CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN S LANGUAGETheir language development shows a high degree of similarity among children all over the world. • PREDICTABILITY • LEARNING THROUGH IMITATION • CREATIVITY
Before First Words -• The earliest vocalizations –Involuntary crying –Cooing and gurgling – showing satisfaction or happiness
Before First Words -“Babbling” –Babies use sounds to reflect the characteristics of the different language they are learning.
First Words Around 12 months (“one-word” stage):–one or two recognizable words (esp. content word);–Single-word sentences.
By the age of 2 (“two-word” stage): 1) at least 50 different words 2) “telegraphic” sentences (no function words and grammatical morphemes) e.g., “Mommy juice”, “baby fall down” 3) reflecting the order of the language. e.g., “kiss baby”, “baby kiss” 4) creatively combining words. e.g., “more outside”, “all gone cookie”
By the age of 4– Most children are able to: ask questions,give commands,report real events, create stories about imaginary ones with correct word order and grammatical markers most of the time.
By the age of 4–basic structures of the language–less frequent and more complex linguistic structures.–use of the language in a widening social environment.
• Development of Metalinguistic Awareness• Development of Vocabulary
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO L1 ACQUISITION1) Behaviorism: Say what I say2) Innatism: It’s all in your mind3) Interactionist/Developmental perspectives: Learning from inside and out Bibliography: Lightbown, Patsy. Spada, Nina. “How languages are learned” 1993
1) BEHAVIORISM: SAY WHAT I SAYSkinner: language behaviour is the production of correct responses to stimuli through reinforcement.
Language learning is the result of: imitation (word-for-word repetition), practice (repetitive manipulation of form),feedback on success (positive reinforcement) habit formation.
The quality and quantity of the language that the child hears as well as the consistency of the reinforcement offered by others in the environmentwould shape thechild’s language behaviour.
Children’s imitations are not random Their imitation is selective andbased on what they are currently learning.
Children’s practice of new language forms– substitution drills.– It is selective and reflects what they would like to learn.– They pick out patterns/rules and then generalize or overgeneralize them to new contexts.