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Input vs output hypothesis


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Input vs output hypothesis

  1. 1. BUAPLicenciatura abierta facultad de lenguas Verónica E . Noriega Fernández
  2. 2. OUTPUT HYPOTHESIS “Output”, (1980) indicates the outcome of what the student has learned. The Output hypothesis states that it is the action of producing language, speaking and writing, which develops part of the process of second language learning (how proficient learners become). Swain (1985)
  3. 3. Three functions of output1) the noticing/triggering function2) the hypothesis-testing function3) the metalinguistic (reflective) function. This means that the message needs to be conveyed precisely, coherently, and appropriately. This form of ‘pushing’ students in terms of output is precisely the same as that of Krashen’s comprehensible input notion of i +1.
  4. 4. Figure 6: Input, intake and output
  5. 5. Krashen´s (1985) states that comprehensible input is the onlytrue way a learner has to acquire a second language.
  6. 6. INPUT Krashen´s input hypothesis which states that we acquire the target language only when we understand language (comprehensible input). In addition, in order for learners to understand a language point, the structure must be just "a little beyond" where students are at the moment and they will use cultural baggage.
  7. 7. CONCLUSIONInput hypothesis Output hypothesis Krashen stressed that  Consequently, the feedback comprehensible intput helps provided to the learner may students acquire make input and output more language.One important comprehensible. As Swain (1985) principle of Krashen´s theory stated, production challenged states that input should not learners to focus on the means be grammatically sequenced of expression when they realize as such sequencing is not it is necessary to enhance and needed; thus, students would develop the target language be able to understand every level, and it is just then, when class and will never stay language output can contribute behind. to language acquisition.
  8. 8. CONCLUSIONBoth theories complement each other as all the elements mentioned, strongly contribute to language acquisition.One aspect to be taken into account is the positive environment a teacher must create during his/her lesson as it makes a difference in the students’ motivation and interest in acquiring the second language.Feedback plays an important role as well as correct production, and interesting, appealing and meaningful materials which may challenge and motivate learners.