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  • 1. Roles, Approaches, andMethods By Christine Arwakhi & Stephanie White
  • 2. Chapter 1: ConceptualizingTeaching Acts
    • The role of a teacher
    • artists, scientists, managers, mentors, counselors
  • 3. Teachers as Passive Technicians
    • Primary goal: promote student comprehension of content knowledge
    • theorists construct knowledge and teachers understand and implement them to students
    • “ so passive, so unchallenging, so boring that teachers often lose their sense of wonder and excitement about learning to teach” (Kinchelo, 1993, p.204).
  • 4. Teachers as Reflective Practitioners
    • Teaching is seen not just as a series of predetermined procedures but as context-sensitive action grounded in intellectual thought
    • The difference between techs & reflective practitioners: can bring about their own perspectives related to theories that cannot be matched by expert(theorists) who are far removed from the realities of the classroom
  • 5. Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals
    • This idea is derived mainly from the works of critical pedagogists and through the philosophy of the Brazilian thinker Paulo Freire
    • schools and colleges are not simply instructional sites; they are, in fact, “cultural arenas where heterogeneous ideological, discursive, and social forms collide in an unremitting struggle for dominance”
  • 6. Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals cont.
    • What do they do?
    • explore problems they themselves have posed about life in and outside of the classroom (inquiry oriented)
    • promote student discussion
    • promote self-reflection
    • familiarize themselves with linguistically and culturally diversity of their student population
  • 7. Turn to page 16 THINK, PAIR, SHARE Out of three roles discussed, which role do you believe to be most beneficial to your students and why?
  • 8. Professional Theory VS Personal Theory
    • Professional Theory: theories that are transmitted to teachers in colleges, universities, etc
    • Personal Theory: individual theory unique to each person which is developed by putting professional theories into practice
  • 9. Teachers Theory of Practice
    • 3 levels
    • Technical Level: teachers are content with using ideas generated by outside experts
    • Practical Level: teachers not only articulate their criteria but also engage in theorizing about the nature of their subjects, students, and learning/teaching process
    • Critical or Emancipatory Level: teacher theorizing is concerned with wider ethnical, social, historical, and political issues
  • 10. Chapter 2 Understand Postmethod Pedagogy
    • 11 Methods of language learning and teaching:
        • audio-lingual method
        • communicative method
        • community language learning
        • direct method
        • grammar-translation method
        • natural approach
        • oral approach
        • silent way
        • situational language teaching
        • suggestopedia
        • total physical response
  • 11. Categorizing Methods
    • Three categories to classify methods:
        • Language-centered methods
          • concerned with linguistic forms/grammatical structures, seek to provide opportunities for learners to practice preselected and pre-sequenced structures of linguistics through form-focused exercises (ex. audio- lingual method)
        • Learner-centered methods
          • concerned with language use and learner needs, like the language centered method it provides opportunities to practice but also communicative functions as well through meaning focused exercises (ex. communicative method)
        • Learning-centered methods
          • concerned with learning processes, provide opportunities for learners to participate in open ended meaningful interaction through communicative activities or problem solving tasks during the class time (ex. natural approach)
  • 12. Postmethod Pedagogy
    • 3 Parameters of Postmethod Pedagogy:
      • Parameter of Particularity
        • any language pedagogy needs to be relevant and sensitive to a particular group of teachers teaching a particular group of learners who are trying to attain a specific set of goals within a particular sociocultural atmosphere.
      • Parameter of Practicality
        • entails a teacher generated theory of practice meaning no theory of practice can be fully useful or useable unless it is generated through practice
      • Parameter of Possibility
        • individual identity, bringing language and cultures in contact
      • Turn to page 37
  • 13. Postmethod Pedagogy
    • Macrostrategies of postmethod pedagogy (10 of them):
      • Maximize learning opportunities: teachers strike a balance between their role as managers of teaching acts and their role as mediators of learning acts
      • Minimize perceptual mismatches: recognition of potential perceptual mismatches between intentions and interpretations of the learner, the teacher, and the teacher educator
      • Facilitate negotiated interaction: meaningful learner-learner, learner-teacher interactions
      • Promote learner autonomy: helping learners learn how to learn
      • Foster language awareness: any attempt to to draw learners’ attention to the formal and functional properties of their L2
      • Activate intuitive heuristics: highlights the importance of providing rich textual data to internalize underlying rules governing grammatical usage and communicative use
      • Contextualize linguistic input: language usage and use are shaped by linguistic, extralinguistic, situational, and extrasituational contexts
      • Integrate language skills: integrate language skills traditionally separated and sequenced as listening, speaking, reading, and writing
      • Ensure social relevance: teachers need to be sensitive to the societal, political, economic, and educational environment in which L2 learning and teaching take place
      • Raise cultural consciousness: the need to treat learners as cultural informants so they are encouraged to participate in the classroom
  • 14. The Pedagogic Wheel
    • Turn to page 41
    • the parameters function as the axle that connects and holds the center of the pedagogic wheel
    • the macrostrategies function as the spokes that join the pedagogic wheel to its center thereby giving the wheel stability and strength
    • the outer rim stands for language learning and language teaching
    • these components shape language learning and teaching through individual, institutional, social, and cultural factors
  • 15. “ TESOL methods: Changing Tracks, Challenging Trends”
    • 3 Perceptible shifts in language teaching and learning:
      • 1. Communicative language teaching to task-based language teaching
      • 2. Method based pedagogy to postmethod pedagogy
      • 3. Systemic discovery to critical discourse
  • 16. Why do you think there is a shift in these ideologies for language teaching and learning?
  • 17. Works Cited Kumaravadivelu, B. Introduction. Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching. By Kumaravadivelu. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. N. pag. Print. TESOL Methods: Changing Tracks, Challenging Trends B. Kumaravadivelu TESOL Quarterly Vol. 40, No. 1(Mar., 2006), pp. 59-81 Published by: Teachers of Eng lish to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL)Stable URL: htt p://