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Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising
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Basic knowledge on textile for marchandising

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  • 1. 1 BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON TEXTILE FOR MARCHANDISING 1 BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON TEXTILE FOR MARCHANDISING 1 BASIC KNOWLEDGE ON TEXTILE FOR MARCHANDISING
  • 2. 2  Some Factors Related to Buying Side: 1. Customer: Those who buy the ultimate product are called customers. Customer of a product may be the consumer of this product or not. 2. Consumer: Those who use the ultimate product are called consumers. Consumer of a product may be the consumer of this product or not. 3. Buyer: Those who buy the product from other in large quantity are called buyers. 4. Whole Seller: Those who sell the product to the retailer are called whole- sellers. 5. Retailer: Those who sell the product directly to the customer are called retailers. 6. Importers: Those who buy or import the product from foreign or overseas country in large quantity are called importers.  Some Factors Related to Selling Side: 1. Seller: Those who sell the product to the others are called seller. 2. Manufacturer: Those who manufacturer the product are called manufacturers. 3. Exporter: Those who sell or export the product to the buyer of foreign country are called exporters. 4. Trader: Those who establish liaison between buyer and manufacturer are called traders. Buyer Trader Manufacturer  Buying House: Buying house means Buyer’s liaison office or trader office. Traders are of two types- i) Foreign Trader ii) Local Trader  Name of Some Important Buyer of Bangladesh:
  • 3. 3 Generally buyers of USA, Europe, Canada, Australia, Japan, India are the main buyers of Garments and Textile product of Bangladesh. Name of some important buyers of these countries are described below-  Name of Some USA Buyers: 1. GAP 2. Adidas 3. Walmart 4. Levi’s (Brand: Dockler, Denizer, Levi’strauss) 5. VF Asia (Brand: Lee, Wrangler ) 6. PVH -Phillips Von Heuson (Brand: CK) 7. Peri Ellis 8. Academy 9. Banana 10. Old Navy 11. US Polo 12. Nike 13. American Eagle  Name of Some European Buyers: 1. H & M 2. Hugo Boss 3. Zara 4. Mango (Turnkey) 5. Puma 6. European Eagle 7. C & A 8. M &S 9. Esprit 10.Terco 11. Decathlon 12.Sains Burry 13.Carretow 14.NKD 15.Tema
  • 4. 4 16.Lindex  Name of Australian Buyers: 1. K-mark  Name of Some Japanese Buyers: 1. Uniquelo 2. Huloson Bay  Name of Some Indian Buyers: 1. Black Berry 2. Mahendra ( Brand: Peter England ) 3. ITC 4. Ramond  Name of Some Important Traders of Bangladesh:  Multinational Traders: 1. Li & Fung 2. Mondial 3. Asmara 4. Comptextile 5. Lin Mark 6. Synergies 7. ZXY Apparel Buying Solution 8. Texebo  Local Traders: 1. Centrotex 2. Team Sourcing  Seasons of Export: Seasons of Export in USA:
  • 5. 5 i) Spring ii) Summer iii) Fall Seasons of Export in Europe: a) i) Spring ii) Summer b) i) Autumn ii) Winter  Major Garments Manufacturer Countries: 1. Bangladesh 2. China 3. Vietnam 4. Combodia 5. Pakistan 6. Thailand 7. Indonesia 8. Turkey 9. India 10.Shrilanka Turkey: This country is suitable for highly de corative and fancy garments. China: Buyers select China for decorative garments and short time shipment. SS- January to Jun AW- July to December
  • 6. 6 India: Buyers select India for decorative garments. Vietnuma: Buyers select Vietnum for plain printed T-Shiort. Combodia: Buyers select Vietnum for plain printed T-Shiort. Bangladesh: Bangladesh is a Lower Developing Country with GSP facilitiy. Buyers import various types of garments from Bangladesh. The Generalized System of Preferences (known as GSP for short) is a scheme whereby a wide range of industrial and agricultural products originating in certain developing countries are given preferential access to the markets of the European Union. Preferential treatment is given in the form of reduced or zero rates of customs duties. The GSP scheme is specifically designed to benefit certain developing countries and integrate them into the world economy. Since 1971, the EU has had rules ensuring that exporters from developing countries pay lower duties on some or all of what they sell to the EU. This gives them vital access to EU markets contributing to the growth of their economies. This scheme is known as the "Generalized System of Preferences". Today Bangladesh offers a very flexible and feasible production base for its customers in EU, America and Australia. The EU market is quota free for apparels and goods are eligible for the GSP facilities. As an LDC member Bangladesh also obtain special Tariff benefit from Canada (18% import Tax free). FOB: FOB means Free on Board. It is the value of the product which is fixed without cost of transportation of this product.
  • 7. 7 CIF: FOB means Free on Board. It is the value of the product which is fixed including the cost of transportation and insurance of this product. Steps of garments export are described as follows: 1.Space Availability: Space availability or time agreement is the availability of availability of production floor for the production of garments. 2.Costing: Costing means the way of calculating the cost of production of garments. Costing is done considering- i) Fabric price ii) Accessories price & iii) C&M Cost  Way of Costing: Costing can be done by- i) Original Sample ii) Specification Specification contains the following factors:- i) Design or Sketch of garments ii) Fabric Type- - Composition
  • 8. 8 - Color - Construction - GSM or Ozs. Per Square Yards. - Any other instruction iii) Accessories Detail iv) Any Kind of Instruction v) Garments Size ( called “Measurement Chart” or “Size Chart” ) Specification File: The file which contain the specification of product is called the “Specification File” or “Technical Package” or Tech-pack” or “PDM” (Product Development Manual) or “Order Sheet” or “Product Package”. Specification File is issued by the buyer and collected by the manufacturer. BOM Sheet: The pages of specification file contain fabric and accessories detail is called BOM ( Bill of Material ) Sheet. 3.Order Confirmation: Order confirmation is issued by the buyer to the manufacturer which contains Tech- pack. 4.Purchase Order: PO or purchase order is issued by the buyer to the manufacturer. 5.Master L/C: L/C or Letter of Credit is a confirmation which is prepared by the buyer ( bank of buyer ) and issued to the manufacturer. It has financial value. L/C is of two types- i) Master L/C & ii) Back to Back L/C
  • 9. 9 When a L/C is opened to import goods directly from the exporter is called master L/C. It is issued by the buyer (bank of buyer) to the manufacturer. 6.T & A Calendar Making: T & A or “ Time and Action” calendar is made by the manufacturer to complete the production within a specific period of time. 7.Fabric & Accessories Booking: After making of T & A calendar, fabric & accessories booking is necessary. Without fabric, all materials used in garments is called “Accessories” or “Trimmings”. Accessories includes- i) Sewing Thread ii) Button iii) Interlining iv) Zipper v) Label vi) Tissue Paper vii) Ball head pin viii) Hager ix) Carton x) Rib and xi) Silica Gee Bag xii) Plastic Clip so on. 8.Back to Back L/C: Back to Back L/ C is prepared by the manufacturer to collect raw materials from the suppliers. It has 70-80% financial value of Master L/C. Difference Between Master L/C and Back to Back L/C:
  • 10. 10 Master L/C Back to Back L/C Master L/C is prepared by the buyer to import goods from the manufacturer. Back to Back L/C is prepared by the manufacturer to collect raw materials for the production. This L/C is issued by the buyer to the manufacturer. This L/C is issued by the manufacturer to the raw material suppliers. It is the basic L/C. It depends on master L/C Prepared for the import of goods from the exporter. Prepared to collect raw material from the supplier. It has higher financial value than the Back to Back L/C. It has lower financial value than the Master L/C ( 70-80% of Master L/C ). 9.Sampling: Sample is the small quantity which represents the bulk. The process of collecting or making sample is called “Sampling”. Types of Garments Sample a. Proto Sample: Features:  This type of sample is made by the manufacturer by available fabric and accessories.  This sample is made before or after order confirmation. Purpose: Here buyer checks whether the factory can make the garments. b. Fit Sample: Features:  This type of sample is made by the manufacturer by available fabric and accessories.  This sample is made after order confirmation. Purpose:
  • 11. 11 Here buyer checks the fitness or measurement of the garments. c. PP Sample: Features:  This type of sample is made by the manufacturer by actual fabric and accessories.  This sample is made after order confirmation.  This sample must be approved by the buyer before production. Purpose: Bulk production is done following PP sample. d. Size Set Sample: Features:  This type of sample is made in all sizes.  These samples are sent to the buyer.  These samples are made in all sizes. Purpose: This sample is used for PP meeting. e. Production Sample: Features:  These samples are collected from the production floor while bulk production is running.  These are sent to the buyer. Purpose: Here buyer compares Production Sample with the PP Sample.
  • 12. 12 f. Garments Test Sample: Features:  These samples are collected from the production floor while bulk production is running.  These are sent to the testing house. Purpose: Here Testing House tests different aspects of the garments and sends “test report” to the buyer. Common Tests of Garments: Common tests of garments are as follows. - Dimensional Stability Tests -Sewing Strength Tests - Button Attaching Tests - Spirality Tests - Color Fastness Tests - Abrasion Tests - Radiation of Materials Tests Testing Houses may be local or international. They test the garments and send the test report to the buyer to inform the quality of product producing by the manufacturer. g. Shipment Samples: Features:  These samples are not so mandatory.  These are sent to the buyer after the shipment of the products. Purpose: Here buyer compares the Production Sample with the Shipment Sample.
  • 13. 13  Name of Some Currier: Samples or any other important documents necessary for export are sent by the currier. Name of Some Currier: i) DHL ii) Aramex iii) TNT iv) Fedex v) UPS vi) Sky net vii) DPEX  Salesman Samples: If buyer collect sample garments of specific design for specific season which are displayed in the retail shop to justify the demand of these samples, then these are called Salesman Sample. 10. Fabric & Trims in House: Here confirms all fabrics and accessories in their hand. 11. Innovatory Checking & Report Making: The term innovatory checking is applied for checking the quality & quantity of fabrics and accessories in house. After checking a report is made with the test data. 12. PP Meeting: This meeting is held just before going to the bulk production. This meeting is conducted by following persons- - Buying House QC
  • 14. 14 - Factory QC - Buying House Merchandiser - Factory Merchandiser - Cutting Master - Pattern Master - Production Manager - Sample man 13. Pattern and Marker Making of Bulk Production: Pattern is a hard paper which is made by following each individual components for a style of garments. Marker is a thin paper which contains all components of different sizes for a particular style of garments. 14. Trial Cutting: Little amount ( for 200-300 pieces of garments ) of fabrics are cut for checking the efficiency and production cost of the garments. 15.Bulk Cutting: Here total fabrics required for bulk production are cut. 16. Numbering –Bundling & Sorting: After cutting of fabrics numbering, Bundling and sorting process are done. Then cut pieces are sent to the sewing section. 17. Production Line Set-up: Production line set-up is the arrangement of sewing machines where the input of the first machine is cutting part of the fabrics and the output of the last machine is complete garments. Production line may be straight or V-shaped or face to face or any other suitable type.
  • 15. 15 18. Sewing: Cutting pieces are attached by sewing to make the complete garments. Different types of sewing machines are used in production line. 19. Finishing: Finishing includes- ironing, accessories attaching, label attaching, ironing etc. 20. Pre-Final Inspection: This type of inspection is done by factory QC. It may be at the end of the production line or in the lab. 21. Final Inspection: Final inspection is conducted by the – i) Buyer ii) Buyer QC iii) Trader QC iv) Self Inspection: Conducted by the factory QC. v) Third Party Inspection: Conducted by the testing houses.  Name of Some Testing Houses: i) SGS ii) ITS iii) Burean Veritas iv) TUV SUD Foreign Local Multinational
  • 16. 16 Functions of Testing Houses:  Testing of Fabric  Testing of Garments  Testing of Trims  Garments factory Auditing for Compliance  Compliance: Any type of rules and regulations that must be followed by an ideal factory. These include- - Time of Work - Environment of Work Place - Salary & Wages - Facilities ( Dining, Child care, Toilet ) - Treatment of Liquid Waste Factories may be classified as- - Compliant - Semi Compliant & - Non Compliant  In-line Inspection: During production, buyer QC will come and check the product quality and suggest to over-come any type of problem. This type of inspection is called In-line Inspection.  On-line Inspection: Inspection at the end of the production line during production is called On-line Inspection. This inspection is conducted by the factory QC  Logistic Firms:
  • 17. 17 The firms or agents which take the responsibility to receive the goods from the manufacturer company at the port and send to the buyer or buyer agent are called Logistic Agent. They also called Freight Forwarding Agent or Forwarder. Buyer pays to the Logistic Agent. Names of Some Logistic Firms: i) Maersk ii) APL iii) MGH iv) Damco v) Expolonca vi) Crown Logistic vii) NMC Corporation  C & F Agent: The firms or agents which handle all kinds of customs related formalities are called C & F Agent. Factory pays to the C & F Agents.  Document For Payment 1.Commercial Invoice: A sheet contains- - Buyer Details - Manufacturer Details - Item Details - Unit Price - Total Price 2.Packing List: It is the list of packed products according to the size, color and content in each package.
  • 18. 18 3.Bill of Lading: The document witch is issued by the Freight Forwarding Agent to the manufacturer containing detail about product sent and transportation company. e.g. AW/B- Air Way Bill.  ICD: ICD means Inland Container Depot. The goods which are not suitable to transport in carton because of introducing crease marks are transported hanging in ICD. There are three categories of garments that we export- i) Woven Garments ii) Knit Garments & iii) Heavy Knit Garments  Woven Garments: 1. Shirt: Men top garments. Shirt is of two types- a) Basic/Formal/Dress/Official shirt b) Casual/Pilot shirt 2. Pants/Trouser: Men bottom garments. Pants may be of two types- a) Formal/Dress/Chino pants b) Casual pants. e.g. Jeans pants, Cargo pants. 3. Half Pants/Shorts: Men bottom garments above the knee. e.g. Cargo shorts. 4. 3/4 of Pants:
  • 19. 19 Men bottom garments under the knee, above the ankle. 5. Blouse: Ladies top garments. e.g. Ladies shirt or fotua. 6. Dress: Ladies top garments. e.g. Ladies kamiz 7. Capri’s: Ladies short pants above the ankle but not ¾ of pants. 8. Skirt: Ladies garments. 9. Jacket/Blazer/Coat: Men top garments containing “Lapel” and Taffeta. 10. Padded Jacket: Jacket that contains “Quilting”. 11. Trench Coat: Long coat with waist belt. 12. Gilet: Sleeveless thick jacket. 13. Pazamas: Night dress- both top & bottom. 14. Coverall: 15. Overall: 16. Shortall: 17. Vest/Over coat/Waist coat: Sleeveless coat with button at front. ‘Work wears’ which provide protection from uncomfortable working environment.
  • 20. 20 18. Head Wear: Different types of cap, hat etc.  Knit or Light Knit Garments: 1. T-Shirt: Top garments that must not contain placket. It may contain half collar or not. Collar of T-Shirt is made by circular rib machine. Generally single jersey fabric of GSM 120- 220 is used to make T-Shirt. 2. Polo Shirt: Top garments that must have placket and collar. The collar of Polo Shirt is made by flat bed knitting machine. Double jersey fabrics are used to make Polo Shirt. 3. Knit Trouser: Bottom garments made of knit fabric. 4. Tank Top: Sleeveless top garments for men containing strap. 5. Briefs: Men underwear (short ). 6. Lingerie: Ladies underwear ( short ). 7. Boxer Shorts: Long size men underwear above the knee. 8. Sweat Shirt: Long sleeve T-Shirt made of fleece fabric. 9. Socks 10. Tights/Hose/Leggings: Ladies skin trouser.
  • 21. 21 11. Singlet: Ladies top garments with strap. 12. Hoody: Long sleeve top garments with hood. Generally made of fleece fabric. 13. Gloves: Hand wear for long time use on hand when use of finger is necessary. 14. Mitten: Hand wear for short time use when use of finger is not necessary. 15. Sports Wear: Garments used in any type of sports. 16.Swim Shirt: Garments used as swimming dress. These garments are skin tight, made of hydrophobic fibre and water proof. 17. Pazamas: Night dress- both top & bottom.  Heavy Knit or Sweater: 1. Pullover: Long sleeve sweater without button at front. 2. Slipover: Sleeveless sweater without button at front. 3. Vest/Waist Coat/Over Coat: Sleeveless sweater with button at front. 4. Cardigan: Long sleeve sweater with button at front. 5. Zip-up: Long sleeve sweater with zipper at front.
  • 22. 22 6. Half-zip: Long sleeve sweater with half-zipper at front.  Type s of Fleece: Generally there are two types of fleece. 1. Terri Fleece: One side of this fabric is like single jersey and other side is brushed. 2. Polar Fleece: Both sides of this fleece are brushed.  Type s of Stripe: Generally there are two types of fleece. 1.Feeder Stripe: When the repeat size of strip in the fabric is less or equal 4 cm. then it is called Feeder Stripe. 2.Engineering Stripe: When the repeat size of strip in the fabric is grater than 4 cm. then it is called Feeder Stripe.  Outer Wear: Garments that protect from bad weather are called Outer Wear. e.g. Rain Coat, Trench Coat, Wind Breaker.
  • 23. 23 Without fabric, all materials used in garments is called “Accessories” or “Trimmings”. Accessories that used in sewing are called sewing accessories. Sewing accessories generally used in garments are described below.  Name of Some Sewing Accessories: 1.Sewing Thread: Sewing thread is a ply of two or more yarn having more strength and abrasion resistant. 2.Interlining: Interlining is one kind of accessories used between two layers of the fabrics in the garments which is invisible. Purpose of Using Interlining: Interlining is used for desired shape and strength of a component of the garments. Types of Interlining: I) Woven Interlining II) Non-woven Interlining Uses: collar and cuff of shirt, lapel of jacket, blazer front, waist belt, belt loop, pocket flap etc. Pelion: Woven fusible Non-woven fusible Woven non-fusible Non-woven non-fusible
  • 24. 24 Non-woven interlining made of paper which is widely used in pants is called Pelion. It is cheaper and it has high shrinkage resistant. 3.Lining: Linings are the extra fabric used in inner face of the body part in the garments as an extra protection and also to provide comfort. e.g. Taffeta of blazer and coat.  Taffeta: Taffeta refers to any plain woven fabric made of filament yarn. There are unbalanced taffeta, balanced taffeta, meri’s taffeta and iridescent taffeta. 4.Elastic: Elastic means narrow fabric made of elastomeric fibres which extended when stretch is applied and recover its original shape when stretch is withdrawn. Elastics are specified by their width. Width of elastic used: ½”, ¾”, 1”, 1.5”, 2” 2.5” Uses: Waist belt of normal pants, Pajamas, Shirt, Kid’s Pants, Briefs, Lingerie’s, Button hole elastic etc, 5.Label: A label is accessory which indicates various instructions about garments. The label is attached with garments by sewing. Types of Label: I) Main Label: Contains buyer name or brand name. II) Size Label: Contains garments size. III) Care Label: Provides information about washing, ironing, drying etc.
  • 25. 25 IV) Integrated Label: Contains main label, care label, and size label in a combination. Care Label contains: I) Composition of garments II) Care symbol III) Country of origin 6.Shoulder Pad: Shoulder pad is widely used in shoulder of coat and blazer. It is used for both functional and decorative use. Shoulder pad may be of different size, thickness, structure and quality. Shoulder pad made of foam is comparatively cheaper. 7.Rib: -Rib is a double jersey fabric. Rib is used as- -Collar of T-shirt: -this is made by circular knitting machine. -Collar of Polo-shirt: -this is made by flat-bed knitting machine. -Collar of sweater. -Collar of Hoddy. -Cuff of T-shirt -Cuff of Polo-shirt -Cuff of sweater and -Cuff of hoody 8.Pre-made Waist Band: Pre-made Waist Band is used inside the waist band for extra decoration. 9.Twill Tape: Herringbone type tape used in Bermuda, polo-shirt, binding in T-shirt etc. 10.Canvas Tape: Plain weave type tape used in polo-shirt, binding in T-shirt etc. Application of Canvas Tape & Twill Tape:
  • 26. 26 - Flap open and close - To give particular shape and stable the garments - Decorative purpose 11.Velcro/Hook & Loop/Hook & Bar: It is used for pocket attaching or decorative purpose in body wear, cargo pants etc. 12.Zipper: Zipper is a fastening device operating by means of two parallel rows of plastic or metal teeth on either side to interlock two parts of garments by a sliding tab. Components of zipper: I) Slider II) Teeth II) Upper stopper IV)Lower stopper V) Tap. Types of Zipper: -Plastic zipper or nylon zipper -Metal zipper & -Vislon zipper Accessories that used in finishing are called finishing accessories. finishing accessories generally used in garments are described below.  Name of Some Sewing Accessories: 1.Button: Button is an important finishing accessory which is used for fastening and also used for decorative purpose. Size of button is expressed in “Ligne” where, 1 Ligne = 0.635 mm 26 - Flap open and close - To give particular shape and stable the garments - Decorative purpose 11.Velcro/Hook & Loop/Hook & Bar: It is used for pocket attaching or decorative purpose in body wear, cargo pants etc. 12.Zipper: Zipper is a fastening device operating by means of two parallel rows of plastic or metal teeth on either side to interlock two parts of garments by a sliding tab. Components of zipper: I) Slider II) Teeth II) Upper stopper IV)Lower stopper V) Tap. Types of Zipper: -Plastic zipper or nylon zipper -Metal zipper & -Vislon zipper Accessories that used in finishing are called finishing accessories. finishing accessories generally used in garments are described below.  Name of Some Sewing Accessories: 1.Button: Button is an important finishing accessory which is used for fastening and also used for decorative purpose. Size of button is expressed in “Ligne” where, 1 Ligne = 0.635 mm 26 - Flap open and close - To give particular shape and stable the garments - Decorative purpose 11.Velcro/Hook & Loop/Hook & Bar: It is used for pocket attaching or decorative purpose in body wear, cargo pants etc. 12.Zipper: Zipper is a fastening device operating by means of two parallel rows of plastic or metal teeth on either side to interlock two parts of garments by a sliding tab. Components of zipper: I) Slider II) Teeth II) Upper stopper IV)Lower stopper V) Tap. Types of Zipper: -Plastic zipper or nylon zipper -Metal zipper & -Vislon zipper Accessories that used in finishing are called finishing accessories. finishing accessories generally used in garments are described below.  Name of Some Sewing Accessories: 1.Button: Button is an important finishing accessory which is used for fastening and also used for decorative purpose. Size of button is expressed in “Ligne” where, 1 Ligne = 0.635 mm
  • 27. 27 Types of Button: According to the number of hole button can be classified as- - 2 hole button & - 4 hole button 2.Snap: Snap is a fastening device that contains four parts. 3.Shank Button: Shank Button is a fastening device that has no hole. It contains two parts which are attached by pressing. It is used in casual garments. The button-hole of shank button is called “Eyelet’’. 4.Rivit: It is a fastening device contains two parts. It used for fastening and decorative purpose. The size of rivet is expressed in “Ligne”. 5.Patch: Lather made accessories used at the back side of waist belt which contain brand name. it is used for decorative purpose. 6.Pocket Flasher: Trim that used on back pocket of jeans for decorative purpose. 7.Size Strip: Trim that used at front of pants. It contains the size of the pants. 8.Collar Stay 28L
  • 28. 28 9.Neck Board 10.Back Board 11.Collar Stay 11.Butterfly 13.Hanger: It is used for hanging garment. There are different types of hanger for different types of garment. 14.Poly Bag: I) Individual- one garment/bag II) Blister- more than 1 to 100 garments/bag 16.Carton: Number of ply indicates the quality of a carton. There are -3 ply carton -5 ply carton -7ply carton -9 ply carton etc. These are used for shirt to keep the shape undisturbed and to resist crease during transporting and retailing. 17. Eyelet 18. Draw-cord 19. Stopper
  • 29. 29 20.Gum Tape: Gum tape is used to bind the carton. 21.Buckle: Metal trim used in waist band of trench coat. 22.Photo-in-lay: Photo of packed garment on the packet. 23.PP Belt: It is used at the joining point of carton containing garments. 24.Price Ticket: Price ticket contains- - Unit price of garment - Barcode etc. 25.Hanger Sizer: It contains garment size. 26.Hook and Eye: Trims that used in fastening of kid’s pants. 27.Tissue Paper: It is used in garments packing.
  • 30. 30  Stitch: Stitch is a loop or unit in seam line, produced by sewing.  Seam: Seam is a joint where two or more plies of fabric are held together.  Sewing: Sewing is a process of producing seam by stitches of thread or threads.  Yarn & Thread: Yarn is the ply of fibres or filaments where as the thread is the ply of yarn which is used in sewing. Thread is used in sewing because of its- - More strength - More durability - More abrasion resistant etc. Methods of Stitch Formation: Inter-looping Intra-looping Inter-locking Seam Stitch
  • 31. 31 Loop of one thread passes through the loop of another thread. Loop of one thread passes through the loop of same thread. Loop of one thread passes over the loop of another thread. 1. Stitch Class 100: Single thread chain stitch. Features:  Stitches are formed one set of thread called “Needle Thread”.  Stitches are formed by intra-looping.  If one end of stitch is pulled then whole sewing will be opened. Sub-Classes: a) 101: Uses: It is used for blasting (temporary stitching). e.g. Blazer components joining before final sewing to cooperate sewing. b) 103: Blind Stitch. Feature: One side is invisible and other side is like chain. Use: Bottom hemming of dress pants. Upper Side Bottom Side
  • 32. 32 2. Stitch Class 200: Hand Stitch. Features:  Sewing thread is alternately visible in at top and bottom side.  Special type of sewing machine is used. Sub-Classes: a) 202: This type of stitch is formed by hand. b) 209: This type of stitch is formed by “Pique Stitch Machine’’. Uses: Lapel of Blazer, collar of shirt, saddle stitch etc.  Saddle Stitch: A special type of stitch which is formed by Pique Stitch Machine using Thick thread. It is used in Cowboy Jeans. 3. Stitch Class 300: Lock Stitch. Features:  This type of stitch is formed by two sets of threads called- Needle thread & Bobbin thread.  This type of stitch has more strength and security but very poor elasticity.  Because of small storage capacity of bobbin this process is time consuming. Sub-Classes: a) 301: Bobbin Thread
  • 33. 33 Use: Top stitching in garments. b) 304: Uses: Elastic attaching, lace attaching etc. 4. Stitch Class 400: Multi-thread Chain Stitch. Features:  This type of stitch is formed by two sets of threads called- Needle thread & Looper thread.  One side of stitch is like lock stitch and other side is like chain.  Elasticity is excellent. Sub-Classes: a) 401: 1Needle + 1Looper Uses: Inseam and out seam of jeans. b) 406: 2Needle + 1Looper Uses: Sleeve and bottom hem of T-shirt. c) 407: 3Needle + 1Looper Needle Thread Bobbin Thread Upper side Bottom side
  • 34. 34 Uses: Sleeve and bottom hem of T-shirt & Polo-shirt. Hemming: Hem is the end of the garment and the process of making hem is called hemming. 5. Stitch Class 100: Over edge Neatening. Features:  This type of stitch is used to prevent the fraying out of loose yarns of the edge of fabric,  It also called Edging. Sub-Classes: a) 503: 1Needle + 1Looper Use: Only for edging. b) 504: 1Needle + 2Looper Uses: For edging & light seaming. c) 514: 1Needle + 2Looper Uses: For edging & heavy seaming. d) 515: 401.503 1N 1L 1N 1L
  • 35. 35 e) 516: 401.504 N.B. : 503,504,514 are British Standard & 515 & 516 (Combination Stitch) are US Standard. 6. Stitch Class 100: Covering Chain Stitch: Features:  This type of stitch is produced by 3 sets of thread. One set is called Needle thread and other two are called top & bottom covering thread.  It is very complicated. Sub-Classes: a) 602: 2Needle + 2Looper Use: Sleeve and bottom hem of T-shirt, Polo-shirt & decorative purpose. b) 605: 3Needle + 2Looper Uses: For decorative purpose & elastic attaching of under garments. Uses: For edging & seaming.
  • 36. 36 c) 606: 4Needle + 5Looper Uses: Not used in our country. 1.Seam Class-1: Superimposed Seam. Here edges of the fabrics are placed together and sewing is done along edge. e.g.- side seam & inseam of pants. 2. Seam Class-2: Lapped Seam.
  • 37. 37 Here edges of the fabrics are placed opposite to each other and sewing is done on the overlapping portion. e.g.- side seam & inseam of pants, Lungi etc. 3. Seam Class-3: Bound Seam. Here the edge of the fabric is bound by a strip of fabric. e.g.- Pocket of pants and other decorative purpose. 4. Seam Class-4: Flat Seam. Here the edges of the fabrics are placed by side & then sewn. e.g.- Cut & sew garments. 5. Seam Class-5: Decorative Seam.
  • 38. 38 Here the edges of the fabrics are closed by a strip of fabric. e.g.- Decorative garments. 6. Seam Class-6: Edge Neatening Seam. Here the edges of the fabrics are cut and then sewn for clean edging. e.g.- Hemming of knit garments. 7. Seam Class-7: When additional part such as elastic , lace etc are attached to the fabric then Seam Class-7 is used. 8.Stitch Class-8: When self fabric is folded and sewn then seam class-8 is produced. e.g.- Belt loop of pants, box plate of shirt, hemming of T-shirt & Polo-shirt. Elastic
  • 39. 39 Types of Sewing thread being used in the garments industry of Bangladesh- 1. Polyester Core spun Thread. 2. Spun Polyester Thread. 3. Staple Spun Cotton Thread. 4. Textured Polyester Thread. 5. Polyester Cotton Core spun Thread. 6. Trilobal Polyester Thread. 1.Polyester Corespun Thread: This is more costly thread. This type of thread is produced by spinning staple polyester fibre around a core of high tenacity continuous filament polyester in yarn- spinning operation. Two or more of these composite yarns are then twisted together to give the necessary size and tensile strength. e.g. Epic(Coats). Uses: Mainly used in topstitching of shirts, blouses, trousers, sportswear, jeans & work clothes etc. Core polyester filament Staple polyester filament
  • 40. 40 Advantages: o Exceptionally strong. o 3.Its resistance to abrasion helps ensure long seam life in a wide variety of materials. o Fine threads can be used for delicate fabric without compromising on strength, thereby avoiding problems like seam pucker 2. Spun Polyester Thread: Staple polyester fibres are spun into polyester yarn. Then two or more of spun polyester yarns are twisted together to produce spun polyester thread. e.g. Astra (Coats) Advantages: o 1.High tenacity of polyester ensures greater strength and thereby high abrasion resistance. o 2.Very least amount of shrinkage (less than 1%) compared to cotton thread. Uses: Mainly for over-edging. Also used for general seaming of shirts, trousers, knitwear, jackets, blouses etc 3. Staple Spun Cotton Thread: Normally long staple cotton fibres are spun into cotton yarn. Then two or more ply of spun cotton yarn are twisted together to produce spun cotton thread. e.g. dymax (Coats)
  • 41. 41 Advantages: o 100% cotton thread have relatively low strength and elongation compared to those in synthetic thread , therefore they need relatively light sewing tension and high stitch densities. o B. Very high amount of shrinkage compared to synthetic thread. Uses: Mainly used in sewing cotton garments that are to be post dyed. 4. Textured Polyester Thread: Made from textured continuous polyester filament. (Note- texturing means modification by applying crimp to thefilament) . e.g. Gramax (Coats). Advantages: o 1.Provides high softness and comfort. o High extensibility and seam strength enhance higher seam security. Uses: Mainly used in “next to the skin” seams for high softness .e.g. under ware, swimwear, baby wear, Also widely used in over-locking and covering stitches for high extensibility and seam security. 5. Polyester Cotton Core spun Thread: A Made of polyester filament in the core and staple cotton fibre which wraps polyester filament. Two or three plies of this yarn are twisted together to make thread. e.g. dual duty (Coats).
  • 42. 42 Advantages: o This thread has been developed to improve the properties cotton and to get the opportunities of both cotton and polyester fibre. o Very low shrinkage, good strength and cotton core protects poly core from needle heat and high ironing temperature. Uses: fine cotton denim shirt , outdoor wear etc. 6. Trilobal Polyester thread: Newly developed polyester fibre to improve the dullness of usual polyester fibre. Trilobal poly is a multiple filament, twisted, high-sheen continuous fiber thread. It has the bright appearance of rayon or silk. Triangular shaped fibers reflect more light and give an attractive sparkle to Uses: embroidery for garment. Garment defects can be separated into 3 categories 1. Fabric defects: These are defects that are found in the fabric, mostly these are not caused by the sewing lines. e.g. running shade, selvedge to selvedge shade, holes, staining mark, missing yarn, foreign yarn, slub, hairiness etc. 2. Workmanship and handling defects: These are defects that are directly caused by production section, this would include both the cutting and sewing section. Buyer’s approved samples must be referred to maintain perfect workmanship.
  • 43. 43  Types of Workmanship defect: a) Seam Puckering: refers to the gathering of a seam either just after sewing or after laundering causing an unacceptable seam appearance. This problem arises due to uneven stretching on to plies of fabric during sewing , improper thread tension , wrong sewing thread selection , dimensional instability of the plies of fabric etc. b) Shading Variations within different parts: -arises due to improper cutting , bundling and numbering. c) Open seam or broken seam: Portion of the garment that has not been covered by sewing thread. This happens due to improper handling of the parts of garments , improper setting and timing between needle and looper or hook etc. d) Broken Stitch: Non-continuous sewing thread. It appears due to improper trimming or machine usage. e) Drop stitch/Skipped stitch: Irregular stitching along the seam. It appears due to improper handling of cut pieces or machine usage. f)Wavy/staggered stitching: Stitches are not straight. It appears due to improper handling of cut pieces , faulty feed mechanism , needle deflection or wrong needle. g) Uncut/ loose thread : Extra thread or loose thread on seam line. It appears due to improper trimming or finishing. h) Sizing defects (Difference in measurement of various parts of garments): Wrong placement of pocket, buttonhole, embroidery and prints , measurement discrepancy- all these problems come from pattern section. I) Poor ironing: If ironing is not sufficient, there might be creases and crinkles on garment surface and if ironing is too heavy, there might be shining mark on garment.
  • 44. 44 j) misaligned buttons and holes ,unfinished buttonhole, missing buttons, wrong placement of labels, hang tag, wrong folding or poor folding , improper packing into cartons – all these defects come from finishing section. 3. Trims, accessories and embellishment defects: These defects include color, size and placement of trims such as labels, sewing thread, screen print , embroidery designs, zipper, hangtag, lining , button and any kind of trims. Defects are also classified (as per extent of defect) into Critical, Major and Minor defects. 1.Critical defects are defects that are not allowed to be shipped and are the most serious of defects (0%). 2. Major defects are serious defects that are not allowed over a certain percentage (3%) depending on buyers requirements 3. Minor defects are serious defects that are not allowed over a certain percentage (5%) depending on buyers requirements. The garments which are ready to shipment must be packed into carton according to the buyers requirement . They can be packed into carton according to the following methods- 1.solid color solid size: The size of garments and color will be same when packed into carton . Here the carton contain same color and size. Color S Green 300
  • 45. 45 2.Solid color assorted size: Here color of garments mill be same but size of color will be different. The carton containssame color but not same size. color S M L Green 200 300 400 . 3.Assorted color solid size: The color of garments will be different but the size of all garments will be same when it is packed into carton . here the carton contain same size of garments but not same size . Color S Green 200 Red 300 4.Assorted color assorted size: The size of garments are different also of garments will be different while packing into carton .The carton contain different color garments with different size. Color S M L Green 100 200 300 Yellow 300 500 400 Blue 200 250 150 AQL: The maximum defective percentage up to which the sample of a lot is acceptable ,is called AQL.IT IS expressed as percentage, .5% , .65% , 1%, 1.5% , 2% , 2.5% , 4% , 6%. If there are more aql , there are more flexibility. Basically we will randomly select a sampling size quantity to be inspected . After inspection according to the number of defect found, we will advice to accept or to reject our shipment from the chart of AQL Table-1: Inspection Level.
  • 46. 46 Lot size Inspection label I II III Letter code 500-1000 L 1001-5000 N 5001-10000 II M 10001-20000 S 100001-500000 W From the AQL chart we can obtain the following result- Letter code Sample size AQL 2% M 500 Acceptable -10 Rejected-11 If the rejected garments are not more than 10 piece than the shipment is acceptable according to 2% AQL. Pressing: it is the process of finishing of garments by heat and pressure.ironing is one kind of pressing .besides ,various pressing machines are used for various purpose Objects of pressing:  To remove crease and crinkle .  To apply crease and garments where necessary. For example , lapel of blazer , front and back part of dress pants, pleat of skirt.  To give particular shape of garments. For example lapel of blazer , front and back part of dress pants, pleat of skirt.  Types of pressing:
  • 47. 47  No pressing: In this case pressing is not necessary. For example- brief and lingerie  Minimum pressing : In this method pressing is done only by heat and no pressure is applied. e.g.- sweater and night gowns.  Under pressing: Some part of garments are pressed after cutting and before sewing. Like: front and back part of blazer., dress pants are ironed before sewing.  Final pressing: This is general pressing to all garments after sewing . like jacket, trousers , shirts.  Permanent pressing: to apply crease on garments where necessary. Like lapel of blazer.  Poplin weave  Oxford weave  Twill weave  Dobby weave  Jacquard weave 1.Poplin weave  Poplin Higher E.P.I and P.P.I yarn count is more than 30.  Sheeting 133X72 40X40 64x64 30x30
  • 48. 48 Equal E.P.I and P.P.I. Yarn count ranges from 20-30.  Calico Yarn count:11-20 Uses: apron , pants etc.  canvas Yarn count : It ranges from 6-10 Normally used in pants.  Taffetta Used for lining of blazer. Made of polyester or nylon.  Teslan It is also used for lining of blazer. Made of polyester but heavier than taffeta  Flannel: Woven fabric & one side of this fabric is brushed. Used as winter garments.  Chambray : warp yarn is colored and weft yarn is white . used for shirt.  Ottoman: Used as pants. 2.Twill weave: 96x76 14x14 72x48 7x7 110x76 70Dx70 96x72 70Dx140D
  • 49. 49 1.Basic twill: Normally used in denim fabric.Always 1 down in their construction. No count variation. a.Basic denim b.Ring denim c. Slub denim d .Cross hatch 2.Sateen and Satin :In terms of cotton and rayon respectively. 3.Broken twill: Used in casual pants and casual jacket. 4.Herringbone: It shows zig-zag looking on fabric. 4.Dobby Weave: It is combination of plain and twill. Normally used for shirt and blouse. To examplify its included rib stop fabric which perform box effect. 5.Jacquard: In jacquard any design can be produced by controlling every individual yarn.  Check and Pliaid: If repeat size is more than 3x3 in inches then It will be plaid fabric. And If repeat size is less than 3x3 in inches then it will be called check constructed fabric.  Knit fabric: 1.Single jersey: Two side of these fabric are different. Used for T-shirt , tank top, polo–shirt etc. G.S.M ranges from 120-200.
  • 50. 50 2.Rib : Both side are same. Used for ladies item , undergarments etc. 3.Interlock : Both side are same. Used for ladies item, undergarments etc. 4.Pique fabric: It contains very small size pore in their construction. Normally used in polo shirt. 5.Lacoste fabric: it also contains pore but bigger than pique. Normally used in polo shirt. 6.Fleece fabric: In knit fabric fleece may be two types .  Polar fleece –Here both side is brushed  Terry fleece – Here one side single jersey and other side is brushed. DTM: It means Dye to Match. It means that color should be match with body fabric of garments. This term may be used for matching color of sewing thread, elastic, zipper tape etc with fabric as the buyer requirement. LAB DIP: For a particular color buyer may provide sample or Panton number. For approving the shade it is necessary to developed color at lab and this developed color or sample is called lab dip. YARN DIP: When the yarns are dyed in the lab for a particular shade for buyers approval this developed sample is called yarn dip. STRIKE OFF: When garments contain particular print design, it is necessary to develop the print at the lab for buyer’s approval. This developed print design is called strike off. ART WORK: When embroidery design of a particular garment is necessary to develop at the lab for buyer’s approval, then the developed embroidery design is called Artwork.
  • 51. 51 HAND LOOM: It buyer desires stripe fabric then it is necessary to develop the repeat of the stripe in the lab for buyers approval. The developed sample of stripe is called hand loom. Conclusion: This course is designed in much more effective way by our respectable course teacher. We have gathered many important information about from these lectures. This information will be very helpful in our future.

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