Causes Of The Civil War


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Causes Of The Civil War

  1. 1. Causes of the Civil War AP U.S. History
  2. 2. Wilmot Proviso <ul><li>Proposed amendment to war appropriations bill. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any territory to be acquired from Mexico. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passed by the House, rejected by the Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense sectional feelings-Southerners furious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern suspicions confirmed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern position (John C. Calhoun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress had no power the limit the property of states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northerners believed that Congress had the right to make such laws! (NO of 1787, Compromise of 1820) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended 36 30 line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular sovereignty </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Election of 1848 <ul><li>Democrats-Lewis Cass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle of the road popular sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whigs-General Zachary Taylor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fame in Mexican war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took no position to slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Conscience” Whigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disgusted with parties-antislavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Barnburner” Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to get rid of “pro-slavery” rats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free Soil Party </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gold in California <ul><li>1848, gold discovered at Sutter's Mill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population in CA grew rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forty-niners-quick prospects-lawless communities </li></ul><ul><li>1849, CA petitions to become a state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought admission as a free state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused more sectional crisis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Compromise of 1850 <ul><li>Taylor encouraged territories to organize and seek admission as states in order to avoid territory crises. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners furious-would be outvoted in Senate with CA as a free state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disputed land between Texas and the New Mexico Territory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sectional crisis deepening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay develops deal to appease both sides. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1850 <ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CA would be free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NM would get disputed territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status of slavery for UT and NM to be decided by popular sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trade abolished in D.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tougher Fugitive Slave law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov't would pay Texas pre-annexation debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No control over interstate slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not abolish slavery in D.C. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Continued... <ul><li>Heated debate between Clay, Calhoun, and Webster. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taylor died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Succeeded by Vice President Millard Fillmore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong supporter of compromise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen A. Douglas-pushed through compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created an illusion of peace. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Election of 1852 <ul><li>Democrats-Franklin Pierce </li></ul><ul><li>Whigs-General Winfield Scott </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whigs divided over slavery issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pierce and Young America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1853-Commodore Matthew Perry opened trade with Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought to annex Hawaii, increase U.S. interest in Central America, and acquire territory from Mexico and Spain. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Growth <ul><li>1853-Gadsden Purchase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchased land from Mexico to extend trans-continental railroad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ostend Manifesto-urged military seizure of Cuba should Spain remain unwilling to sell. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some northerners viewed these advancements as favoring Southern views </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sec. Of War-Jefferson Davis </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Economic Growth <ul><li>Rise of the railroads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 of track across the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked midwest to the northeast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamboat-rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clipper ship-seas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factory System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile industry-Elias Howe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of major urban areas </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Kansas-Nebraska Act <ul><li>Senator Douglas introduced a bill to Congress to organize the area west of Missouri and Iowa as the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to facilitate trans-continental railroad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to include bill to repeal Missouri Compromise and keep only popular sovereignty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed into law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed by Northern Democrats and remaining Whigs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. End of the Whigs! <ul><li>Dissolved partially as a result of the issues of slavery-lost election of 1852 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Party divided along North-South lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nativist movement could also be at fault! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know-Nothing Party-grew out of alarm on the part of native-born Americans at the rising tides of immigration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Told to answer know nothing when asked about proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-foreign, anti-Catholic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Development of Republican Party <ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska caused outrage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Northern Democrats left party and joined former Whigs and Know-Nothings to form the Republican Party. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firm belief that slavery should be banned from all territories, confined to states where it already existed, and not be allowed to spread further. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly confined to the North. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slave Law helped to fuel more anger. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Bleeding Kansas <ul><li>North and South began competing to see which could send the greatest number of voters into the territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of settlers ended up being midwesterners who opposed slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale election fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Border ruffians-crossed into Kansas on election day to vote pro-slavery principles early and often. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-soil formed own government based on unfair election. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two governments... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides armed themselves and guerilla warfare ensued. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Violence in the Senate <ul><li>Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered the “Crime Against Kansas.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denounced slavery and insulted South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Butler's nephew, Preston Brooks, entered the Senate chamber and beat him about the head and shoulders with a cane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners sent him new canes. </li></ul></ul>