds....
Culture in Recirculatory systems
Culture in Rice Fields
 Culturing fish and growing rice together in the same paddy
fields is an old practice in Asia and ...
Aquaculture in Raceways:
Cages, Pens and Enclosures
 Rigid structures
 Flexible Structures
 Floating Fish Cages
 Cages...
Advantages of cage culture
 10 – 12 times higher yields than pond culture for comparable
inputs and area;
 Prevents loss...
Limitations of cage culture
 Difficult to apply when water is rough;
 High dependence on artificial feeding.
High qualit...
Finfish Culture-cum-Livestock Rearing
 In this system of culture, fish pond water surface maintains
brood stock of ducks,...
MONOCULTURE
 Monoculture, as the name implies, in the culture of a single
species of an organism in a culture system of a...
POLYCULTURE
 Polyculture, as the name implies, is the culture of several species in
the same water body. The culture syst...
Introduction to aquaculture
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Introduction to aquaculture

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Aquaculture technique in today's world

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Introduction to aquaculture

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY: SAURABH KUMAR M.Sc. BIOSCIENCE IV SEMESTER
  2. 2. WHAT IS AQUACULTURE ?  Aquaculture is organized production of a crop in the aquatic medium. The crop may be that of an animal or a plant. Naturally, the organism cultured has to be ordained by nature as aquatic. OR  Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants.
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES OF AQUACULTURE  Production of protein rich, nutritive, palatable and easily digestible human food benefiting the whole society through plentiful food supplies at low or reasonable cost.  Providing new species and strengthening stocks of existing fish in natural and man-made water-bodies through artificial recruitment and transplantation.  Production of ornamental fish for aesthetic appeal.  Recycling of organic waste of human and livestock origin.  Land and aquatic resource utilization:(a) maximum resource allocation to aquaculture and its optimal utilization; (b) increasing standard of living by maximizing profitability; and (c) creation of production surplus for export .  Providing means of sustenance and earning livelihood and monetary profit through commercial and industrial aquaculture.  Production of industrial fish.  Production of bait-fish for commercial and sport fishery.
  4. 4. ORGANISATION OF AQUACULTURE  a) Semi-intensive-Adoption of mid-level technology, partial dependence on natural productivity, fertilization, supplementary feeding, with stock manipulation, medium level inputs and medium rate of production.  b) Intensive-Adoption of full complement of culture techniques including scientific pond design, fertilization, supplemental feeding or only feeding without fertilization; full measure of stock manipulation, disease control, scientific harvesting, high level inputs and high rate of production.  c) Extensive-Adoption of traditional techniques of aquaculture e.g. dependence on natural productivity and little control over the stocks.
  5. 5. KINDS OF AQUACULTURE  Static water ponds.  Running water culture.  Culture in recirculating systems  Culture in rice fields.  Aquaculture in raceways, cages pens and enclosures  Monoculture  Polyculture
  6. 6. Pond Culture  Static freshwater pond : 1. Ordinary fresh water fish culture ponds are still-water ponds 2. They vary a great deal in water spread area and depth. 3. Some are seasonal and some perennial. 4. The ponds may be rain fed (also called sky ponds) and/or may have inlet and outlet systems 5. The water supply may be from a stream or a canal or from an underground source such as wells, tube wells etc. 6. The water retentivity of the ponds depends on soil composition of the pond bottom and subsoil water level. 7. Examples are: carp culture systems in India, China, Israel, Germany, etc  Brackish water ponds 1. The species different from those cultured in freshwater ponds 2. The principle of operation of brackish water ponds is different from those of freshwater ponds. 3. The pond or the farm is essentially located on a tidal creek or stream and there is a system of sluices to control the ingress and egress of water into and from the ponds 4. Examples are: Milkfish farms in Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia etc. Brackish water fish farming is a fast growing science.
  7. 7. RUNNING WATER CULTURE  At places where there is abundant supply of water, common carp is cultured in running water ponds.  A very high common carp production rate has been achieved where there is plentiful supply of running water of high dissolved oxygen content and optimum range of temperature for feeding.  Running water culture of common carp is done in a small way in Europe, Indonesia and Thailand.
  8. 8. Culture in Recirculatory systems
  9. 9. Culture in Rice Fields  Culturing fish and growing rice together in the same paddy fields is an old practice in Asia and the Far East.  Interest in producing rice and fish together had declined in recent years because of use of fish-toxic pesticides required to protect high yielding varieties (HYV) of rice introduced as part of green revolution in Asia.
  10. 10. Aquaculture in Raceways: Cages, Pens and Enclosures  Rigid structures  Flexible Structures  Floating Fish Cages  Cages with Rigid Framework  Cages with Flexible Framework
  11. 11. Advantages of cage culture  10 – 12 times higher yields than pond culture for comparable inputs and area;  Prevents loss of stock due to flooding;  No question of seepage and evaporation losses;  No need for water replacement;  No problem of pond excavation and dependence on soil characteristics;  Avoids proximity of agricultural areas hence reduces hazards of pesticide contamination;  Can be conveniently located near urban markets avoiding the need for fish preservation and transportation;  Eliminates competition with agriculture and other land uses;  Affords easy control of fish reproduction in Tilapia sp;  Complete harvest of fish is effected;  Optimum utilization of artificial food;  Reduced fish handling;  Initial investment relatively small.
  12. 12. Limitations of cage culture  Difficult to apply when water is rough;  High dependence on artificial feeding. High quality feed desirable especially in respect of protein, vitamins and minerals. Feed losses are possible through cage walls.  At times interferes with natural fish populations round cage.  Risk of theft is increased.
  13. 13. Finfish Culture-cum-Livestock Rearing  In this system of culture, fish pond water surface maintains brood stock of ducks, rear one-day-old ducklings as well as 14–21 day-old advanced ducklings.  This is a synergic system of mutual benefit to each organism cultured: duck droppings manuring the pond, duck foraging consuming a variety of unwanted biota for fish culture such as tadpoles, frogs, mosquito and dragonfly larvae, mollusks, aquatic weeds etc.  One duck produces about 6kg of droppings in 30 – 40 days in a pond and 100kg of duck manure may increase fish flesh to the extent of 4 –6kg
  14. 14. MONOCULTURE  Monoculture, as the name implies, in the culture of a single species of an organism in a culture system of any intensity, be it in any type of water, fresh, brackish or salt.  FOR e.g. Tilapia culture in India Rainbow trout (Salmon gairdneri) culture in several countries. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in U.S.A. Catfish, Clarias gariepinus in Africa.
  15. 15. POLYCULTURE  Polyculture, as the name implies, is the culture of several species in the same water body. The culture system generally depends on natural food of a water body sometime augmented artificially by fertilization and/or by supplementary feeding. If artificial food is given it is a common food acceptable to all or most species that are cultured.  FOR e.g. Polyculture of several species of Chinese carps in China, Taiwan etc.  Polyculture of several Indian major carp species in India.  Polyculture in Indian major carps, Chinese carps and other fish in India (called composite fish culture in India).

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