Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

His 2001 5


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

His 2001 5

  1. 1. The First World Civilization: Rome, China, and the Emergence of the Silk Road 5
  2. 2. Ancient Italy and Rome
  3. 3. Early Rome and the Republic <ul><li>Importance of geography on the development of Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive agricultural land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City built on 7 hills; 18 miles inland on Tiber River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to sea; centrally located in the Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Rome, 753-509 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romulus and Remus, 753 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etruscan Kings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built roads, temples, markets, shops, streets, and houses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etruscan monarchy overthrown, 509 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Roman Republic <ul><li>The Roman Conquest of Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 340 B.C.E. Rome had defeated the Latin states of Latium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks had colonized southern Italy between 750 and 550 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Roman Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Roman State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle between patricians and plebeians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly of Plebeians </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Roman Conquest in the Mediterranean
  6. 6. Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264-133 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Punic Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Punic War, 264-241 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage has to surrender Sicily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sicily becomes Roman province </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Punic War, 218-201 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hannibal attacked Rome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage loses Spain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rome becomes the dominant power in the western Mediterranean Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Punic War, 149-146 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage completely defeated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carthage becomes the Roman province of Africa </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic (133-31 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Growing Unrest and a New Role for the Roman Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latifundias contribute to the decline of small farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collapse of the Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Century B.C.E. had two characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jostling for power by powerful individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil wars that were caused by the desire for power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Triumvirate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Aims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for power after the death of Crassus in 53 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war between Antony and Octavian (grandnephew of Julius Caesar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Actium, 31 B.C.E., Antony defeated and Octavian rules the Roman world </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Roman Empire at Its Height <ul><li>Age of Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus given title of imperator (commander-in-chief) by the senate </li></ul><ul><li>Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing army of 28 legions; 150,000 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliaries, 130,000 men who were non-citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Praetorian Guard of elite troops; 9,000 men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governing the provinces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate governed some provinces and some were given to the emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augustus could overrule the senatorial governors and establish his own policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stabilization of the frontiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Augustus conquered the central and maritime Alps and then expanded control of the Balkan peninsula up to the Danube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure in Germany where three legions were massacred in 9 C.E. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Early Empire (14-180) <ul><li>Five Good Emperors (96-180) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pax Romana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable men adopted as successors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public work projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontiers and Provinces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rome withdrew from some areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built defensive fortifications along frontier lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally all free inhabitants became a citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greco-Roman world: Latin in the west, Greek in the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities and towns spread culture and law </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Prosperity in the Early Empire <ul><li>Internal peace and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Unprecedented levels of foreign trade </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road trade route </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture still the underlying basis of prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Small peasant farms flourished/large estates collected rent from free tenant farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>Upper classes were supported by agricultural surpluses </li></ul>
  11. 11. Culture and Society in the Roman World <ul><li>Roman Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catullus (c. 87-54 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry to express emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.), Aeneid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtues of duty, piety, and faithfulness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy Greek statues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture: Arch, vault, and dome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction: Baths, roads aqueducts, and bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twelve Tables, 450 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil law – applied to all Roman Citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of nations – applied to both Romans and foreigners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of nature – universal law based on reason </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Roman family <ul><li>Paterfamilias </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged marriages for daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Some educated their daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Paterfamilias no longer dominant by 2nd century C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Upper-class women had much freedom and independence in the Early Empire </li></ul>
  13. 13. Slaves and Their Masters <ul><li>Residential slaves: household help, tutors </li></ul><ul><li>Farm slaves: many times worked to death </li></ul><ul><li>Construction: used to build roads, aqueducts, other public structures </li></ul><ul><li>Slave Revolts in Sicily end of the 2 nd century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartacus, 73 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70,000 slave followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crushed in 71 B.C.E., 6,000 crucified </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Crisis and the Late Empire <ul><li>Crises in the Third Century </li></ul><ul><li>Military monarchy of Severan rulers followed by military anarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Next 49 years, Roman throne had 22 emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Beset by foreign invasions and civil wars </li></ul><ul><li>Labor shortage because of plague and war </li></ul><ul><li>Near economic collapse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in trade and small industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fields ravaged by Roman armies and invaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse of monetary system and inflation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Late Roman Empire <ul><li>Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New governmental structure and a rigid economic and social system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New state religion - Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political and military reforms with enlarged civil service and army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded and ensured tax base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Capital – Byzantium (Constantinople) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. End of the Western Roman Empire <ul><li>Empire divided into western and eastern parts and became two independent states by 395 </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of Empire in the west by invasions of Germanic tribes (including Visigoths and Vandals) and Huns </li></ul><ul><li>Odoacer, of German origin, deposed Romulus, the Roman emperor </li></ul>
  17. 17. Transformation of the Roman World: The Development of Christianity <ul><li>Religious Environment of the Roman World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperors were made gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerant of other religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mystery religions from the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with Jews when Romans ruled Judaea </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Rise of Christianity <ul><li>Jesus of Nazareth (c. 6 B.C.E.-29 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus’ message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans saw Jesus as a potential revolutionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resurrected – “the anointed one”, the Messiah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul of Tarsus (c. 5-c. 67) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preach Jesus’ message to Jews and Gentiles </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Spread and Triumph of Christianity <ul><li>Preaching by Christian followers </li></ul><ul><li>Written materials: epistles and New Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Christian churches became more independent </li></ul><ul><li>Romans ignored Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Promise of Salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Another mystery religion </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus was a human figure and easy to relate to </li></ul><ul><li>Church became organized and hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>Constantine, First Christian Emperor – Edict of Milan </li></ul><ul><li>Theodosius the Great made it an official religion </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Glorious Han Empires (202 B.C.E.-221 C.E.) <ul><li>Founder, Han Gaozu (Han Kao Tsu) </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism – official ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism and the Sate </li></ul><ul><li>Confucian doctrine integrated with Legalistic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Officials were selected on the basis of merit rather than birth </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service examination </li></ul><ul><li>Academy to train officials </li></ul><ul><li>Population grew from 20 million to 60 million </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Economy <ul><li>Unparalleled productivity and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of domestic and foreign trade by sea and overland “Silk Road” </li></ul><ul><li>State directed manufacturing: weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Operated shipyards, granaries, and mines </li></ul><ul><li>Technological innovations: textile manufacturing, water mills, iron casting, production of steel, paper, rudder and fore-and-aft rigging </li></ul>
  22. 22. Imperial Expansion and the Origins of the Silk Road <ul><li>Han continued territorial expansion and consolidation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South to Red River delta (northern Vietnam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West as far as Caspian Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North west into Central Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial trade between China and Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China wanted horses for military purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans wanted silk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulk of trade was overland on the Silk Road </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social Changes <ul><li>Social institutions became more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of nuclear family </li></ul><ul><li>Majority lived in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Cities along rivers and trade routes increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Chang’an, imperial capital </li></ul>
  24. 24. Religion and Culture <ul><li>Popular religion: local deities and spirits of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Historical writing </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Iron replaced bronze </li></ul>
  25. 25. Discussion Questions <ul><li>How did the geography of Italy affect Roman development? </li></ul><ul><li>Give a brief description of the Punic Wars and list some of the reasons why Rome went to war with the Carthaginians. </li></ul><ul><li>How did the conquest of the Mediterranean in the Punic wars begin the decline of the Republic? </li></ul><ul><li>Although we might think of the Romans as transmitters of Greek culture, what were some very distinctive things about Roman culture that made it more Roman than Greek? </li></ul>