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overview of cage culture ppt.


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overview of cage culture ppt.

  1. 1. Project mentor:- Dr. B. Nightingale Devi Asst. Prof. College of fisheries, Kawardha Present by:- Rakesh Nirmalkar B.F.Sc.4th year College of fisheries, Kawardha
  2. 2.  Introduction  History of cage culture  Evolution of cage culture in India  Type of cage  Shape of cage  Materials used for making cage  Principles of cage culture  Status of cage culture fisheries in Indian reservoirs  Status of cage culture in Chhattisgarh  Species culture  Stock management  Benefits of cage culture  Risks and disadvantages  Conclusion  References.
  3. 3.  Cage culture is a technology which fish are reared from fry to fingerling, fingerling size to marketable size while captive in an enclosed space that maintains the free exchange of water with the surrounding water body. (Bhowmick 2011, Kranatak and Kumar 2014). Fig- Chhirpani Reservoir cages (Dist. Kabirdham)
  4. 4.  Cage culture was first originated nearly 200 years ago in Cambodia where fishermen used to keep Clarias spp.  Cage culture is popular traditional culture practiced in Indonesia.  Common carp culture in bamboo-cage is practised in West Java since early 1940.  Modern cage culture in open water-bodies started in Japan in early 1950s.  Presently more than 62 countries are practicing the cage culture.  Currently 80 species of finfish are being cultured in cage. Source - Bhowmick ,2015
  5. 5.  In India, cage culture was attempted for the first time in 1970 in three environments:- 1) Swamps marked by low DO concentration, using air- breathing fishes. 2) Running waters of the Yamuna and Ganga Rivers at Allahabad, using major carps. 3) Standing water body in Karnataka, using common carp, catla, silver carp, rohu, snakeheads and tilapia.  The Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI) attempted cage culture in the 1970s with the production of air- breathing fish in cage but got poor result (Das et al., 2014).
  6. 6. 4 types of cage are being used for cage aquaculture.  Fixed cage  Floating cage  Submersible cage, and  Submerged cage Source:- Shrivastava at al.(2009).
  7. 7.  Fixed cage though very primitive in origin, still in vogue.  It is used in shallow water body part with water depth of 1-3m in reservoir.
  8. 8.  Floating cage is supported by a floating frame where in net bags are kept hanging in water without touching the basin.  Water bodies in depth more than 5m in reservoir.
  9. 9.  Submersible cages have net bags suspended from surface with adjustable buoyancy  It may be rigid or flexible.
  10. 10.  It have net bag fitted in a solid and strong frame and submerged under water  Operational mainly in marine environment.
  11. 11.  The cage are generally enclosed on all sides, except an opening at the top for feeding and handling the fish stock.  Cage may be round, square or rectangular in shape.  Round cages with a cylindrical net, supported by circle-shaped support frames are most used for sea cage culture in India.  Cube-shaped, rectangular/square cage are used in reservoirs. Source- Manna and Hassan, 2004
  12. 12.  Size of cage for fish culture in reservoir can vary, but often multiple units are installed as a battery of cages.  A cage with the dimensions of 6m x 4m x 4m is mostly considered(Manna and Hassan ,2004).  Standard unit and battery comprises 6, 12 or 24 such cage, as per requirement(Manna and Hassan, 2004).  The cage in a battery are arranged in caterpillar design for better exchange of water thereby facilitating relatively high dissolved oxygen (Bhowmick et al. 2015 ).
  13. 13.  Durable and stable cage materials are essential for achieving better results.  A cage comprises hard frames as support and nylon netting as cage body.  The material should be of - Environment-friendly HACCP protocol compliant Rust-free material for cage fabrication. Commonly used material for cage frames are bamboos.
  14. 14. - Mild-steel(MS) - Galvanized iron(GI) - Poly-vinyl chloride(PVC) - Virgin-grade HDPE(High Density Polyethylene) - The bamboo based frames are not recommended for commercial cage fish farming due to their poor longevity and strength to withstand turbulence.
  15. 15. Site selection Water depth:-  The cage site needs a water depth of at least 5-10 meters round the year.  3-4 meters depth will be always needed from the cage bottom to the floor of the water body. Wave and wind- - Avoid strong wind, wave and current river, canal, reservoir.  Water current - River and reservoir: 28-50cm/s - wave lower: 2 meter Fish seed availability Source- Bhowmick et al, (2015).
  16. 16.  Anti-corrosive paint should be applied to prevent rusting and to increase the durability.  Cage should be cleaned at 15 days interval to avoid net clogging.  The physico-chemical parameters of water should be recorded regularly as a part of water quality monitoring. Source- Das at al., (2015).
  17. 17.  DO: 4-6mg/lit.  Temperature – 25-300c  Salinity – less then 0.5ppt(depends on species)  pH- 6.5-8.5  NH3- 0.5 mg/l Source- Das et al, (2015).
  18. 18. o Sandy bottom is preferred. o Avoid acidic and red tide water. o Easy for transportation, electricity, nearby feed source and market.
  19. 19.  The MOA, Government of India, has classified reservoir as small (<1000 ha), medium (1000 to 5000 ha) and large (>5000 ha) for the purpose of fisheries management.  India has 19,370 reservoir spread over more than 15 states with an estimate 3.15 million ha surface area at full capacity (Sugunan, 2015).  It has been reported that more than 15 states had adopted the cage culture technology in inland water with fish production in the range of 15-17 kg /m3/year (Sharma, et al., 2015).  Cage farming has been proven successful in the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh (Das and Sharma 2015).
  20. 20. s. no state No. of cages 1. Andhra Pradesh 144 2. Bihar 96 3. Madhya Pradesh 192 4. Odisha 96 5. Chhattisgarh 264 6. Jharkhand 96 7. Gujrat 200 8. Karnataka 48 s. no state No. of cages 9. Tamil Nadu 48 10. Uttar Pradesh 96 11. Arunanchal Pradesh 48 12. Assam 48 13. Maharashtra 144 14. Rajasthan 48 15. Mizoram 48 16. Tripura 48 Source- Jha et al, 2013, Suganan 2015.
  21. 21.  The total number of reservoir in the state is 1770 covering an area of 0.89 lakh ha.  99% of reservoir belongs to small category and covered 54% area of total reservoir and 25% and 21% for medium and large reservoirs, respectively.  Cage size used in the state is stored at 6m x4mx4m per cage.  2 to 4 batteries with 24 cages are used in the state.  11 cages have been set up in the state for the purpose of fish seed culture (DOF, 2016).
  22. 22. S. no. Reservoir District Area (ha) Unit 1. Saroda sagar Kabirdham 232 4 battery 2. Chhirpani Kabirdham 259 4 battery 3. Ghongha Bilaspur 436 2 battery 4. Torenga Raipur 339 2 battery 5. Jhumka Koriya 551 4 battery 6. Gondli Durg 1118 2 battery 7. Ghunghutta Sarguja 762 2 battery 8. Bango Korba 11500 2 battery Source: Department of Fisheries, Govt. of CG, 2016
  23. 23.  Economically viable cage culture is practiced in inland water bodies of India.  Some of species cultured in cage are:  Most cultured species in Chinese carp, Tilapia, Cat fishes. Indigenous species Exotic species Cat fishes Shellfish •Wallago attu •pangasius sp. Calrias magur •Macrobrachium rosenbergii • IMC •Tilapia sp. Heteropneustes fossilis •M. malcolmsonii • Puntius sarana •Chinese carp Channa sp. •Pangasius pangasius Anabus testudineus Source- Das et al, (2015).
  24. 24.  The stocking density and size of at time of stocking vary according to requirements, depending on growth and survival. Source;- Bhowmick, Das (2015) Species Stock Size Stage IMC 250-300 nos./m3 15-25mm Fry to fingerling 30-38 nos./m3 100-120mm Fingerling to grow-out Pangasius 500-700 nos./m3 20mm Fry to fingerling 60-100 nos./m3 50-60mm Fingerling to grow-out Tilapia 80-100 nos./m3 70-80mm Fingerling to grow-out Cat fishes 50-300/m3 60-80mm Finegrling to grow- out
  25. 25.  Occupy a small area of river, canal or reservoir.  Cage can be available and cheap materials.  Poor farming can manage small cage culture.  Fish can be stocked with high density fast growth.  Yield and profit are high.  Easy to harvest.
  26. 26.  Disease out break is common: - High density, - Contamination from other, - Quick change of environment,  Culture cycle depends much on season and culture cage is affected by flood, storm and strong waves.  In some case, cage becomes obstacles for transportation and landscape.
  27. 27.  High stocking density can be done in such culture system.  Utilization of open reservoir.  Less time fast growth rate with supplementary feeding.  Suitable for culture of hardy species (e.g.- monosex tilapia, pangasius).  Entrepreneurship and employment opportunity leading to improvement of the people.
  28. 28.  Karnatak, Gunjan., Kumar, Vikash., 2014 Potential of cage aquaculture in Indian reservoir, International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies; 1(6): 108-112.  Bhandarkar, P Mukesh., JK, Sundaray., Anant, PN. and Pradhan, S., 2017 Aquaculture Development in Chhattisgarh, India: What, Why and how? International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic studies; 5(4): 272-278.  Das, A. K., Meena, D. K., and Sharma, A. P., 2014 Cage Farming in an Indian Reservoir, World Aquaculture Article 56-58.  Kumar, Vikash., Karnatak, Gunjan., P., Mishal., Das,A. K., Hassan, M. A., Sharma, A.P., 2015 Potential Species For Cage Aquaculture In Indian Reservoirs, World Aquaculture Article 46-48.
  29. 29.  Sugunan V V, Tripathi S D, Cruz D Johnson, Guidelines for cage culture in inland open water bodies of India, Department of animal husbandry, dairying & fisheries, NFDB publication Priented – September 2016.  Department of fisheries, Government of Chhattisgarh 2016- 17.  Primary source Department of fisheries, Kawardha (Dist- Kabirdham) 2015.  Sharma, A. P., Srkar,U.K., Mishal,P., Karnatak, Gunjan and Das, A. K., 2015 Present status, potential and prospects of cage culture of fisheries enhancement in Indian reservoir, proceedings of the international symposium on cage Aquaculture in Asia Kochi, India 118-137.