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  • 1. HIST 110: Week # 5
    University of Phoenix
    Cypress Creek Campus
    Professor Jennifer L. Blank
    July 6th, 2011
  • 2. Workshop Schedule:
    6:00 – 6:15
    Arrival and discussion of objectives
    6:15 – 6:45
    Student presentations from last week
    6:45 – 7:30
    Class party
    7:30 – 8:00
    BREAK
    8:00 – 9:00
    Power point presentation of Sectionalism
    9:00 – 9:30
    Group Activity
    9:30 – 10:00
    Wrap-up
  • 3. What is sectionalism?
    When regional or state interests take precedence at the expense of national or federal interests
    The primary cause of the Civil War
    States rights vs. Federal Authority
  • 4. Problems of Sectional Balance in 1850:
    California statehood
    This would make the number of free and slave states uneven
    Southern states (primarily South Carolina) threaten secession
    Secession is separation from the union
    Underground railroad, fugitive slave issues, and abolitionists
    Mostly from the north (abolitionists)
    Fugitive slaves would run to the north and be safe from capture by their owners
  • 5. Differences Divide North and South
    Regional Differences
    North
    More factories
    People began moving to the cities to work
    Less people were farming
    People from other countries moved to the North
    Population grew rapidly to over 19 million PEOPLE!!!
  • 6. Plantation Life
    Huge plantations
    Needed a lot of workers
    Used slave labor
  • 7. The South
    Farming remained the main way to earn a living
    Most were small one family farms
    Cut lumber, raised cattle, and raised just enough food for their own families
    • Population was a lot smaller (11 million) than in the North (19 million)
  • The Slave Economy
    Many people began to turn against slavery
    Cost of owning slaves was too high for most
    Most slaves worked on large plantations.
    Very few white Southerners could afford to own slaves.
  • 8. “King Cotton”
    Cotton was hard to prepare for market
    The little seeds had to be separated from the cotton.
    This was very hard to do and took a LOT of TIME
    Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin
    Made cleaning cotton easier
    Farmers grew more cotton and made more money
    Needed more slaves to work the cotton
  • 9. Africans in Slavery and Freedom
    Life Under Slavery
    Slave Codes
    Laws for slaves
    Slaves could not leave owners’ land
    Could not buy or sell goods
    Not allowed to learn to read or write
    Treated as property with very few privileges
  • 10. Coping with Slavery
    Spirituals
    Formed close knit groups to help each other
    Sang religious songs to give them strength
  • 11. Overseers
    Hired to watch the slaves work and punish them if they fell behind.
  • 12. Fighting Back
    Fighting Back
    Most resisted slavery ( act against)
    Quiet ways they resisted
    Broke tools, left gates open to let the farm animals out, let boats drift away, hid stuff the owners needed and acted like they knew nothing about it at all
  • 13. Violent Resistance
    Violent ways to resist
    Nat Turner’s Revolt
    Led an attack killing 57 people
    He and others were caught, tried in court, and hanged
  • 14. Running Away
    Running Away
    Many chose to run away
    Found safe places to hide
    Indians protected some
    Hid in forest, swamps, and mountains
    Some made it to the free North, some to Canada and others went south to Mexico
    Many were helped by the Underground Railroad
    Many were caught and punished for trying to escape.
  • 15. The Underground Railroad
    System of escape routes leading to freedom
    Members were called conductors
    Hiding places were called stations
    Harriet Tubman was most famous
    An escaped slave
    Returned to the South over 20 times to help others
  • 16. Free Africans
    Not all Africans were slaves
    Some were former slaves freed by their owners
    Others had bought their freedom
    Some had escaped to freedom
    Many lived in the cities where they had a better chance to work
  • 17. Life for Africans…
    Life for most Africans, free or not, was still hard because:
    Unwelcome in many places
    Often treated unfairly
    Had little freedom
    Not allowed to vote or meet in groups
    Could not attend school or have certain jobs
    Whites Only
  • 18. North and South Disagree on Slavery:
    States’ Rights
    South didn’t like depending on the North’s manufactured goods
    Thought the North was getting RICH off of them
    Slavery
    Settlers from the South who moved west took their slaves
    Settlers from the North didn’t own slaves and thought slavery was wrong.
    WHO would WIN Would there be slavery in the new territories or NOT???
  • 19. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    Political Sectionalism
    Missouri Compromise 1820
    Missouri - slave state
    Maine - free state
    Entry of states into the Union have to be balanced - one free/one slave
    Gag Rule of 1836
    Compromise of 1850
    California a free state
    Slavery allowed in the other territories acquired from Mexico
  • 20. New Compromises
    Henry Clay
    Worked hard to settle differences dividing the nation.
    Congressman from Kentucky
    Free state: didn’t want slavery.
    Slave state: wanted slavery
    Everything was EVEN until Missouri became a state.
  • 21. The Missouri Compromise
    Asked to join the U.S. as a slave state
    This would make more slave states than free.
    Missouri would join as a slave state AND Maine would join as a free state.
    Imaginary line would be drawn through the rest of the Louisiana territory
  • 22. Solutions to the Problem
    North of the line = Free States
    South of the line = Slave states
  • 23. Results of the Missouri Compromise of 1820
    Kept the peace for nearly 30 years
    Six new states joined the Union – 3 slave and 3 free….still equal in number
    AND THEN along came…California
  • 24. Fugitive Slave Law
    A new law that said:
    Anyone caught helping slaves escape would be punished.
    If you found a runaway slave, you had to return them to their owner.
  • 25. The Compromise of 1850
    Henry Clay to the rescue AGAIN
    California = Free
    New Mexico and Utah territories= people would decide
    Popular Sovereignty
  • 26. Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser
    Died in 1852
    Never gave up hope in finding peaceful solutions to problems
    One his grave marker it says,
    “I know no North – no South – No East – No West”
  • 27. Compromise of 1850:
  • 28. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    Political Sectionalism
    Despite territorial gains emerged from then Mexican American War, Americans were more divided than ever
    North denounced war as a southern project for expanding slavery
    David Wilmot - Wilmot Proviso
    no slavery in Mexican Territory
    Many hoping the Compromise of 1850 had finally settled slavery
  • 29. The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party]
    • Nativists.
    • 30. Anti-Catholics.
    • 31. Anti-immigrants.
    1849  Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.
  • 32. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
    organized 2 new federal territories
    repealed section of Missouri Compromise
    prohibiting slavery in states/territories north of 36º 30’ latitude
    people decide (popular sovereignty)
    “Bleeding Kansas”
  • 33. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
  • 34. Hopes for Peace Fade
    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Gave people living there the choice by voting
    Hundreds moved in to “vote” on whether to be a free or slave state.
    Tempers FLARED and over 200 people were killed in the dispute
    Nicknamed “ Bleeding Kansas”
  • 35. “Bleeding Kansas”
    Border “Ruffians”(pro-slavery Missourians)
  • 36. “The Crime Against Kansas”
    Sen. Charles Sumner(R-MA)
    Congr. Preston Brooks(D-SC)
  • 37. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr?
    Mural in the Kansas Capitol buildingby John Steuart Curry (20c)
  • 38. John Brown’s Rebellion
    John Brown’s rebellion at Harper’s Ferry
    A white abolitionist
    Stole guns from Harper’s Ferry warehouse to give to slaves
    Caught, tried, and hanged
  • 39. John Brown’s Raidon Harper’s Ferry, 1859
  • 40. Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
  • 41. Dred Scott Case
    Supreme Court ruled that once a slave, living in a free state, didn’t change that.
    Said Scott had “none of the rights and privileges” of American citizens
    Also said Congress had no right to outlaw slavery because the Constitution protects people’s right to own PROPERTY and slaves were PROPERTY!!!
  • 42. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    Dred Scott Decision 1857
    Southern dominated court
    Slaves were property
    "congress could not ban slavery from territories”
    Chief Justice Roger Taney
  • 43. Birth of the Republican Party, 1854
    • Northern Whigs.
    • 44. Northern Democrats.
    • 45. Free-Soilers.
    • 46. Know-Nothings.
    • 47. Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
  • Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    Change in 2 party system
    Democrats & Whigs
    Democrats (dough faces)
    needed northern candidate to win because of the number of southerners
    F. Pierce 1852, J. Buchanan 1856, Douglas ?
    Whigs
    Kansas & Nebraska Act killed party divided sectionally
    North & South too far apart on slavery issue to hold party together
  • 48. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    Change in 2 party system
    Democrats & Whigs
    Whigs & Free Soilers = Republicans
    * only a northern party
    tolerate slavery in south
    unwilling to accept it's expansion
    demand that the Kansas & Nebraska Act be repealed
    central railroad (rather than northern as Douglas proposed)
    Homestead Act - western lands to families to settle 160 acres
  • 49. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    The Election of 1860
    Aggressive movements of pro slave movement
    frightened north
    Hardened resistance in North
    intensified southern insecurity
    South demands - congressional slave codes
  • 50. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    The Election of 1860
    Freeport Doctrine
    legislation to protect slave property in north
    Lead to a division of the Democratic Party
    Northern Democrats - Stephen Douglas
    appealed to North & South but ambiguous
    Southern Democrats - John Breckenridge
    Appealed to south - popular sovereignty
    Republicans - Abraham Lincoln
    Constitutional Union Party - John Bell
  • 51. The Election of 1860
  • 52. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events Leading to the Secession of the South
    Political Sectionalism
    Missouri Compromise
    Gag Rule
    Compromise of 1850
    Wilmot Proviso
    Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
    Dred Scot Decision 1857
    Election of 1860
  • 53. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Causes Leading to A Civil War
    1. Conspiracy
    President Country
    North Lincoln 1860 USA
    South J. Davis 1861 CSA
    Each side felt the other was conspiring against the other
    Laws & measures that inhibited the south - DAVIS
    Congress controlled by north
    North doesn't want to control south - south wants
    to expand into the west LINCOLN
    Each side didn't trust in an economic or political sense
  • 54. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Causes Leading to A Civil War
    2. Constitutional
    UNITED STATES VS. STATES UNITED
    South - separate individual states form the union
    since states formed the union they can opt out
    North - the union created the states by the constitution
    If the union is dissolved there is nothing
    LINCOLN WAS FIGHTING TO SAVE THE UNION NOT TO FREE THE SLAVES (a political move)
    Lincoln was a federalist & constitutionalist
  • 55. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Causes Leading to A Civil War
    3. Growth of Slavery
    South had 4 million slaves
    Slave owners 25%
    17 % 1-9 slaves
    7% 10-99 slaves
    .1% 100+
    very few had large plantations
    small minority of controlling whites controlled southern society
    Labor intensive agricultural society
    slaves imported because can't get enough whites to do the labor
  • 56. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Causes Leading to A Civil War
    3. Slavery
    Davis - the Blacks have a better condition under the superior White race
    “docile savages to bodily comforts and religious instruction”
    Lincoln - not in favor of bringing about the social or economic equality of Negroes
    “There must be the position of inferior/superior”
    Lincoln 1858
    Lincoln was a product of his own culture
    Freeing of slaves not a matter of equality!!!
    Yet he was against the concept of slavery
    SAVE THE UNION
  • 57. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Causes Leading to A Civil War
    4. Economic
    Labor
    South - free labor North - paid labor
    Tariffs
    North wanted to protect their products artificial inflation of imports
    South faced reciprocal tariffs when they exported their agricultural products
    South Against High Tariffs
    North Against Free Labor
  • 58. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Causes Leading to A Civil War
    4. Economic
    North passes laws in congress because of an imbalance in voting power
    19 Free States
    15 Slave States
  • 59. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Causes Leading to A Civil War
    5. Nature of a Republic
    What is a Republic?
    Representative Democracy
    Freedom to choose
    South choose to leave under this freedom
    Under another system this would not have happened!
  • 60. ". . . it presents the question whether discontented individuals too few in numbers to control administration according to organic law in any case, can always upon the pretenses made in this case, or on any other pretense, break up their government, and thus practically put an end to free government upon the earth. It forces us to ask: Is there, in all republics, this inherent and fatal weakness? Must a government, of necessity be too strong for the liberties of its own people or too weak to maintain its own existence?"
    Lincoln - July 4, 1861
    following Ft. Sumter
  • 61. “our heritage depends on inherent weakness of a republic to strong to maintain liberties yet too weak to maintain its existence”.
    Abraham Lincoln
  • 62. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Causes Leading to the Civil War
    Conspiracy
    Constitutional
    Slavery
    Economic
    Nature of a Republic
    1600 ---------------1787--------------1865---------------2000+
    Colonial Am. Nation Civil War
    Civil War 265 years since beginnings of our country
  • 63. The Lincoln-Douglas (Illinois Senate) Debates, 1858
    A House divided against itself, cannot stand.
  • 64. Stephen Douglas & the Freeport Doctrine
    PopularSovereignty?
  • 65. √ Abraham LincolnRepublican
    John BellConstitutional Union
    1860PresidentialElection
    Stephen A. DouglasNorthern Democrat
    John C. BreckinridgeSouthern Democrat
  • 66. Abraham Lincoln works for Change
    Violence because of the Kansas-Nebraska act got everyone’s attention
    Abraham Lincoln was against the SPREAD of slavery
    Republican Party formed to fight the spread of slavery.
    Lincoln ran for Senator
    Stephen A. Douglas, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, was his OPPONENT! The battle is ON………
  • 67. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    Abraham Lincoln
    Tall, thin man from the frontier
    Wore plain dark clothes
    Not well known
    Stephen Douglas
    Heavy and a foot shorter than Lincoln
    Well educated
    Wore fine clothes
    Senator
    Well known
    Both were powerful public speakers
  • 68. Douglas
    Each new state should decide the slavery question for itself.
  • 69. Lincoln
    “The framers of the Constitution intended slavery to end.”
    The problem is that slavery is WRONG!
  • 70. Senate Winner
    Stephen Douglas was re-elected to the Senate.
    But….now everyone knew who Abraham Lincoln was!!!
    Douglas Wins!
  • 71. The Election of 1860
    Democratic Party candidate: Douglas
    Democratic Party south: Breckinridge
    Republican Party: LINCOLN
  • 72. Stephen A. Douglas
    West should decide for themselves about slavery.
    States' Choice
  • 73. John Breckinridge
    Democratic candidate popular with southerners
    Government should allow slavery everywhere in the West.
    Slavery Everywhere
  • 74. Abraham Lincoln
    Republican candidate
    Against the SPREAD of slavery
    Promised not to stop slavery in the South where it was already practiced.
    Said he hoped it would one day END there, too.
    No Slavery beyond this point!
  • 75. Worried White Southerners
    Many in the South were afraid if Lincoln were elected, slavery would be outlawed.
    Some even said they would LEAVE the Union if Lincoln was elected.
    Lincoln In...We're OUT
  • 76. Republican Party Platform in 1860
    • Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers].
    • 77. Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].
    • 78. No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”].
    • 79. Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest].
    • 80. Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense.
    • 81. Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].
  • 1860 Election: 3 “Outs” & 1 ”Run!”
  • 82. 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart?!
  • 83. 1860
    Election
    Results
  • 84. Lincoln Elected President
    November 6, 1860
    December 20, 1860 South Carolina’s leaders seceded from the Union.
    Later SIX other southern states seceded:
    Mississippi
    Florida
    Alabama
    Georgia
    Louisiana
    Texas
  • 85. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    Events leading to the Secession of the South
    Secession
    "to withdraw formally from a union or alliance”
    Southern individual states nullified their ratification of the U.S. constitution
  • 86. The Process of Secession
  • 87. Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860
  • 88. Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861
  • 89. Fort Sumter
    Some advised Lincoln to “Let the states go”
    Others said, “Give in on the slavery question.”
    Still others said, “Use the ARMY to end their revolt!”
    Give In
    FIGHT
    Ignore
  • 90. Lincoln’s Choices
    He wanted to prevent war.
    “We are not enemies, but friends.”
    THE VERY NEXT DAY
    An important message came from Major Robert Anderson commander at Fort Sumter:
  • 91. Urgent!
    Message from Commander Anderson
    Supplies at the Fort are almost gone. If new supplies are not sent soon, we will be forced to surrender the fort to the Confederacy.
  • 92. What to Do???
    If I send supplies…Southerners might attack.
    If I send troops….Southerners WILL attack.
    If I do nothing…the commander will have to surrender.
    ?
    ?
    ?
  • 93. Decision
    Lincoln decided to send supply ships
    And see what the Southerners would do
  • 94. The Confederate States of America
  • 95. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    The Confederate States of America
    Constitution 1787 (1789 9 states ratified - 4 didn't)
    established government
    Constitution states that states can't coin money and can’t maintain an army but can they secede?
    Southern Position held that the Constitution did not automatically bind states
    Individual States first . . . then United States
    STATES UNITED
  • 96. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    The Confederate States of America
    Radicals - fire eaters
    South Carolinians since Nullification Controversy
    South Carolina state convention Dec 20, 1860
    repeal ratification of federal constitution
    6 weeks later MI, Fl, GA, Al, LA, TX succeed
    Delegates to Montgomery Alabama
    organized themselves as the C.S. of A.
    Jefferson Davis - President ( Mississippi)
  • 97. The Confederate States of America
    South Carolina
    Mississippi
    Florida
    Louisiana
    Alabama
    Georgia
    Texas
    Jefferson Davis
  • 98. Confederate President Davis
    Davis decided to take over the fort BEFORE the supply ships arrived.
    Demanded them to surrender.
    NEVER!
    The Confederate troops FIRED on the fort, Major Anderson and his men ran out of ammunition and had to give up.
  • 99. The Civil War has Begun!
    Lincoln called for Americans to join the army to stop the rebellion.
    Frightened southern states not in the Confederacy now joined with the other 7 states.
    Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina
    11 States Strong
  • 100. Key Causes of the Civil War:
    The Confederate States of America
    Individual States first . . . then United
    STATES UNITED
    11 southern states seceded and formed their own country
    North says no you can't leave = 4 long years of fighting
    CIVIL (internal) War - settle question about whether a state can succeed
    Pre Civil War The United States are
    Post Civil War The United States is