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A form of assessment in whichstudents are asked to performreal-world tasks thatdemonstrate meaningfulapplication of essentialknowledge and skills. -Jon Mueller, 2011
An authentic assessmentusually includes a task forstudents to perform and arubric by which theirperformance on the task willbe evaluated.
Forced choice measures of multiple-choice tests, fill-in-the-blanks, matching etc, remain common in education. It is grounded in educational philosophy that adopts the following reasoning and practise: Schools mission-develop productive citizens Therefore, individual ,must posses certain body of knowledge, school teach this. Test students to see if learners acquired the knowledge. THE CURRICULUM DRIVES ASSESSMENT
Springs from the following reasoning and practice: Schools mission-develop productive citizens Therefore, must be capable of performing meaningful tasks in the real world. Schools-help learners become proficient in performing the tasks they will encounter when they graduate School ask students to perform meaningful tasks to test success and ability. ASSESSMENT DRIVES THE CURRICULUM
Traditional AuthenticSelecting a Response Performing a task Contrived Real-lifeRecall/Recognition Construction/Application Teacher-structured Student-structured Indirect Evidence Direct Evidence - Jon Mueller
They are direct measures They capture constructive nature of learning They integrate teaching, learning and assessment Often, teachers use a mix of traditional and assessments to serve different purposes.
Summary of Steps Identify your standards for your students. For a particular standard or set of standards, develop a task your students could perform that would indicate that they have met these standards. Identify the characteristics of good performance on that task, the criteria, that, if present in your students’ work, will indicate that they have performed well on the task, i.e., they have met the standards. For each criterion, identify two or more levels of performance along which students can perform which will sufficiently discriminate among student performance for that criterion. The combination of the criteria and the levels of performance for each criterion will be your rubric for that task (assessment). (Jon Mueller, 2011)
When students are using technology as a tool or a support for communicating with others, they are in an active role rather than the passive role of recipient of information transmitted by a teacher, textbook, or broadcast. The student is actively making choices about how to generate, obtain, manipulate, or display information. The teacher is no longer the centre of attention as the dispenser of information, but rather plays the role of facilitator,.
Teachers and students are sometimes surprised at the level of technology-based accomplishment displayed by students who have shown much less initiative or facility with more conventional academic tasks A related technology effect stressed by many teachers was enhancement of student self esteem. By giving students technology tools, we are implicitly giving weight to their school activities. Students are very sensitive to this message that they, and their work, are important.
Students, even at the elementary school level, are able to acquire an impressive level of skill with a broad range of computer software. Although the specific software tools in use will likely change before these students enter the world of work, the students acquire a basic understanding of how various classes of computer tools behave and a confidence about being able to learn to use new tools that will support their learning of new software applications.
Teachers for the observed classes and activities at the case study sites were nearly unanimous also in reporting that students were able to handle more complex assignments and do more with higher-order skills because of the supports and capabilities provided by technology.
Another effect of technology cited by a great majority of teachers is an increased inclination on the part of students to work co-operatively and to provide peer tutoring. Collaboration is fostered for obvious reasons when students are assigned to work in pairs or small groups for work at a limited number of computers. In addition, the public display and greater legibility of student work creates an invitation to comment. Students often look over each others shoulders, commenting on each others work, offering assistance, and discussing what they are doing.
Teachers from 10 out of 17 classrooms observed at length cited increased use of outside resources as a benefit of using technology. This effect was most obvious in classrooms that had incorporated telecommunications activities but other classes used technologies such as satellite broadcasts and the telephone to help bring in outside resources
Experiences in developing the kinds of rich, multimedia products that can be produced with technology, particularly when the design is done collaboratively so that students experience their peers reactions to their presentations, appear to support a greater awareness of audience needs and perspectives. Multiple media give students choices about how best to convey a given idea.
1.Authentic tasks have real-world relevance2.Authentic tasks are ill-defined, requiring students to define the tasks and sub-tasks needed to complete the activity3.Authentic tasks comprise complex tasks to be investigated by students over a sustained period of time
4. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives, using a variety of resources5. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to collaborate6. Authentic tasks provide the opportunity to reflect7. Authentic tasks can be integrated and applied across different subject areas and lead beyond domain-specific outcomes8. Authentic tasks are seamlessly integrated with assessment
9. Authentic tasks create polished products valuable in their own right rather than as preparation for something else10. Authentic tasks allow competing solutions and diversity of outcome
NINE ELEMENTS OF AUTHENTIC LEARNING:1.Provide authentic contexts that reflect the way the knowledge will be used in real life2.Provide authentic tasks and activities3.Provide access to expert performances and the modelling of processes4.Provide multiple roles and perspectives5.Support collaborative construction of knowledge
6.Promote reflection to enable abstractions to be formed7.Promote articulation to enable tacit knowledge to be made explicit8.Provide coaching and scaffolding by the teacher at critical times9.Provide for authentic assessment of learning within the tasks.
LEARNING AREA: LIFE ORIENTATION The task meets all the ten elements mentioned above.
Instructions: In pairs, work together to create a role-play whereby one learner in your group is the client and the other is the professional. For example, a psychologist advising a client or a doctor and a sick patient. You can dress up to make it look as real as possible. You have two weeks To do this, you will have to study as many professions as you can.
Authentic learning is completely effective for learning for all the above reasons mentioned. Many theorists have advocated the positive influences of authentic activities in meaningful learning, supported by growing evidence of successful applications of authentic activities in online learning situations Therefore, authentic learning tasks are definitely the way forward.
Jon Mueller(2011). North Central College, Naperville, IL, viewed on 20 February 2012, <http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/i ndex.htm> Herrington, J. (2011). 9 elements of authentic learning [image]. Retrieved 21 February 2012, from: http://www.youtube.com/user/JanH119 University of Wollongong, Faculty of Education. (2006). Authentic Task Design. Retrieved 20 February 2012, from: http://www.authentictasks.uow.edu.au/index .html