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Bifidobacteria & prebiotic

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This presentation is about Probiotic and prebiotic and the role of them in our body and their benefits .
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Bifidobacteria & prebiotic

  1. 1. Submitted by: Mohamed Mohamed Ahmed Yusuf
  2. 2. AgendaAgenda  What’s the probiotic ?What’s the probiotic ?  Probiotic & Prebiotic .Probiotic & Prebiotic .  Bifidobacteria .Bifidobacteria .  Types of Bifidobacteria .Types of Bifidobacteria .  Biological effects .Biological effects .  Antibiotic & Probiotic .Antibiotic & Probiotic .  Probiotics & tumors .Probiotics & tumors .  Industrial application .Industrial application .  Side effect.Side effect.
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction  Modern life and fast foodModern life and fast food (Takeaway) .(Takeaway) .  Increase the problems of digestion .Increase the problems of digestion .  Poor eating habits when a lot ofPoor eating habits when a lot of people .people .  The spread of diseases of theThe spread of diseases of the digestive system in particulardigestive system in particular irritable bowel syndrome, colitis andirritable bowel syndrome, colitis and cancer colon .cancer colon .
  4. 4. HistoryHistory  Metchnikoff – 1907 – ingesting yogurt withMetchnikoff – 1907 – ingesting yogurt with Lactobacilli reduces toxic bacteria of the gutLactobacilli reduces toxic bacteria of the gut and prolongs lifeand prolongs life  Kipeloff – 1926 – stressed importance ofKipeloff – 1926 – stressed importance of Lactobacillus acidophilus for good healthLactobacillus acidophilus for good health  Rettger – 1930’s – early clinical applicationRettger – 1930’s – early clinical application of Lactobacillusof Lactobacillus  Parker – 1974 – 1Parker – 1974 – 1stst to use the termto use the term probioticsprobiotics  Fuller – 1989 – defined probioticsFuller – 1989 – defined probiotics
  5. 5. What’s the probioticWhat’s the probiotic??  Non-pathogenic live microbial foodNon-pathogenic live microbial food supplements .supplements .  Organisms that, whenOrganisms that, when administered in adequateadministered in adequate amounts, exert a positiveamounts, exert a positive influence on the health of the hostinfluence on the health of the host animal .animal .  Live organisms that benefit theLive organisms that benefit the host animal by improving intestinalhost animal by improving intestinal microbial balance .microbial balance .  Usually administered in yogurt orUsually administered in yogurt or capsules .capsules .
  6. 6. What’s the probioticWhat’s the probiotic??  LactobacilliLactobacilli – anerobic, gram (+)– anerobic, gram (+) rodsrods  caseicasei  plantarumplantarum  acidophilusacidophilus  reuterireuteri  BifidobacteriaBifidobacteria – anerobic, gram– anerobic, gram (+) rods(+) rods  B. lactis (various)B. lactis (various)  B. longum BB536B. longum BB536  EnterococcusEnterococcus ..  Streptococcus salivariusStreptococcus salivarius  SaccharomycesSaccharomyces
  7. 7. Probiotic & PrebioticProbiotic & Prebiotic  Prebiotics acts as cofactors forPrebiotics acts as cofactors for probiotics.probiotics.  Complex carbohydrates passComplex carbohydrates pass through the small intestine to thethrough the small intestine to the lower gut where they becomelower gut where they become available for some colonic bacteriaavailable for some colonic bacteria but are not utilized by the majoritybut are not utilized by the majority of the bacteria present in the colon.of the bacteria present in the colon.
  8. 8. Probiotic & PrebioticProbiotic & Prebiotic  The main end products of carbohydrateThe main end products of carbohydrate metabolism are short-chained fatty acids,metabolism are short-chained fatty acids, namely acetate, butyrate and propionate,namely acetate, butyrate and propionate, which are further used by the host organismwhich are further used by the host organism as an energy source.as an energy source.  Synbiotic combining the effects ofSynbiotic combining the effects of probiotic and prebiotics to produce healthprobiotic and prebiotics to produce health enhancing functional foods (foodenhancing functional foods (food ingredients)ingredients)
  9. 9. Probiotic & PrebioticProbiotic & Prebiotic  Lactulose  Galactosaccharides  Fructo-oligosaccharides  Isomalto-oligosccharides  Lacto-sucrose  Gentio-oligosaccharides  Xylooligosaccharides
  10. 10. Probiotic & PrebioticProbiotic & Prebiotic
  11. 11. BifidobacteriaBifidobacteria  Bifidobacterium was first isolated in 1899Bifidobacterium was first isolated in 1899 from a healthy breast-fed infant by Tissierfrom a healthy breast-fed infant by Tissier of the Pasteur Institute in France. It is anof the Pasteur Institute in France. It is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-anaerobic, Gram-positive, non- sporeforming, and was originally namedsporeforming, and was originally named Bacillus bifidus communis.Bacillus bifidus communis.  In 1960s, it was accepted as anIn 1960s, it was accepted as an independent genus and classified asindependent genus and classified as Bifidobacterium.Bifidobacterium.
  12. 12. Types of BifidobacteriaTypes of Bifidobacteria BifidobacteriumBifidobacterium speciesspecies B. longumB. longum B. lactisB. lactis B. bifidumB. bifidum B. infantisB. infantis B. breveB. breve
  13. 13. Types of BifidobacteriaTypes of Bifidobacteria Bifidobacteria lactisBifidobacteria lactis - Enhances resistance to oral- Enhances resistance to oral salmonella typhimurium. Enhances naturalsalmonella typhimurium. Enhances natural immune function. Helps alleviate constipation,immune function. Helps alleviate constipation, prevents diarrhea and decreases chronicprevents diarrhea and decreases chronic inflammation of the colon.inflammation of the colon.
  14. 14. Types of BifidobacteriaTypes of Bifidobacteria  Bifidobacterium longumBifidobacterium longum - Able to eliminate- Able to eliminate harmful nitrates commonly found in foods.harmful nitrates commonly found in foods. Inhibits the development and growth of colon,Inhibits the development and growth of colon, liver and breast cancers in laboratory animals.liver and breast cancers in laboratory animals. Helps prevent diarrhea caused by antibiotic use,Helps prevent diarrhea caused by antibiotic use, helps constipation and reduces fecal odor.helps constipation and reduces fecal odor.
  15. 15. Physiological propertiesPhysiological properties  First, the most important physiological effect isFirst, the most important physiological effect is the action of intestinal conditioning.the action of intestinal conditioning.  As mentioned earlier, in addition to lactic acid,As mentioned earlier, in addition to lactic acid, bifidobacteria produce acetic acid with a strongbifidobacteria produce acetic acid with a strong bactericidal action, which has been shown tobactericidal action, which has been shown to suppress harmful bacteria .suppress harmful bacteria .  Bifidobacterial cell or cell component have beenBifidobacterial cell or cell component have been reported to induce specific and nonspecificreported to induce specific and nonspecific antibody production, nonspecific resistance toantibody production, nonspecific resistance to toxins, and antitumor effects.toxins, and antitumor effects.
  16. 16. Conditions and growth factorsConditions and growth factors  Anaerobic conditions .Anaerobic conditions .  High acidity .High acidity .  Lactulose .Lactulose .  Lacto-sucrose .Lacto-sucrose .  Fructo-oligosaccharidesFructo-oligosaccharides
  17. 17. Bifidobacteria & PrebioticBifidobacteria & Prebiotic Effect of lactulose on the fecal Bifidobacterium (Terada 1992(
  18. 18. Biological effectsBiological effects  Produce compounds .Produce compounds .  Regulation of the digest .Regulation of the digest .  Impact on harmfulImpact on harmful microbes .microbes .
  19. 19. Cells productionCells production  Produce a wide range of antimicrobial substancesProduce a wide range of antimicrobial substances -acidophilin and bacteriocin etc. help to control-acidophilin and bacteriocin etc. help to control pathogenic bacteria .pathogenic bacteria .  Produce vitamins (especially Vitamin B andProduce vitamins (especially Vitamin B and vitamin K)vitamin K)  Produce lactic acid- lowers the pH of intestinesProduce lactic acid- lowers the pH of intestines and inhibiting bacterial villains such asand inhibiting bacterial villains such as Clostridium, Salmonella, ShigellaClostridium, Salmonella, Shigella,, E. coli,E. coli, etc.etc.  Production ofProduction of ββ- D- galactosidase enzymes that- D- galactosidase enzymes that break down lactose .break down lactose .
  20. 20. Regulation of the digestRegulation of the digest  At birth, many bacterial species gain accessAt birth, many bacterial species gain access into the intestinal tract, but bifidobacteriainto the intestinal tract, but bifidobacteria gradually become established as the maingradually become established as the main bacteria, and predominate in the intestinalbacteria, and predominate in the intestinal microflora during the neonatal period.microflora during the neonatal period.  Even in adults,Even in adults, BifidobacteriumBifidobacterium is one of theis one of the main and important component of the intestinalmain and important component of the intestinal microflora. The number ofmicroflora. The number of bifidobacteria isbifidobacteria is further reduced during old age, accompanied byfurther reduced during old age, accompanied by increases ofincreases of ClostridiumClostridium and other speciesand other species..
  21. 21. Regulation of the digestRegulation of the digest
  22. 22. Regulation of the digestRegulation of the digest  The concentrations of intestinal putrefactiveThe concentrations of intestinal putrefactive products such as ammonia and indole and theproducts such as ammonia and indole and the activities of enzymes involved in the productionactivities of enzymes involved in the production of these substances are extremely low in breast-of these substances are extremely low in breast- fed infants compared to adults.fed infants compared to adults.  Although these changes cannot be attributedAlthough these changes cannot be attributed entirely to the differences in the intestinalentirely to the differences in the intestinal microflora, a strong effect can be expected.microflora, a strong effect can be expected.
  23. 23. Regulation of the digestRegulation of the digest Infant (3 months) Adult (23 ages) Bifidobacteria (%)* 96% 19% pH 5.30 6.4 Ammonia (μ mol/g) 13.20 54.0 Indole (μg/g) 0.76 56.2 p-cresol (μg/g) - 68.7 Phenol (μg/g) 0.72 7.6 Urease** 22.50 911.0 Tryptophanase** 0.33 3.7 β-glucronidase** 2.09 33.4 *Bifidobacteria percentage in fecal microflora **Enzyme activity: μ mol/h/g
  24. 24. Regulation of the digestRegulation of the digest Effect of BB536 yogurt administration on the fecal ammonia concentration (n = 11) (Yaeshima 1997)
  25. 25. Impact on harmful microbesImpact on harmful microbes  These intestinal bacteria canThese intestinal bacteria can be classified into 3 groupsbe classified into 3 groups depending on their effect ondepending on their effect on the intestinal environment;the intestinal environment; that is, beneficial bacteria,that is, beneficial bacteria, harmful bacteria and bacteriaharmful bacteria and bacteria exhibiting an intermediateexhibiting an intermediate property .property .
  26. 26. Impact on harmful microbesImpact on harmful microbes
  27. 27. Antibiotic & ProbioticAntibiotic & Probiotic DiseaseDisease Antibiotic treatmentAntibiotic treatment Diarrhea Disturbance ofDiarrhea Disturbance of intestinal microbiotaintestinal microbiota ClostridiumClostridium overgrowthovergrowth produces toxinproduces toxin
  28. 28. Antibiotic & ProbioticAntibiotic & Probiotic DiseaseDisease Antibiotic treatmentAntibiotic treatment ProbioticsProbiotics Disturbance ofDisturbance of intestinalintestinal MicrobiotaMicrobiota ClostridiumClostridium overgrowthovergrowth in balance produces toxinin balance produces toxin
  29. 29. Effect on tumorsEffect on tumors  Administration of lyophilizedAdministration of lyophilized B. longum BB536B. longum BB536 has been reported to inhibit cancers orhas been reported to inhibit cancers or aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation induced byaberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation induced by imidazoquinoline derivative (IQ) (Reddy &imidazoquinoline derivative (IQ) (Reddy & Rivenson 1993) or azoxymethaneRivenson 1993) or azoxymethane ..  Administration of IQ to untreated mice inducesAdministration of IQ to untreated mice induces cancers in the liver, intestines, and mammarycancers in the liver, intestines, and mammary gland. However administration ofgland. However administration of B. longumB. longum BB536BB536 inhibits cancers in all these organs,inhibits cancers in all these organs, especially, a 100% inhibition is achieved in theespecially, a 100% inhibition is achieved in the large intestine.large intestine.
  30. 30. Effect on tumorsEffect on tumors  EnzymesEnzymes (Glycosidase, B- glucuronidase , azoreductase ,(Glycosidase, B- glucuronidase , azoreductase , and nitroreductase ) of the intestinal flora convert theand nitroreductase ) of the intestinal flora convert the precarcinogens to active carcinogensprecarcinogens to active carcinogens  ProbioticsProbiotics reduce:reduce:  Faecal concentrations of enzymesFaecal concentrations of enzymes  Secondary bile saltsSecondary bile salts  Reduce absorption of harmful mutagens that may contributeReduce absorption of harmful mutagens that may contribute to colon carcinogenesis.to colon carcinogenesis.  Enhancing the host’s immune response  Binding and degrading carcinogens  Altering the physiochemical conditions in the colon  Enhancing the host’s immune response
  31. 31. Industrial applicationIndustrial application Cultured Dairy ProductsCultured Dairy Products Beneficial BacteriaBeneficial Bacteria  YoghurtYoghurt  CheesesCheeses  Acidophilus milkAcidophilus milk  Bulgaricus milkBulgaricus milk  YakultYakult  Bifidus milkBifidus milk  ButtermilkButtermilk  Sour creamSour cream  KefirKefir  S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus & L.S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus & L. acidophilusacidophilus  L. acidophilus, L. brevis, L. casei, L.L. acidophilus, L. brevis, L. casei, L. caucasicus, L. helveticus, L. lactis, L.caucasicus, L. helveticus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, S. cremoris, S. faeciumplantarum, S. cremoris, S. faecium  L. acidophilusL. acidophilus  L. bulgaricusL. bulgaricus  L. casei,L. casei,  B. bifidum, B. longumB. bifidum, B. longum  L. Lactis, S. cremorisL. Lactis, S. cremoris  S. cremorisS. cremoris  L. acidophilus, L. caucasicuL. acidophilus, L. caucasicu
  32. 32. Industrial applicationIndustrial application
  33. 33. Side effectSide effect 11--Bifidobacteria are LIKELY SAFE for adults when used forBifidobacteria are LIKELY SAFE for adults when used for up to one yearup to one year.. 22--In some people, treatment with bifidobacteria might upsetIn some people, treatment with bifidobacteria might upset the stomach and intestine, causing bloating and gasthe stomach and intestine, causing bloating and gas.. 33--Bifidobacteria are POSSIBLY SAFE in children, includingBifidobacteria are POSSIBLY SAFE in children, including those under 2 years of age and critically ill infants, whenthose under 2 years of age and critically ill infants, when used for up to 12 monthsused for up to 12 months.. 44--Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is knownPregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of bifidobacteria during pregnancy andabout the use of bifidobacteria during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid usebreast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use..

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