AQUACULTURE Presented by Sumedha Dahal 7th Semester Bsc Biotechnology
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express my sincere gratitude towards Dr. Mukunda Ranjit, Coordinator of Department of Biotechnology, SANN INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE for assigning the presentation.
CONTENTS Introduction Importance Role of Biotechnology in Aquaculture Transgenic Fish Fish Breeding and Importance Opportunities in aquaculture Limitations for the production Disadvantages Bioethics Conclusion
Introduction• Farming of fish and other aquatic animals and plants in either a saltwater or freshwater environment.• The breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and animals in all types of water environments, including ponds, rivers, lakes, and the ocean.
Importance• Seafood being the most common food all around the world.• Aquaculture help us learn more about fish and seafood, and in the future help us to rebuild some of our wild fish stocks.• Product of the same size, colour and taste can be supplied to meet the needs of buyers• Helps to develop genetically engineered species like transgenic fish.
The Important Role of Biotechnology in Aquaculture• There is a growing demand for aquaculture; biotechnology can help meet this demand through transgenic fish.• As with all biotech-enhanced foods, aquaculture will be strictly regulated before approved for market.• Biotech aquaculture offers environmental benefits
Transgenic fish• Transgenic may be defined as the introduction of exogenous gene / DNA into host genome resulting in its stable maintenance, transmission and expression.• The first transgenic fish was produced by Zhu (1985) in China, although they gave no molecular evidence for the integration of the transgene.• Growth enhancement is seen using this technique especially in salmonids (Devlin et al., 1994). Some studies have revealed enhancement of growth in adult salmon.
Fish Breeding• Chromosome sex manipulation techniques to induce polyploidy (triploidy and tetraploidy) and uniparental chromosome inheritance (gynogenesis and androgenesis) have been applied.• They provide a rapid approach for gonadal sterilization, sex control improvement of hybrid viability and clonation.
Importance• Introducing GMOs as an experimental method to test for the presence of toxic substances• Introducing GMOs to neutralize contaminants in polluted water• Introducing transgenic fish and shellfish into open space aquaculture farming for human consumption• Creating aesthetically pleasing pets, such as GloFish
OPPORTUNITIES IN AQUACULTURE• Pharmaceuticals• Enzymes• Biomolecular Materials• Biomonitors• Biopesticides• Biomass for Energy Production• Bioremediation• Bioprocessing• Improving Health and Well-Being• Conserving Genetic Resources• Biodiversity
Limitations for the production of Transgenic fish• Transgenic fish of various species of salmon, tilapia, channel catfish and others are being investigated worldwide.• Transgenic fish has not been approved for producing food.
Disadvantages• More resistant to toxins.• Natural breeds are under threat.• Genetically modified fish have a greater ability to compete and are better at converting food hence, wild varieties escape.• Unexpected results are acquired during transgenic animals experiments, animals are often deformed and diseased.• Clones species lack diversity.
Bioethics• Man has no right to manipulate the animal genome.• People fear that the technology used on animals will be used on humans one day.• In many religions, animals are essential to aid the soul to its next stage in life.
ConclusionAlthough various negative effects have been describedfor transgenic animals, their strong medical benefitscould save tens of thousands of human lives.Many of the predominating religious ideals teach us thatas long as man uses the technology for the benefit ofhuman health, and it does not cause significant sufferingfor the animals, it should proceed.But animals should be humanly put down in thoseexperiments that demand some pain formation too. disadvantage advantages
“The main concern of researchers andscientists is to maintain the integrity ofanimals, and ensure transgenic animalswill not become an industry that isexploited only for money, its main intentionhas to remain saving human lives.”
ReferencesTransgenic Animals, Animal Welfare and Bioethics: CCACwww.serconline.org: Transgenic FishRisks Involved With Transgenic Fish: TIMES dailyBiotechnology for the 21st century: New HorizonsGene–environment interactions influence ecological consequences of transgenic animals: L. F. Sundström, M. Lõhmus, W. E. Tymchuk, and Robert H. DevlinGlobal fish production and climate change: K. M. Brander*