HIST 110: Week # 5 University of Phoenix Cypress Creek Campus Professor Jennifer L. Blank July 6th, 2011
Workshop Schedule: 6:00 – 6:15 Arrival and discussion of objectives 6:15 – 6:45 Student presentations from last week 6:45 – 7:30 Class party 7:30 – 8:00 BREAK 8:00 – 9:00 Power point presentation of Sectionalism 9:00 – 9:30 Group Activity 9:30 – 10:00 Wrap-up
What is sectionalism? When regional or state interests take precedence at the expense of national or federal interests The primary cause of the Civil War States rights vs. Federal Authority
Problems of Sectional Balance in 1850: California statehood This would make the number of free and slave states uneven Southern states (primarily South Carolina) threaten secession Secession is separation from the union Underground railroad, fugitive slave issues, and abolitionists Mostly from the north (abolitionists) Fugitive slaves would run to the north and be safe from capture by their owners
Differences Divide North and South Regional Differences North More factories People began moving to the cities to work Less people were farming People from other countries moved to the North Population grew rapidly to over 19 million PEOPLE!!!
Plantation Life Huge plantations Needed a lot of workers Used slave labor
The South Farming remained the main way to earn a living Most were small one family farms Cut lumber, raised cattle, and raised just enough food for their own families
Population was a lot smaller (11 million) than in the North (19 million)
The Slave Economy Many people began to turn against slavery Cost of owning slaves was too high for most Most slaves worked on large plantations. Very few white Southerners could afford to own slaves.
“King Cotton” Cotton was hard to prepare for market The little seeds had to be separated from the cotton. This was very hard to do and took a LOT of TIME Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin Made cleaning cotton easier Farmers grew more cotton and made more money Needed more slaves to work the cotton
Africans in Slavery and Freedom Life Under Slavery Slave Codes Laws for slaves Slaves could not leave owners’ land Could not buy or sell goods Not allowed to learn to read or write Treated as property with very few privileges
Coping with Slavery Spirituals Formed close knit groups to help each other Sang religious songs to give them strength
Overseers Hired to watch the slaves work and punish them if they fell behind.
Fighting Back Fighting Back Most resisted slavery ( act against) Quiet ways they resisted Broke tools, left gates open to let the farm animals out, let boats drift away, hid stuff the owners needed and acted like they knew nothing about it at all
Violent Resistance Violent ways to resist Nat Turner’s Revolt Led an attack killing 57 people He and others were caught, tried in court, and hanged
Running Away Running Away Many chose to run away Found safe places to hide Indians protected some Hid in forest, swamps, and mountains Some made it to the free North, some to Canada and others went south to Mexico Many were helped by the Underground Railroad Many were caught and punished for trying to escape.
The Underground Railroad System of escape routes leading to freedom Members were called conductors Hiding places were called stations Harriet Tubman was most famous An escaped slave Returned to the South over 20 times to help others
Free Africans Not all Africans were slaves Some were former slaves freed by their owners Others had bought their freedom Some had escaped to freedom Many lived in the cities where they had a better chance to work
Life for Africans… Life for most Africans, free or not, was still hard because: Unwelcome in many places Often treated unfairly Had little freedom Not allowed to vote or meet in groups Could not attend school or have certain jobs Whites Only
North and South Disagree on Slavery: States’ Rights South didn’t like depending on the North’s manufactured goods Thought the North was getting RICH off of them Slavery Settlers from the South who moved west took their slaves Settlers from the North didn’t own slaves and thought slavery was wrong. WHO would WIN Would there be slavery in the new territories or NOT???
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South Political Sectionalism Missouri Compromise 1820 Missouri - slave state Maine - free state Entry of states into the Union have to be balanced - one free/one slave Gag Rule of 1836 Compromise of 1850 California a free state Slavery allowed in the other territories acquired from Mexico
New Compromises Henry Clay Worked hard to settle differences dividing the nation. Congressman from Kentucky Free state: didn’t want slavery. Slave state: wanted slavery Everything was EVEN until Missouri became a state.
The Missouri Compromise Asked to join the U.S. as a slave state This would make more slave states than free. Missouri would join as a slave state AND Maine would join as a free state. Imaginary line would be drawn through the rest of the Louisiana territory
Solutions to the Problem North of the line = Free States South of the line = Slave states
Results of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 Kept the peace for nearly 30 years Six new states joined the Union – 3 slave and 3 free….still equal in number AND THEN along came…California
Fugitive Slave Law A new law that said: Anyone caught helping slaves escape would be punished. If you found a runaway slave, you had to return them to their owner.
The Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay to the rescue AGAIN California = Free New Mexico and Utah territories= people would decide Popular Sovereignty
Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser Died in 1852 Never gave up hope in finding peaceful solutions to problems One his grave marker it says, “I know no North – no South – No East – No West”
Compromise of 1850:
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South Political Sectionalism Despite territorial gains emerged from then Mexican American War, Americans were more divided than ever North denounced war as a southern project for expanding slavery David Wilmot - Wilmot Proviso no slavery in Mexican Territory Many hoping the Compromise of 1850 had finally settled slavery
The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party]
1849 Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 organized 2 new federal territories repealed section of Missouri Compromise prohibiting slavery in states/territories north of 36º 30’ latitude people decide (popular sovereignty) “Bleeding Kansas”
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
Hopes for Peace Fade Kansas-Nebraska Act Gave people living there the choice by voting Hundreds moved in to “vote” on whether to be a free or slave state. Tempers FLARED and over 200 people were killed in the dispute Nicknamed “ Bleeding Kansas”
“The Crime Against Kansas” Sen. Charles Sumner(R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks(D-SC)
John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? Mural in the Kansas Capitol buildingby John Steuart Curry (20c)
John Brown’s Rebellion John Brown’s rebellion at Harper’s Ferry A white abolitionist Stole guns from Harper’s Ferry warehouse to give to slaves Caught, tried, and hanged
John Brown’s Raidon Harper’s Ferry, 1859
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
Dred Scott Case Supreme Court ruled that once a slave, living in a free state, didn’t change that. Said Scott had “none of the rights and privileges” of American citizens Also said Congress had no right to outlaw slavery because the Constitution protects people’s right to own PROPERTY and slaves were PROPERTY!!!
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South Dred Scott Decision 1857 Southern dominated court Slaves were property "congress could not ban slavery from territories” Chief Justice Roger Taney
Birth of the Republican Party, 1854
Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South Change in 2 party system Democrats & Whigs Democrats (dough faces) needed northern candidate to win because of the number of southerners F. Pierce 1852, J. Buchanan 1856, Douglas ? Whigs Kansas & Nebraska Act killed party divided sectionally North & South too far apart on slavery issue to hold party together
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South Change in 2 party system Democrats & Whigs Whigs & Free Soilers = Republicans * only a northern party tolerate slavery in south unwilling to accept it's expansion demand that the Kansas & Nebraska Act be repealed central railroad (rather than northern as Douglas proposed) Homestead Act - western lands to families to settle 160 acres
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South The Election of 1860 Aggressive movements of pro slave movement frightened north Hardened resistance in North intensified southern insecurity South demands - congressional slave codes
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South The Election of 1860 Freeport Doctrine legislation to protect slave property in north Lead to a division of the Democratic Party Northern Democrats - Stephen Douglas appealed to North & South but ambiguous Southern Democrats - John Breckenridge Appealed to south - popular sovereignty Republicans - Abraham Lincoln Constitutional Union Party - John Bell
The Election of 1860
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events Leading to the Secession of the South Political Sectionalism Missouri Compromise Gag Rule Compromise of 1850 Wilmot Proviso Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 Dred Scot Decision 1857 Election of 1860
Key Causes of the Civil War: Causes Leading to A Civil War 1. Conspiracy President Country North Lincoln 1860 USA South J. Davis 1861 CSA Each side felt the other was conspiring against the other Laws & measures that inhibited the south - DAVIS Congress controlled by north North doesn't want to control south - south wants to expand into the west LINCOLN Each side didn't trust in an economic or political sense
Key Causes of the Civil War: Causes Leading to A Civil War 2. Constitutional UNITED STATES VS. STATES UNITED South - separate individual states form the union since states formed the union they can opt out North - the union created the states by the constitution If the union is dissolved there is nothing LINCOLN WAS FIGHTING TO SAVE THE UNION NOT TO FREE THE SLAVES (a political move) Lincoln was a federalist & constitutionalist
Key Causes of the Civil War: Causes Leading to A Civil War 3. Growth of Slavery South had 4 million slaves Slave owners 25% 17 % 1-9 slaves 7% 10-99 slaves .1% 100+ very few had large plantations small minority of controlling whites controlled southern society Labor intensive agricultural society slaves imported because can't get enough whites to do the labor
Key Causes of the Civil War: Causes Leading to A Civil War 3. Slavery Davis - the Blacks have a better condition under the superior White race “docile savages to bodily comforts and religious instruction” Lincoln - not in favor of bringing about the social or economic equality of Negroes “There must be the position of inferior/superior” Lincoln 1858 Lincoln was a product of his own culture Freeing of slaves not a matter of equality!!! Yet he was against the concept of slavery SAVE THE UNION
Key Causes of the Civil War: Causes Leading to A Civil War 4. Economic Labor South - free labor North - paid labor Tariffs North wanted to protect their products artificial inflation of imports South faced reciprocal tariffs when they exported their agricultural products South Against High Tariffs North Against Free Labor
Key Causes of the Civil War: Causes Leading to A Civil War 4. Economic North passes laws in congress because of an imbalance in voting power 19 Free States 15 Slave States
Key Causes of the Civil War: Causes Leading to A Civil War 5. Nature of a Republic What is a Republic? Representative Democracy Freedom to choose South choose to leave under this freedom Under another system this would not have happened!
". . . it presents the question whether discontented individuals too few in numbers to control administration according to organic law in any case, can always upon the pretenses made in this case, or on any other pretense, break up their government, and thus practically put an end to free government upon the earth. It forces us to ask: Is there, in all republics, this inherent and fatal weakness? Must a government, of necessity be too strong for the liberties of its own people or too weak to maintain its own existence?" Lincoln - July 4, 1861 following Ft. Sumter
“our heritage depends on inherent weakness of a republic to strong to maintain liberties yet too weak to maintain its existence”. Abraham Lincoln
Key Causes of the Civil War: Causes Leading to the Civil War Conspiracy Constitutional Slavery Economic Nature of a Republic 1600 ---------------1787--------------1865---------------2000+ Colonial Am. Nation Civil War Civil War 265 years since beginnings of our country
The Lincoln-Douglas (Illinois Senate) Debates, 1858 A House divided against itself, cannot stand.
Stephen Douglas & the Freeport Doctrine PopularSovereignty?
√ Abraham LincolnRepublican John BellConstitutional Union 1860PresidentialElection Stephen A. DouglasNorthern Democrat John C. BreckinridgeSouthern Democrat
Abraham Lincoln works for Change Violence because of the Kansas-Nebraska act got everyone’s attention Abraham Lincoln was against the SPREAD of slavery Republican Party formed to fight the spread of slavery. Lincoln ran for Senator Stephen A. Douglas, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, was his OPPONENT! The battle is ON………
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Abraham Lincoln Tall, thin man from the frontier Wore plain dark clothes Not well known Stephen Douglas Heavy and a foot shorter than Lincoln Well educated Wore fine clothes Senator Well known Both were powerful public speakers
Douglas Each new state should decide the slavery question for itself.
Lincoln “The framers of the Constitution intended slavery to end.” The problem is that slavery is WRONG!
Senate Winner Stephen Douglas was re-elected to the Senate. But….now everyone knew who Abraham Lincoln was!!! Douglas Wins!
The Election of 1860 Democratic Party candidate: Douglas Democratic Party south: Breckinridge Republican Party: LINCOLN
Stephen A. Douglas West should decide for themselves about slavery. States' Choice
John Breckinridge Democratic candidate popular with southerners Government should allow slavery everywhere in the West. Slavery Everywhere
Abraham Lincoln Republican candidate Against the SPREAD of slavery Promised not to stop slavery in the South where it was already practiced. Said he hoped it would one day END there, too. No Slavery beyond this point!
Worried White Southerners Many in the South were afraid if Lincoln were elected, slavery would be outlawed. Some even said they would LEAVE the Union if Lincoln was elected. Lincoln In...We're OUT
Republican Party Platform in 1860
Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers].
Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].
No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”].
Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest].
Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense.
Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].
1860 Election: 3 “Outs” & 1 ”Run!”
1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart?!
1860 Election Results
Lincoln Elected President November 6, 1860 December 20, 1860 South Carolina’s leaders seceded from the Union. Later SIX other southern states seceded: Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas
Key Causes of the Civil War: Events leading to the Secession of the South Secession "to withdraw formally from a union or alliance” Southern individual states nullified their ratification of the U.S. constitution
The Process of Secession
Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860
Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861
Fort Sumter Some advised Lincoln to “Let the states go” Others said, “Give in on the slavery question.” Still others said, “Use the ARMY to end their revolt!” Give In FIGHT Ignore
Lincoln’s Choices He wanted to prevent war. “We are not enemies, but friends.” THE VERY NEXT DAY An important message came from Major Robert Anderson commander at Fort Sumter:
Urgent! Message from Commander Anderson Supplies at the Fort are almost gone. If new supplies are not sent soon, we will be forced to surrender the fort to the Confederacy.
What to Do??? If I send supplies…Southerners might attack. If I send troops….Southerners WILL attack. If I do nothing…the commander will have to surrender. ? ? ?
Decision Lincoln decided to send supply ships And see what the Southerners would do
The Confederate States of America
Key Causes of the Civil War: The Confederate States of America Constitution 1787 (1789 9 states ratified - 4 didn't) established government Constitution states that states can't coin money and can’t maintain an army but can they secede? Southern Position held that the Constitution did not automatically bind states Individual States first . . . then United States STATES UNITED
Key Causes of the Civil War: The Confederate States of America Radicals - fire eaters South Carolinians since Nullification Controversy South Carolina state convention Dec 20, 1860 repeal ratification of federal constitution 6 weeks later MI, Fl, GA, Al, LA, TX succeed Delegates to Montgomery Alabama organized themselves as the C.S. of A. Jefferson Davis - President ( Mississippi)
The Confederate States of America South Carolina Mississippi Florida Louisiana Alabama Georgia Texas Jefferson Davis
Confederate President Davis Davis decided to take over the fort BEFORE the supply ships arrived. Demanded them to surrender. NEVER! The Confederate troops FIRED on the fort, Major Anderson and his men ran out of ammunition and had to give up.
The Civil War has Begun! Lincoln called for Americans to join the army to stop the rebellion. Frightened southern states not in the Confederacy now joined with the other 7 states. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina 11 States Strong
Key Causes of the Civil War: The Confederate States of America Individual States first . . . then United STATES UNITED 11 southern states seceded and formed their own country North says no you can't leave = 4 long years of fighting CIVIL (internal) War - settle question about whether a state can succeed Pre Civil War The United States are Post Civil War The United States is