Specifically Designed AcademicInstruction in English (SDAIE) Learn grade-appropriate content Master English vocabulary and grammar Learn “academic” English (i.e., the semantic and syntactic ways that English is used in content subjects) Develop strategies for learning how to learn SHELTERED ENGLISH Instruction that is content rich, comprehensible, visual, hands-on & has lots of student interaction
Content objectives Teachers always teach content but when working with ELL students consider Looking at sequence of science, social studies, etc… Put more concrete concepts before abstract ones Try to teach those content topics that can be enhanced with visuals, hands-on materials and demonstrations first while delaying lots of reading/writing until students have experience with topic
Language objectives While we suggest this for ELL students, you will soon find that preparing your lessons thinking about what new language your entire group will encounter will be helpful for all Language objectives consider NOT ONLY vocabulary but ALSO language functions and discourse functions (i.e. reading history requires knowledge of past tense verbs or important chronological sequencing words, science experiments sometimes use passive voice constructions Consider the use of ALL modalities – listening, speaking, reading, and writing
Learning Strategies Help learners learn how to learn (remember early video) Helping with learning how to take lots of text and break it down in to smaller parts (learn skimming/scanning) Teach how to preview a text for clues for comprehension Walk through texts Mention headings, subheadings, graphs, pictures, etc…
Modifying Materials Supply advance organizers for text to highlight text Change the modality from written to oral. Read aloud ask for higher order thinking skills in oral language instead of always written first Tape record specific passages (or have native speakers do so) for ELL students to listen to Have native-English speakers/writers rewrite portions of text to help more novice readers – good for native writers, good for novice readers! Ask for drawings, labels and minimal writing to demonstrate comprehension for lowest level students
Schema Building Who builds schema? Students? Teacher? Must use scaffolding in order to help those who have not experienced topic to be taught Graphic organizers Semantic mapping
Comprehensibility Making sure students have plenty of clues to make comprehension occur (not just oral questioning!) CONTEXTUALIZATION – strategies that create a parallel to speech and/or text through pictures, realia, dramatizations MODELING – demonstrating actual activity SPEECH ADJUSTMENT – paying attention to input given COMPREHENSION CHECKS – monitoring listening and reading comprehension along the way
If you are going to teach about thecell in biology how would youorganize the lesson?
CONTEXTUALIZATION Verbal presentation added by rich visuals Words introduced as visuals support Presenting a variety of visuals and rephrasing can aid comprehension Incorporating physical skits and activities can aid comprehension (remember the canoe!!)
MODELING Hands-on, demonstrating folding the paper by folding the paper oneself Willingness to repeat Use of chalkboard, blackboard, overhead, computer/LCD, butcher paper
SPEECH ADJUSTMENT Does not mean tarzan language! A little slower delivery/articulation help ELL students to separate words more clearly Elaboration – where the teacher talks about the topic through repetition, paraphrase and rhetorical markers may prove more effective than simplifying grammar and vocabulary
COMPREHENSION CHECKS Thumbs up/down Paraphrase to another student Dramatizing Writing Drawing Graphing can all show comprehension When asking questions think about type for level of proficiency Nonverbal for lowest (thumbs up/down, shaking head ok) EITHER/OR questions – think about all the videos we have seen that use this effectively! Simple WH- questions with one to two word answers
Social Studies & ELLs Need to check for background knowledge in this highly abstract field When presenting topic on westward expansion – teacher could ask students to discuss if their families have moved and if so where from/to… Use of oral narratives can help make more comprehensible Graphic organizers, time lines, physical time lines acted out in classroom, pictures, videos (even Youtube if careful) – Old West or George Washington Have students act out interpretations of social studies to establish that comprehension has occured
Language Arts Try as much as possible to work with folktales and stories that have universal appeal Internet is excellent resource for folktales and also for literature in the student’s L1 Use of visuals, videos, etc…to engage topic Possibly reading aloud with low level learners – having them listen to story on tape or mp3
Math Language of math is COMPLEX Vocabulary may be used for multiple meanings (sum) (add) (combine) (increased)! Syntax can be challenging – Twenty is five times a certain number? What is that number? Operations may be done differently in different countries (division!) Graphics to show fractions! ESL Glossary - college age Video on solving equations!