Cell cycle & cell division

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-Cell Division Process In Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes
-Compacting DNA into Chromosomes
-Types of Cell Reproduction
-Phases of the Cell Cycle
-Mitosis
-Meiosis
-Oogenesis & Spermatogenesis
-Comparison of Divisions

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  • Replication is the process of duplicating chromosome. The new copy of a chromosome is formed by DNA synthesis during S-phase. The chromosome copies are called sister chromatids. Sister chromatids are held together at the centromere.
  • Cell cycle & cell division

    1. 1. Cellular Division
    2. 2. Cell Division <ul><li>All cells are derived from pre-existing cells </li></ul><ul><li>New cells are produced for growth and to replace damaged or old cells </li></ul><ul><li>Differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists, fungi, plants, & animals) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Keeping Cells Identical <ul><li>The instructions for making cell parts are encoded in the DNA , so each new cell must get a complete set of the DNA molecules </li></ul>
    4. 4. DNA Replication <ul><li>DNA must be copied or replicated before cell division </li></ul><ul><li>Each new cell will then have an identical copy of the DNA </li></ul>Original DNA strand Two new, identical DNA strands
    5. 5. Identical Daughter Cells Parent Cell Two identical daughter cells
    6. 6. Chromosomes
    7. 7. Prokaryotic Chromosome <ul><li>The DNA of prokaryotes (bacteria) is one, circular chromosome attached to the inside of the cell membrane </li></ul>
    8. 8. Eukaryotic Chromosomes <ul><li>All eukaryotic cells store genetic information in chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Most eukaryotes have between 10 and 50 chromosomes in their body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Human body cells have 46 chromosomes or 23 identical pairs </li></ul>
    9. 9. Eukaryotic Chromosomes <ul><li>Each chromosome is composed of a single, tightly coiled DNA molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes can’t be seen when cells aren’t dividing   and are called chromatin </li></ul>
    10. 10. Compacting DNA into Chromosomes <ul><li>DNA is tightly coiled around proteins called histones </li></ul>
    11. 11. Chromosomes in Dividing Cells <ul><li>Duplicated chromosomes are called chromatids & are held together by the centromere </li></ul>Called Sister Chromatids
    12. 12. Karyotype <ul><li>A picture of the chromosomes from a human cell arranged in pairs by size </li></ul><ul><li>First 22 pairs are called autosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Last pair are the sex chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>XX female or XY male </li></ul>
    13. 13. Boy or Girl? Y - Chromosome X - Chromosome The Y Chromosome Decides
    14. 14. Cell Reproduction
    15. 15. Types of Cell Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual reproduction involves a single cell dividing to make 2 new, identical daughter cells </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis & binary fission are examples of asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction involves two cells (egg & sperm) joining to make a new cell (zygote) that is NOT identical to the original cells </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis is an example </li></ul>
    16. 16. Cell Division in Prokaryotes
    17. 17. Cell Division in Prokaryotes <ul><li>Prokaryotes such as bacteria divide into 2 identical cells by the process of binary fission </li></ul><ul><li>Single chromosome makes a copy of itself </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall forms between the chromosomes dividing the cell </li></ul>Parent cell 2 identical daughter cells Chromosome relicates Cell splits
    18. 18. Prokaryotic Cell Undergoing Binary Fission
    19. 19. Animation of Binary Fission
    20. 20. The Cell Cycle
    21. 21. Five Phases of the Cell Cycle <ul><li>G 1 - primary growth phase </li></ul><ul><li>S – synthesis; DNA replicated </li></ul><ul><li>G 2 - secondary growth phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collectively these 3 stages are called interphase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M - mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>C - cytokinesis </li></ul>
    22. 22. Cell Cycle
    23. 23. Interphase - G 1 Stage <ul><li>1 st growth stage after cell division </li></ul><ul><li>Cells mature by making more cytoplasm & organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cell carries on its normal metabolic activities </li></ul>
    24. 24. Interphase – S Stage <ul><li>Synthesis stage </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is copied or replicated </li></ul>Two identical copies of DNA Original DNA
    25. 25. Interphase – G 2 Stage <ul><li>2 nd Growth Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs after DNA has been copied </li></ul><ul><li>All cell structures needed for division are made (e.g. centrioles) </li></ul><ul><li>Both organelles & proteins are synthesized </li></ul>
    26. 26. What’s Happening in Interphase? What the cell looks like Animal Cell What’s occurring
    27. 27. Sketch the Cell Cycle Daughter Cells DNA Copied Cells Mature Cells prepare for Division Cell Divides into Identical cells
    28. 28. Mitosis
    29. 29. Mitosis <ul><li>Division of the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Also called karyokinesis </li></ul><ul><li>Only occurs in eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Has four stages </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t occur in some cells such as brain cells </li></ul>
    30. 30. Four Mitotic Stages <ul><li>Pro phase </li></ul><ul><li>Meta phase </li></ul><ul><li>Ana phase </li></ul><ul><li>Telo phase </li></ul>
    31. 31. Early Prophase <ul><li>Chromatin in nucleus condenses to form visible chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mitotic spindle forms from fibers in cytoskeleton or centrioles (animal) </li></ul>Chromosomes Nucleolus Cytoplasm Nuclear Membrane
    32. 32. Late Prophase <ul><li>Nuclear membrane & nucleolus are broken down </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes continue condensing & are clearly visible </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle fibers called kinetochores attach to the centromere of each chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle finishes forming between the poles of the cell </li></ul>
    33. 33. Late Prophase Nucleus & Nucleolus have disintegrated Chromosomes
    34. 34. Spindle Fiber attached to Chromosome Kinetochore Fiber Chromosome
    35. 35. Review of Prophase What the cell looks like What’s happening
    36. 36. Spindle Fibers <ul><li>The mitotic spindle form from the microtubules in plants and centrioles in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Polar fibers extend from one pole of the cell to the opposite pole </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetochore fibers extend from the pole to the centromere of the chromosome to which they attach </li></ul><ul><li>Asters are short fibers radiating from centrioles </li></ul>
    37. 37. Sketch The Spindle
    38. 38. Metaphase <ul><ul><li>Chromosomes, attached to the kinetochore fibers , move to the center of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes are now lined up at the equator </li></ul></ul>Pole of the Cell Equator of Cell
    39. 39. Metaphase Chromosomes lined at the Equator Asters at the poles Spindle Fibers
    40. 40. Metaphase Aster Chromosomes at Equator
    41. 41. Review of Metaphase What the cell looks like What’s occurring
    42. 42. Anaphase <ul><li>Occurs rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell by kinetochore fibers </li></ul>
    43. 43. Anaphase Sister Chromatids being separated
    44. 44. Anaphase Review What the cell looks like What’s occurring
    45. 45. Telophase <ul><ul><li>Sister chromatids at opposite poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle disassembles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope forms around each set of sister chromatids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus reappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CYTOKINESIS occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes reappear as chromatin </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Comparison of Anaphase & Telophase
    47. 47. Cytokinesis <ul><li>Means division of the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Division of cell into two, identical halves called daughter cells </li></ul><ul><li>In plant cells, cell plate forms at the equator to divide cell </li></ul><ul><li>In animal cells, cleavage furrow forms to split cell </li></ul>
    48. 48. Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow in animal cell Cell plate in plant cell
    49. 49. Mitotic Stages
    50. 50. Daughter Cells of Mitosis <ul><li>Have the same number of chromosomes as each other and as the parent cell from which they were formed </li></ul><ul><li>Identical to each other, but smaller than parent cell </li></ul><ul><li>Must grow in size to become mature cells (G 1 of Interphase) </li></ul>
    51. 51. Identical Daughter Cells Chromosome number the same , but cells smaller than parent cell What is the 2n or diploid number? 2
    52. 52. Review of Mitosis
    53. 53. Name the Mitotic Stages: Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Name this? Name this?
    54. 54. Eukaryotic Cell Division <ul><li>Used for growth and repair </li></ul><ul><li>Produce two new cells identical to the original cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are diploid (2n) </li></ul>Chromosomes during Metaphase of mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis
    55. 55. Mitosis Animation Name each stage as you see it occur?
    56. 56. Mitosis in Onion Root Tips Do you see any stages of mitosis?
    57. 57. Draw & Learn these Stages
    58. 58. Draw & Learn these Stages
    59. 59. Test Yourself over Mitosis
    60. 60. Mitosis Quiz
    61. 61. Mitosis Quiz
    62. 62. Name the Stages of Mitosis: Interphase Early prophase Mid-Prophase Late Prophase Metaphase Late Anaphase Early Anaphase Early Telophase, Begin cytokinesis Late telophase, Advanced cytokinesis
    63. 63. Identify the Stages Early, Middle, & Late Prophase Late Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Late Anaphase Telophase Telophase & Cytokinesis ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
    64. 64. Locate the Four Mitotic Stages in Plants Metaphase Prophase Anaphase Telophase
    65. 65. Uncontrolled Mitosis <ul><li>If mitosis is not controlled , unlimited cell division occurs causing cancerous tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Oncogenes are special proteins that increase the chance that a normal cell develops into a tumor cell </li></ul>Cancer cells
    66. 66. Meiosis Formation of Gametes (Eggs & Sperm)
    67. 67. Facts About Meiosis <ul><li>Preceded by interphase which includes chromosome replication </li></ul><ul><li>Two meiotic divisions --- Meiosis I and Meiosis II </li></ul><ul><li>Called Reduction- division </li></ul><ul><li>Original cell is diploid (2n) </li></ul><ul><li>Four daughter cells produced that are monoploid (1n) </li></ul>
    68. 68. Facts About Meiosis <ul><li>Daughter cells contain half the number of chromosomes as the original cell </li></ul><ul><li>Produces gametes (eggs & sperm ) </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the testes in males ( Spermatogenesis ) </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the ovaries in females ( Oogenesis ) </li></ul>
    69. 69. More Meiosis Facts <ul><li>Start with 46 double stranded chromosomes (2n) </li></ul><ul><li>After 1 division - 23 double stranded chromosomes (n) </li></ul><ul><li>After 2nd division - 23 single stranded chromosomes (n) </li></ul><ul><li>  Occurs in our germ cells that produce gametes </li></ul>
    70. 70. Why Do we Need Meiosis? <ul><li>It is the fundamental basis of sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Two haploid (1n) gametes are brought together through fertilization to form a diploid (2n) zygote </li></ul>
    71. 71. Fertilization – “Putting it all together” 1n =3 2n = 6
    72. 72. Replication of Chromosomes <ul><li>Replication is the process of duplicating a chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs prior to division </li></ul><ul><li>Replicated copies are called sister chromatids </li></ul><ul><li>Held together at centromere </li></ul>Occurs in Interphase
    73. 73. A Replicated Chromosome Gene X Homologs separate in meiosis I and therefore different alleles separate. Homologs (same genes, different alleles) Sister Chromatids (same genes, same alleles)
    74. 74. Meiosis Forms Haploid Gametes <ul><li>Meiosis must reduce the chromosome number by half </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization then restores the 2n number </li></ul>The right number! from mom from dad child meiosis reduces genetic content too much!
    75. 75. Meiosis: Two Part Cell Division Homologs separate Sister chromatids separate Diploid Diploid Haploid Meiosis I Meiosis II
    76. 76. Meiosis I: Reduction Division Early Prophase I (Chromosome number doubled ) Late Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I (diploid) Nucleus Spindle fibers Nuclear envelope
    77. 77. Prophase I <ul><li>Early prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Homologs pair. </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing over occurs . </li></ul><ul><li>Late prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes condense. </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope fragments. </li></ul>
    78. 78. Tetrads Form in Prophase I Homologous chromosomes (each with sister chromatids)   Join to form a TETRAD Called Synapsis
    79. 79. Crossing-Over <ul><li>Homologous chromosomes in a tetrad cross over each other </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces of chromosomes or genes are exchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Produces Genetic recombination in the offspring </li></ul>
    80. 80. Homologous Chromosomes During Crossing-Over
    81. 81. Crossing-Over Crossing-over multiplies the already huge number of different gamete types produced by independent assortment
    82. 82. Metaphase I Homologous pairs of chromosomes align along the equator of the cell
    83. 83. Anaphase I Homologs separate and move to opposite poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres .
    84. 84. Telophase I Nuclear envelopes reassemble. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two.
    85. 85. Meiosis II <ul><li>Only one homolog of each chromosome is present in the cell . </li></ul>Gene X Meiosis II produces gametes with one copy of each chromosome and thus one copy of each gene. Sister chromatids carry identical genetic information .
    86. 86. Meiosis II: Reducing Chromosome Number Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II 4 Identical haploid cells
    87. 87. Prophase II Nuclear envelope fragments. Spindle forms.
    88. 88. Metaphase II Chromosomes align along equator of cell.
    89. 89. Anaphase II Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles . Equator Pole
    90. 90. Telophase II Nuclear envelope assembles. Chromosomes decondense. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two.
    91. 91. Results of Meiosis Gametes (egg & sperm) form Four haploid cells with one copy of each chromosome One allele of each gene Different combinations of alleles for different genes along the chromosome
    92. 92. Gametogenesis Oogenesis or Spermatogenesis
    93. 93. Spermatogenesis <ul><li>Occurs in the testes </li></ul><ul><li>Two divisions produce 4 spermatids </li></ul><ul><li>Spermatids mature into sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Men produce about 250,000,000 sperm per day </li></ul>
    94. 94. Spermatogenesis in the Testes Spermatid
    95. 95. Spermatogenesis
    96. 96. Oogenesis <ul><li>Occurs in the ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Two divisions produce 3 polar bodies that die and 1 egg </li></ul><ul><li>Polar bodies die because of unequal division of cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Immature egg called oocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Starting at puberty, one oocyte matures into an ovum (egg) every 28 days </li></ul>
    97. 97. Oogenesis in the Ovaries
    98. 98. Oogenesis Oogonium (diploid) Mitosis Primary oocyte (diploid) Meiosis I Secondary oocyte (haploid) Meiosis II (if fertilization occurs) First polar body may divide (haploid) Polar bodies die Ovum (egg) Second polar body (haploid) a A X X a X A X a X a X Mature egg A X A X
    99. 99. Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis
    100. 100. Comparison of Divisions Mitosis Meiosis Number of divisions 1 2 Number of daughter cells 2 4 Genetically identical? Yes No Chromosome # Same as parent Half of parent Where Somatic cells Germ cells When Throughout life At sexual maturity Role Growth and repair Sexual reproduction

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