Rome summary
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Rome summary Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ANCIENT ROMEMountains, rolling hillsMediterranean Sea1000 BCE- 500 BCE Latins on Roman hill750 BCE - 600 BCE Greeks on S. tip of Italy & Sicily- Etruscans N. (metal-work; engineers)Well organized government allowed expansion into other landsTrade and sea-faring on Mediterranean Sea becomes importantFarming importantPatricians could buy slaves for farming, wealth increasesMild climate750 BCE united Roman city-state600 BCE Etruscan king rules; 509 BCE Tarquin the Proud (harsh tyrant rules)Rebellion: patricians- wealthy landowners = power;plebians- commoners, farmers artisans, merchants no powerForm a REPUBLIC: citizens (males) elect leaders12 Tables written law code, made things fair, helped plebians, hung in forumIDEA: all free citizens had protection under the law*2 consuls: 1 yr term, direct gov’t, command army, vetos*Senate: (aristocratic) legislative/laws; 300 members* Assembly: (democratic) organized by plebiansDictator: could be appointed during war/crisis for 6 monthsArmy: all citizens with land served: legions, centuriesBig gap between rich and poor; poor moves to city: urban poor-Caesar: military dictator for life reforms; citizenship to provinces, gavepoor jobs-Triumvirate 2: Marcus Lepidus, Mar Antony, Octavian rule 10 yrsChristian persecutionChristianity influences government when Constantine convertsTheocracy: Theodosius makes Christianity STATE religionDiocletian splits empire: East & West-Etruscan technology & influence used in Rome;-Rebellion after Tarquin the Proud leads to new civil government-REPUBLIC is formed by patricians264 BCE well-organized gov’t allows Rome to conquer territories ---tolerantof conquered people, allowing some citizenship = expansion of Rome’sborders-RIVAL to Rome: Carthage (control access to trade routes)-Punic Wars 1st: over Sicily; Rome wins 2nd: Hannibal; Scipio defeats;3rd: Rome salts & enslaves Carthage-Rich & poor gap; Gauis Marius (consul who allowed paid soldiers)-Military upheaval: Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey rule as 1st Triumvirate-Betrayal: Caesar ordered home without army; he crosses Rubicon River,inciting civil war-Caesar takes control as dictator for life; murdered by Senate2nd Triumvirate: Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus-Betrayal: Battle of Actium: Octavian defeats Antony & Cleopatra’s armies;becomes Augustus Caesar 27 BCE-Pax Romana: 27 BCE- 180 CE: ag, trade, common coinage-Bad emperors (Tibirius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero)- Good emperors: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelias)- Constantine supports Christianity in Rome- 180CE Rome declines; Diocletian splits Rome E & W- 400s invasions: 476 CE German Odoacer invades; END of W Roman Empire-Romulus & Remus myth-Etruscans influence Romans: writing, architecture, metal work, engineering-Adopted Greek technologies & religions when Greece falls-Familly: man head of home; woman run household-New government: REPUBLIC- Roman Law = strengthening rights of citizens-Roman culture: practical (strength over beauty, power over grace ,usefulnness overelegance)-Polytheism to Christianity;-Christianity- Pope-Slavery, Free entertainment todistract poor: gladiator games inColosseum, 150 holidays-Roads & architecture-Art: realistic, mosaics, frescoes-History: Livy, Tacitus-Stoicism-Poetry: Virgil, OvidWEST: Latin EAST: Greek(Italy, Gaul, (Syria, GreeceBritain, Spain) Anatolia, Egypt)*falls after Const. Capital moved todies *Byzantium:=Constantinople*becomes wealthy;1,000 yrs*ROMAN *EASTERNCATHOLOCISM ORTHODOX