Ap US Unit 5 Study Guide


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Sorry for the wait. Hopefully u can use it to study 4 the AP test... anyways includes ::::::
ch. 17: South & Slavery Controversy 1793-1860
ch.18: Manifest Destiny & Legacy 1841-1840
ch.19:Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854
ch.20: Drifting Towards Disunion-1854-1861

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Ap US Unit 5 Study Guide

  1. 1. Unit 5 ch. 17: The South & Slavery Controversy 1793-1860 ch.18: Manifest Destiny & Its Legacy 1841-1840 ch.19: Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854 ch.20: Drifting Towards Disunion 1854-1861
  2. 2. ch.17: The South & Slavery Controversy 1793-1860 <ul><li>Souther Eye: Cotton King, gin is his throne and slavery his henchman. Cotton King, repelled foreigners, they poured into North as manpower and aided the North gain riches. </li></ul><ul><li>Planter Aristocrats: The wealthy, who could afford to send their kids to best schools in the North or abroad. They had time for leisure and felt obligated to pub. service (ie. Calhoun and James Davis) </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Scotts: Southern Author whose home helped Souther planers idealize feudal society. </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds of Womanhood: Some slaves took pride as members of household, no slave holding woman believed in abolition and accepted the sale of slave families. </li></ul><ul><li>White Minority: This group of whites weren’t the rich planters, they hated blacks and wanted slavery because it placed them at the higher social level than slaves and they hoped to one day own their own. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ch.17: The South & Slavery Controversy 1793-1860 <ul><li>Hillbillies: None slave owning whites, raised corn and hogs, isolated save so social sermons held @ religious camps, they were viewed as listless, shiftless, and misshapen. They were ill w/ malnutrition and hookworm. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Whites: Resided in the Appalachians, North Georgia and Alabama to West Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulattos: Free blacks, often the kids of white planters and blacks mistresses. Some brought their freedom many owned property (William T. Johnson even owned his own slaves.) </li></ul><ul><li>1808: Legal importation of slaves into America was banned. But there was still illegal importations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ch.17: The South & Slavery Controversy 1793-1860 <ul><li>Deep. South States: South Carolina, Florida, Missouri, Alabama, Louisiana, had the majority of blacks and accounted for 1/2 of all slaves in South. (known also as the Black Belt) </li></ul><ul><li>Rattling Good Breeders: Slave women who birthed 10-13 kids were promised freedom after 10. </li></ul><ul><li>African American culture: Mixture of Christianity and African culture. They were attracted to aspects of Christianity that reflected them (ie. captivity of Israelites in Egypt) and practiced re-sponsorial preaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Planters Feared slave rebellion: 1800 Gabriel in Richmond Virginia led an armed insurgence. Denmark Versey in Charleston in 1822 and Nat Turner in 1831 led a uprising that caused the death of 60 Virginians. </li></ul>
  5. 5. ch.17: The South & Slavery Controversy 1793-1860 <ul><li>American Colonization Society 1817-1822: Founded to get blacks back to Africa to the Republic of Liberia. </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore D. Welder: The 2nd G.A viewed slavery as a sin, and Welder Evangelized by Finney in the Burn-over District in 1820s, appealed to small farmers for antislavery. He was kicked out of Lane University for causing the Lane Rebellion (a 18 day long debate on slavery) </li></ul><ul><li>William L. Garrison: New Years Day 1832. he pub. the 1st issue of his antislavery newspaper the Liberator. </li></ul><ul><li>American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833: black abolitionists distinguished as living monuments to the cause of freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Sojourn Truth: freed black who fought for black emancipation & women’s right. </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglas: escaped 1838, discovered in 1841 by abolitionists @ a speech @ anti-slavery meeting in Mass. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ch.17: The South & Slavery Controversy 1793-1860 <ul><li>Sojourn Truth: freed black who fought for black emancipation & women’s right. </li></ul><ul><li>White Apologists: Advocate slavery, claimed that slave master relations to slave is like that of a family. Slaves were always employed, cared for in illness, old age, unlike in the North. </li></ul><ul><li>Gag Resolution: 1836 passed in House, required all anti-slavery appeals tabled without debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcloth mob: Tied Garrison 11835 and dragged him through Boston street. Elijah P. Lovejoy not only spoke out against slavery but for women as well, and he was killed in 1837. </li></ul><ul><li>Free Soilers: Lincoln & others who did not fully want to abolish slavery, but restrict its entrance into Western territories. Their # grew with the Civil War nearing </li></ul>
  7. 7. ch.18: Manifest Destiny & Its Legacy 1841-1840 <ul><li>Fiscal Bill: Clay’s attempt to establish a BUS. </li></ul><ul><li>Law of 1842: Clay’s redrafted bill reduced the distribution scheme to app. moderate protective tariff of 1832. </li></ul><ul><li>Caroline: 1837 the vessel supported Canadian insurgency sink by Brits, ending the Neutrality. 1840, McLeod bragging about his part in its sinking was arrested, Britain threatened war is he was executed. </li></ul><ul><li>1841: Britain offered asylum to 130 Virginian slaves who rebelled & captured Am. ships in Creole Bahamas. </li></ul><ul><li>Aroostook War: lumberjacks war over land in the Aroostook river valley. Maine vs. Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Annexation: required majority in Senate (both houses) Passed in 1845, made Texas 28th state. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ch.18: Manifest Destiny & Its Legacy 1841-1840 <ul><li>Oregon County: Large West Rockies to Pacific ocean and North of California to Line of 54’40. It was Spanish, Russian, British and US territory </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis and Clark: 1804-1806 plus missionary settlement enables US to claim Oregon region. During the Oregon Fever, hordes of pioneers moved to Oregon. </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest Destiny: 1840s-1850s Americans felt that god has manifested a destiny of greatness for them. Their Greed for land, led to the joining of the ideals of empire and liberty. The campaign of 1844 was a expression of manifest destiny. </li></ul><ul><li>Polk's 4 Year Program: Reduce Tariff, restore independent treasury, the acquisition of California and settlement of the Oregon dispute. </li></ul><ul><li>Walker Tariff: 1846 proved successful because it was followed by a boom and heavy import times. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ch.18: Manifest Destiny & Its Legacy 1841-1840 <ul><li>John Slidell: Polk sent him to buy California in fear of the rumors that that Britain was going to seize in, a clear violation of the Monroe Doctrine. </li></ul><ul><li>Zachary Taylor: Jan. 13, 1846 was ordered to march his forces from Nueces River to Rio Grande, near the Mexican forces. Polk's expected an immediate clash, but none happened. </li></ul><ul><li>Polk's Reason for War: May 4, 1846 Polk proposed to Congress that they declare war on Mexico based on unpaid claims and rejection of Slidell's offer. </li></ul><ul><li>Jimmy Polk's War: Whigs later condemned Polk's war with Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Spot Resolution: Abraham Lincoln wanted to know exactly where on American soil American blood was spilled for the sake of resolution, since the place American blood was shed was disputed territory and both sides laid claims to it. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ch.18: Manifest Destiny & Its Legacy 1841-1840 <ul><li>Santa Anna: Ready to sell his country to the US, while @ the same time, arming his country for war. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate: Voter turnout for Polk indicated that the people wanted Texas annexation. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas P. Twist: Chief of state Dept. sent after Scott to negotiate w/ Santa Anna. He offered a bride of $10,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Feb. 2, 1848 signed between Twist & Anna. It gave US Texas & area Westward to Oregon and from the Ocean and California, Us paid $15 million. It ended the war with Mexico but sparked a new political warfare in US. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilmot Proviso: David Wilmot fearful of a slavocracy refused Polk's requests for Mexico, he introduced an amendment that banned slavery in the New Mexico territory. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ch. 19: Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854 <ul><li>Popular Sovereignty: People of a territory should decided on slavery in their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Free Soil Party: Ardent anti-slavery men in the North. Distrusted Cass and Taylor. Aroused by silence in Democratic Whig platform they took firm standing (for the Proviso) advocated &quot;Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men.“ </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco 1848-1856: Score of lawless killings, with only 3 semi-legal hangings for these crimes, there was a high # of criminals and rough vigilantes to protect justice. </li></ul><ul><li>1849 Francisco's Constitution: Excluded slavery, applied for administration into congress, bypassing the territorial stage and irking the Southern Congress who were trying to stop free-soiling. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ch. 19: Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854 <ul><li>Santa Fe: Texans threaten to take it over. </li></ul><ul><li>Underground Railroad: Informal chain of stations &quot;anti-slave homes&quot; where scores of passengers &quot;runaways&quot; transferred by conductors who were often black/white abolitionists to free states. </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman: Rescued +300 slaves to Canada. She was nicknamed Moses. </li></ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slave Law: 1850, South demanding stricter law, the one passed in 1793 was inadequate. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ch. 19: Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854 <ul><li>Immortal Trio: Clay, Calhound, and Webster appeared together for the last time on pub. stage during. Calhound for the south rejected Clay's concession, Webster upheld it. Clay's concession was a compromise to settle South and North temp. over Fug. Slave Law, he called to the North to partially yield to the new Fug. Slave Law. </li></ul><ul><li>Calhound's Plea: Calhound plead for slavery to be left alone, for the north to return runaways, give the south rights as a minority, and restore the political balance. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ch. 19: Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854 <ul><li>Young Guard: Group of newer leaders who had not grown up with the union in the South. Interested in purging and purifying the union, not patching and preserving it. </li></ul><ul><li>William H. Seward: Senator of N.Y and able spokesman for many of the lower Northern radicals in the Debate of 1850. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Law: Seward's appeal reference to exclude slavery in the territories was to a higher law than the constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>1850: President Taylor suddenly dies and V.P Millard Fillmore takes over, he signed Compromise of 1850, which offered a delicate balance of interests. </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Era of Good Feeling: Talk of secession low, North and South determined to compromise and bring a finality to the slavery issue. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ch. 19: Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854 <ul><li>Bloodhound Law: The drastic new Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 stirred up a storm of opposition in the North. Fleeing slaves couldn't testify on their behalf and were denied jury trail. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Liberty Laws: Deny local jails to local official and hampered enforcement of the Fug. Slave laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin Pierce: Pres. of the election of 1852. A pro-south northerner. Accepted into the Democratic party. His platform supported the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive slave laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Pierce Administration/ Jefferson Davis: His administration included aggressive southerners including Secretary of War Jefferson Davis future leader of the confederacy . The Dixie's wanted to get more slave territories and Pierce was willing to help them. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ch. 19: Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854 <ul><li>Slavocrats: Lusted after new territory after comp. 1850 which seemingly closed most of the lands of the Mexican cession to slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Clayton Bulwer Treaty: Neither America nor Britain would fortify or secure exclusive control over any future isthmian water ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Filibustering Expeditions: consisted of several 100 armed men who descended into Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>Ostend Manifesto: Urged the administration of offer $120 million for Cuba, if Spain refuses and their ownership because a threat to the US, the Us will be justified in forcing it from them. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ch. 19: Renewing the Sectional struggle 1848-1854 <ul><li>James Gadsden: South Carolina railroad man sent as minister to Mexico to buy land for road, where Santa Anna (president for the 6th time) needed $$. </li></ul><ul><li>Gadsden Purchase: 1853, both land for $10 million and enabled the South to be in charge of the transcontinental railroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska: Overstepped the Comp. of 1820 which banned slavery on the 36'30 line (Nebraska area falls on it) And it would ruin the patch up peace of the Comp. of 1850. It was Douglas' plan for acquiring a railroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans: Sprang from the Midwest (Wisconsin& Michigan), they protested against slavery, and eventually included disgruntled Whigs, democrats, free-soilers, foes of Kansas-Nebraska, and Know-Nothings. It was a completely sectional party. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ch.20: Drifting Towards Disunion 1854-1861 <ul><li>Harriet Beecher Stowe: dismayed by the fugitive slave Law she published Uncle Tom's Cabin , which awakened the North to slavery. It caused a change in northern attitude with regard to slavery, and resulted w/ more and more anti-slavery movements. And increased the South's suspicion of an anti-slavery movement in the North. </li></ul><ul><li>New England Emigrant Aid Company: Send 2 thousand people into trouble area of Kansas to halt the south's expansion of slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>1855: Pro-slavery boarder ruffians from Missouri poured in to vote early and won. They set up government @ Shawnee. </li></ul>
  19. 19. ch.20: Drifting Towards Disunion 1854-1861 <ul><li>John Brown: Fanatical abolitionist, He led a group into Pottawatomie Creek where they hatched to pieces 5 men. He was also part of the Harper's Ferry crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecompton Constitution: a trick by the proslavery legislation to get Kansas to be a slave state. The Constitution made it impossible for the people to vote for or against slavery, they could only vote to accept the constitution with or without slavery. If without then current slave owners in the area would be protected from persecution </li></ul><ul><li>James Buchanan: Replaced Pierce and was also under southern influence and supported Lecompton. </li></ul>
  20. 20. ch.20: Drifting Towards Disunion 1854-1861 <ul><li>Charles Sumner: Senator from Mass. who delivered a speech &quot;crime against Kansas&quot; insulting South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler. Mass. frustrated by this re-elected Sumner after he left for treatment leaving his senate seat empty. </li></ul><ul><li>Preston Brooks: Kinsmen to Butler, he beat Sumner with a cane causing serious injury. Brooks applauded by the South and re-elected. </li></ul><ul><li>Know-Nothings: Influx of German and Ireland immigrants alarmed Nativist (old stuck protestants&quot; who in 1856 elected x-president Fillmore. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ch.20: Drifting Towards Disunion 1854-1861 <ul><li>Dred Scott: black slave in Illinois and Wisconsin, who sued for his freedom on account of living in free-soil for a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>Dred Scott Decision: Supreme court ruled Scott as a slave & none citizen can't sue. And went further to claim that since slaves were property she/he could be taken anywhere and legally be held as a slave. The property of white slave owners protected by the 5th amendment. </li></ul><ul><li>Panic of 1857: Pouring California gold played a part in inflation. Crimean war's increase for grain, and the railroad and roads projects taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead Act: Made land available at 25c per acre, but it was vetoed. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ch.20: Drifting Towards Disunion 1854-1861 <ul><li>Lincoln-Douglas Debates: A series of debates between Lincoln and Douglas. The most famous of which took place in Freeport Illinois where Lincoln asked Douglas who would be right if a population voted against slavery in a territory, the Supreme Court (with Dred Scott decision) or the people? </li></ul><ul><li>Freeport Doctrine: Douglas's response to Lincoln's question. No matter how supreme court rules slavery would stay down if the people vote it down. Laws to protect slavery must be passed by local legislature. </li></ul><ul><li>Harper Ferry: Brown seized Fed. arsenal in oct. 1859. He hoped to cause an slave uprising, arm slaves but was captured by Robert E. Lee. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Union Party: In fear of disunion a mid-of-the road- group established the party. It consisted of whigs & know-nothings. They elected John Bell. </li></ul>
  23. 23. ch.20: Drifting Towards Disunion 1854-1861 <ul><li>Seductive Appeal of Republican Platform: Free-soilers get a ban on slave extension. Manufacturers get a protective tariff. Immigrants, get no abridgment of rights. Northwest gets a pacific railroad. The West gets internal improvements and Farmers get free homestead Act. </li></ul><ul><li>Breckinrige: Favored extension of slavery but not disunion. </li></ul><ul><li>Confederacy: Formed by the 7 seceding states at a meeting at Montgomery Alabama, in Feb. 1861. </li></ul><ul><li>Crittenden Amendment: Slavery in the territories prohibited North of the 36'30 line, but South of the line was given Fed. protection in all territories. Future states came with or without slavery as they choose </li></ul>