Primary goal: promote student comprehension of content knowledge
theorists construct knowledge and teachers understand and implement them to students
“ so passive, so unchallenging, so boring that teachers often lose their sense of wonder and excitement about learning to teach” (Kinchelo, 1993, p.204).
Teachers as Reflective Practitioners
Teaching is seen not just as a series of predetermined procedures but as context-sensitive action grounded in intellectual thought
The difference between techs & reflective practitioners: can bring about their own perspectives related to theories that cannot be matched by expert(theorists) who are far removed from the realities of the classroom
Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals
This idea is derived mainly from the works of critical pedagogists and through the philosophy of the Brazilian thinker Paulo Freire
schools and colleges are not simply instructional sites; they are, in fact, “cultural arenas where heterogeneous ideological, discursive, and social forms collide in an unremitting struggle for dominance”
Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals cont.
What do they do?
explore problems they themselves have posed about life in and outside of the classroom (inquiry oriented)
promote student discussion
familiarize themselves with linguistically and culturally diversity of their student population
Turn to page 16 THINK, PAIR, SHARE Out of three roles discussed, which role do you believe to be most beneficial to your students and why?
Professional Theory VS Personal Theory
Professional Theory: theories that are transmitted to teachers in colleges, universities, etc
Personal Theory: individual theory unique to each person which is developed by putting professional theories into practice
Teachers Theory of Practice
Technical Level: teachers are content with using ideas generated by outside experts
Practical Level: teachers not only articulate their criteria but also engage in theorizing about the nature of their subjects, students, and learning/teaching process
Critical or Emancipatory Level: teacher theorizing is concerned with wider ethnical, social, historical, and political issues
Chapter 2 Understand Postmethod Pedagogy
11 Methods of language learning and teaching:
community language learning
situational language teaching
total physical response
Three categories to classify methods:
concerned with linguistic forms/grammatical structures, seek to provide opportunities for learners to practice preselected and pre-sequenced structures of linguistics through form-focused exercises (ex. audio- lingual method)
concerned with language use and learner needs, like the language centered method it provides opportunities to practice but also communicative functions as well through meaning focused exercises (ex. communicative method)
concerned with learning processes, provide opportunities for learners to participate in open ended meaningful interaction through communicative activities or problem solving tasks during the class time (ex. natural approach)
3 Parameters of Postmethod Pedagogy:
Parameter of Particularity
any language pedagogy needs to be relevant and sensitive to a particular group of teachers teaching a particular group of learners who are trying to attain a specific set of goals within a particular sociocultural atmosphere.
Parameter of Practicality
entails a teacher generated theory of practice meaning no theory of practice can be fully useful or useable unless it is generated through practice
Parameter of Possibility
individual identity, bringing language and cultures in contact
Turn to page 37
Macrostrategies of postmethod pedagogy (10 of them):
Maximize learning opportunities: teachers strike a balance between their role as managers of teaching acts and their role as mediators of learning acts
Minimize perceptual mismatches: recognition of potential perceptual mismatches between intentions and interpretations of the learner, the teacher, and the teacher educator
3 Perceptible shifts in language teaching and learning:
1. Communicative language teaching to task-based language teaching
2. Method based pedagogy to postmethod pedagogy
3. Systemic discovery to critical discourse
Why do you think there is a shift in these ideologies for language teaching and learning?
Works Cited Kumaravadivelu, B. Introduction. Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching. By Kumaravadivelu. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. N. pag. Print. TESOL Methods: Changing Tracks, Challenging Trends B. Kumaravadivelu TESOL Quarterly Vol. 40, No. 1(Mar., 2006), pp. 59-81 Published by: Teachers of Eng lish to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL)Stable URL: htt p://www.jstor.org/stable/40264511