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Reading Approaches for
        the EFL Emirati
             Classroom




             Fíodhna Hyland ADWC
Presentation Outline
     Reading Orientations
1.



     EFL Reading Approaches
2.



     Role of the Teacher Educator
3.
What is your Reading
Orientation?
    Questionnaire





        Bottom up   Interactive   Top Down
Reading Continuum
Reading Approaches for the EFL
Classroom
    Phonics Approach


    Look-Say


    Choral reading


    Reading aloud
...
1. The Phonics Approach
The Phonics Approach
    This approach aims to consolidate children‟s

    phonemic, phonological and morphological
    a...
Phonics instruction
    Initial Consonants – c, b, d etc.


    Consonant blends - bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, br, cr,

    dr, ...
Think, Pair, Share!
“Children will find it more natural to start from
sounds and learn which letters make them,
since they...
Ideas for teaching Phonics
    Sound of the week –set up a „b‟             Writing: forming the letter, make
            ...
2. The Look Say Approach
The Look-Say Approach
    Focuses on whole word recognition of the

    most common words, such as „the‟, „he‟ and
    „w...
Think, Pair, Share!
“Build up a sight vocabulary from classroom
labels, class-made books and wall stories,
the children’s ...
Ideas for using the Look-Say
Approach

    Word wall – including new words of the week



    Word games e.g. pass the ba...
3. Choral Reading
3. Choral Reading
    Reading aloud together as a group/whole

    class where students scaffold each others
    reading....
4. Reading Aloud
Reading Aloud
    “Read-alouds are absolute musts! Different

    than shared reading, they allow children to
    simply ...
The Fish who had a Wish
    Using the story ‘The fish who had a wish’,

    take turns reading aloud.

    Try to:
      ...
5. Shared Reading
Shared Reading is…
    An enjoyable, co-operative, interactive

    reading activity based on the bedtime story
    exper...
Holdaway’s Methodology
         Holdaway‟s (1979) four stages of shared

         reading:

          Demonstration
    1...
7 Essential Techniques

  Big book technique


 Pointing

 Masking

 Cloze procedure

 Resource techniques

 Innovat...
EFL Reading Techniques in
practice

Choose one of the seven techniques presented
in the leaflet „Shared Reading Tips for
T...
Working my Robot

When I press this button, my robot starts to talk.
When I press this button, my robot starts to walk.


...
Innovation on Structure
Good night, Mr. Beetle,
Good night, Mr. Fly,
Good night, Mr. Ladybug,
The moon’s in the sky.


   ...
Sing a Rainbow

 Red and yellow and pink and green, purple
             and orange and blue
 I can sing a rainbow, sing a ...
6. Reader’s Theatre
Reader’s Theatre

    Reading and dramatizing a script from a

    story, “an excellent activity for beginning
    second...
It’s time to act!

 Using the text of „Little Red Riding hood‟, in
        groups, act out the dialogue.
7. Sustained Silent Reading
Sustained Silent Reading
    An independent reading time set aside during

    the school day for students to silently re...
Think, pair, share!



How can EFL teachers develop Sustained
Silent Reading in government schools?
8. The Language Experience
Approach
The language Experience
Approach

    This approach is based on oral accounts of

    the students‟ experiences, which ar...
Methodology 1 - Whole class
The teacher scribes an interesting event
  dictated by one or more student and writes it
  on ...
‘Breakthrough to Literacy’ –
Methodology 2- Individual/Group
A commercial version widely used with children in Britain for...
Key features for the EFL
classroom
    Stories are personal, meaningful and culture-specific –it‟s their own

    words

...
Applicability to the EFL
classroom
“The most meaningful words for children are likely to
    be those they use in their ow...
9. Guided Reading
Guided Reading aims to…

 “Teach the skills and strategies that successful
 readers need using an organized program that
 ...
Guided Reading Video
Application to an EFL setting

  In groups, discuss the applicability of a Graded
  Reading Program to an EFL setting.

Co...
Ways to manage graded
reading programs
    Set aside a weekly reading time

    Devise ability groups

    Engage in gui...
Graduate Perspective
 “I believe that guided reading is a great way
 to develop students reading and can help
 them be goo...
Graduate Perspective
 “However, this strategy might be bit
 unrealistic to be used in government schools,
 where teachers ...
Strengths
    Textbooks are aligned with grade-level standards.

    Teachers teach strategies and skills in a sequential...
Limitations
    Books may be too difficult for some EFL

    students and too easy for others.
    Written in stilted and...
Example Graded Reading
Programs
   Oxford Reading Tree:


http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/primary/ort/
 Sound Start

 I,2,3, ...
The Role of the Teacher Educator
The Role of the Teacher Educator

    Be a model of good practice


    Use the „Think Aloud‟ technique


    Make colle...
Using Literacy Resources in the
UAE:

    Publishers


    Suppliers


    Conferences


    Foundations


    Librari...
What type of text for
EFL learners?
  Predictable


 Rhythmic

 Repetitive

 Interactive

 Visually attractive

 Sho...
Think, Pair, Share.
 The teaching of EFL reading needs to
 adopt a balanced approach that
 incorporates bottom-up, top-dow...
Balanced Instruction

            Belief Systems and the Search for Balance


                     Curriculum Perspectives...
Conclusion
References
Combs (1996) in Soderman, A.K., Gregory, K.M. & O‟ Neill, L.T. (1999)
Scaffolding Emergent Literacy: A Child-Ce...
Reading Approaches For An EFL Classroom
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Reading Approaches For An EFL Classroom

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Reading Approaches For An EFL Classroom

  1. 1. Reading Approaches for the EFL Emirati Classroom Fíodhna Hyland ADWC
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Reading Orientations 1. EFL Reading Approaches 2. Role of the Teacher Educator 3.
  3. 3. What is your Reading Orientation? Questionnaire  Bottom up Interactive Top Down
  4. 4. Reading Continuum
  5. 5. Reading Approaches for the EFL Classroom Phonics Approach  Look-Say  Choral reading  Reading aloud  Shared reading  Reader‟s theatre  Sustained silent reading  The language experience approach  In pairs, decide whether these approaches involve reading ‘to’, ‘with’ or ‘by‟ children.
  6. 6. 1. The Phonics Approach
  7. 7. The Phonics Approach This approach aims to consolidate children‟s  phonemic, phonological and morphological awareness. It involves working out sound/letter  correspondences to develop „word attack‟ skills. It highlights the recognition of individual  sounds and sound blends so that words can be „sounded out‟.
  8. 8. Phonics instruction Initial Consonants – c, b, d etc.  Consonant blends - bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, br, cr,  dr, gr, pr, tr, st, sk Consonant diagraphs - two consonants  which combine to make one sounds – ch, sh, ph, th, gh, Vowel Sounds – oo, ea, ee etc. 
  9. 9. Think, Pair, Share! “Children will find it more natural to start from sounds and learn which letters make them, since they are moving from experience with the spoken language to the new words of written letters and words.” (McGuiness 1997 in Cameron, 2001, p.149) Discuss the place of phonics instruction for young Arabic EFL students.
  10. 10. Ideas for teaching Phonics Sound of the week –set up a „b‟ Writing: forming the letter, make   table. Children bring in objects your own dictionary, write a story about „Clever cat‟ using word charts beginning with that sound. and consonant boxes. Feel the letter and say the sound -  using cutout sandpaper letters. Make an alphabet frieze.  ‘Sound hats’ – wear the sound hat Sing songs with that sound, e.g.   Annie Apple says „a‟ in words. and say a word that begins with that letter. Children highlight sounds on word  Phonic games: e.g. Sound Bingo, I cards.  spy, match the sound to the word Making letters from playdoh.  Mini-booklets/flashcards with key  sound highlighted in colour– students Art activities, e.g. printing „b‟ on  practice reading at home blankets for baby bear‟s bed. Read stories based on one sound,  Sorting toys into sound baskets.  e.g. „Bouncy Ben goes to the park‟.
  11. 11. 2. The Look Say Approach
  12. 12. The Look-Say Approach Focuses on whole word recognition of the  most common words, such as „the‟, „he‟ and „went‟ so that reading becomes automatic. Emphasizes building up a sight vocabulary  of high frequency words Sight words may be difficult to sound out and  are therefore learned by heart. Develops lexical knowledge, i.e. that certain  words collocate or go together, e.g. at the seaside.
  13. 13. Think, Pair, Share! “Build up a sight vocabulary from classroom labels, class-made books and wall stories, the children’s own writing, and written versions of songs and poems which are already know already”. (Gibbons, 1991, p.77) Why do EFL Learners have difficulty learning lists of isolated words?
  14. 14. Ideas for using the Look-Say Approach Word wall – including new words of the week  Word games e.g. pass the ball, when the music stops, choose a  high frequency word and read it. Divide words into categories, e.g. colours, animal words. Ask  children questions like “Can you find your favourite animal?” Snap, dominoes, word searches.  Use word cards – write a word on the front and a related  sentence on the back Cut up known sentences into words, pairs reorder them. 
  15. 15. 3. Choral Reading
  16. 16. 3. Choral Reading Reading aloud together as a group/whole  class where students scaffold each others reading. It provides practice for students to read with  appropriate expression. It develops confidence by giving every  student the chance to participate as a group.
  17. 17. 4. Reading Aloud
  18. 18. Reading Aloud “Read-alouds are absolute musts! Different  than shared reading, they allow children to simply sit back and hear the flow and rhythm and magic of good literature without having to struggle with the text themselves” (Combs,1996, p.144). Through read-alouds, EFL children are  provided a „model of what skilled oral reading sounds like‟.
  19. 19. The Fish who had a Wish Using the story ‘The fish who had a wish’,  take turns reading aloud. Try to: •Encourage active listening •Connect the illustrations as you read •Read with expression •Encourage prediction •Follow with discussion
  20. 20. 5. Shared Reading
  21. 21. Shared Reading is… An enjoyable, co-operative, interactive  reading activity based on the bedtime story experience. Ideally the text is a big book version. Shared reading can be conducted as a whole  class, in groups or in pairs.
  22. 22. Holdaway’s Methodology Holdaway‟s (1979) four stages of shared  reading: Demonstration 1. Participation 2. Practice 3. Performance 4.
  23. 23. 7 Essential Techniques Big book technique   Pointing  Masking  Cloze procedure  Resource techniques  Innovation on structure  Musical techniques
  24. 24. EFL Reading Techniques in practice Choose one of the seven techniques presented in the leaflet „Shared Reading Tips for Teachers‟ and practice with your partner, using the text provided.
  25. 25. Working my Robot When I press this button, my robot starts to talk. When I press this button, my robot starts to walk. When I pull this lever, he starts to turn around When I pull this lever, he makes a bleeping sound When I click this little switch, his lights begin to flash. Oh! He’s falling over……. Clink! Clank! Crash!
  26. 26. Innovation on Structure Good night, Mr. Beetle, Good night, Mr. Fly, Good night, Mr. Ladybug, The moon’s in the sky. Good night, Miss Kitten, Good night, Mr. Pup, I’ll see you in the morning, When the sun comes up.
  27. 27. Sing a Rainbow Red and yellow and pink and green, purple and orange and blue I can sing a rainbow, sing a rainbow, sing a rainbow too. Listen with your eyes, listen with your eyes and sing everything you see. You can sing a rainbow, sing a rainbow, sing along with me.
  28. 28. 6. Reader’s Theatre
  29. 29. Reader’s Theatre Reading and dramatizing a script from a  story, “an excellent activity for beginning second language readers ..” (Peregoy and Boyle, 253)
  30. 30. It’s time to act! Using the text of „Little Red Riding hood‟, in groups, act out the dialogue.
  31. 31. 7. Sustained Silent Reading
  32. 32. Sustained Silent Reading An independent reading time set aside during  the school day for students to silently read self-selected books. Also know as „Drop everything and read‟  (DEAR); „Our time to enjoy reading‟ (OTTER); „Read in bed, it‟s terrific‟(RIBIT)
  33. 33. Think, pair, share! How can EFL teachers develop Sustained Silent Reading in government schools?
  34. 34. 8. The Language Experience Approach
  35. 35. The language Experience Approach This approach is based on oral accounts of  the students‟ experiences, which are written down by the teacher (Shared writing). Students are then encouraged to read the  story. Individual words and vocabulary are  discussed and learned.
  36. 36. Methodology 1 - Whole class The teacher scribes an interesting event dictated by one or more student and writes it on the board to build up a text e.g. „I went to the doctor yesterday‟/We went on a trip to…
  37. 37. ‘Breakthrough to Literacy’ – Methodology 2- Individual/Group A commercial version widely used with children in Britain for first language literacy and South Africa for first and second languages. Children compose sentences, with their teacher, from a set of  word cards. They physically move the word cards by pacing them into a  plastic tray to make the sentence and placing a full stop at the end. The sentence is then read back to the teacher.  The child copies it down in his/her book.  Gradually, the child builds up a collection of words that are  known and moves to making several sentences. Once the sight vocabulary is established, small books are  introduced. (Cameron, p.147)
  38. 38. Key features for the EFL classroom Stories are personal, meaningful and culture-specific –it‟s their own  words Children are reading and writing at the „sentence level‟.  Children and teacher together compose sentences.  Print conventions and punctuation is taught from the start e.g.  directionality of print, spaces between words, capital letters and full stops. Words can have a physical reality, as the child moves words and puts  them together to make a sentence. The integration of speaking, writing and reading helps children to see  how texts are composed. (Cameron, p. 147)
  39. 39. Applicability to the EFL classroom “The most meaningful words for children are likely to be those they use in their own spoken and written language” (Gibbons, P. 1993, p.81). In light of the above quote, in groups, evaluate the 1. potential effectiveness of the Language Experience Approach in teaching reading in a foreign or second language. Brainstorm how would you deal with challenges of 2. time, large classes, mixed ability levels and classroom management when implementing this approach?
  40. 40. 9. Guided Reading
  41. 41. Guided Reading aims to… “Teach the skills and strategies that successful readers need using an organized program that includes grade-level reading selections, workbook practice, assignments and frequent testing” (Tompkins, G. 2006).
  42. 42. Guided Reading Video
  43. 43. Application to an EFL setting In groups, discuss the applicability of a Graded Reading Program to an EFL setting. Consider:  Implementation of a core reading scheme  Bottom-up approaches  Cultural, contextual and political considerations  Time constraints  Accessibility of materials/using alternative resources  The Eclectic Approach to reading
  44. 44. Ways to manage graded reading programs Set aside a weekly reading time  Devise ability groups  Engage in guided reading with groups of children,  rather than individually Change books regularly  Have book discussions/shares  Devise an informal record system.  Integrate with other approaches, e.g. independent  reading. Involve parents – notes, workshops. 
  45. 45. Graduate Perspective “I believe that guided reading is a great way to develop students reading and can help them be good readers. Teachers with good preparation, materials and enough time to apply the strategy shouldn‟t have problems applying the strategy”. Al Sada, M., (2008)Email correspondence
  46. 46. Graduate Perspective “However, this strategy might be bit unrealistic to be used in government schools, where teachers have to complete and cover a whole new curriculum which focuses on other things, for example, grammar, phonics, writing and vocabulary”. Al Sada, M., (2008) Email correspondence
  47. 47. Strengths Textbooks are aligned with grade-level standards.  Teachers teach strategies and skills in a sequential  program. Students learn how to read by practicing phonic and  word identification skills. Vocabulary is controlled.  Supports differentiation.  The teacher‟s guide provides ideas on teaching  reading. Assessment materials are included. 
  48. 48. Limitations Books may be too difficult for some EFL  students and too easy for others. Written in stilted and unnatural language -  may lack the authenticity of good literature. Vocabulary is controlled.  Many workbook assignments included.  Main focus is on skills, i.e. phonics, word  recognition, rather than on fluency.
  49. 49. Example Graded Reading Programs Oxford Reading Tree:  http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/primary/ort/  Sound Start  I,2,3, and Away  Ginn  New Way  www.readinga-z.com
  50. 50. The Role of the Teacher Educator
  51. 51. The Role of the Teacher Educator Be a model of good practice  Use the „Think Aloud‟ technique  Make college learning realistic, contextualized and  meaningful Connect to the ADEC strands and indicators  Engage student teachers in systematic microteaching  Engage student teachers in problem-based learning  Connect to their previous learning experiences  Scaffold experiences through assisted performance,  guided participation and collaboration
  52. 52. Using Literacy Resources in the UAE: Publishers  Suppliers  Conferences  Foundations  Libraries  How could you use these resources to enhance your teacher education classes?
  53. 53. What type of text for EFL learners? Predictable   Rhythmic  Repetitive  Interactive  Visually attractive  Short and simple  Electronic
  54. 54. Think, Pair, Share. The teaching of EFL reading needs to adopt a balanced approach that incorporates bottom-up, top-down and interactive approaches. What are the practical implications of applying this in an EFL classroom? How can the teacher educator influence student teachers‟ beliefs, knowledge and practices?
  55. 55. Balanced Instruction Belief Systems and the Search for Balance Curriculum Perspectives Skills-Based Curriculum Whole Language Curriculum Instructional Approaches Phonics Reading Aloud Look-Say Shared Reading Choral Reading Language-Experience Reader‟s Theatre Guided Reading Achieving a Balanced Literacy Program
  56. 56. Conclusion
  57. 57. References Combs (1996) in Soderman, A.K., Gregory, K.M. & O‟ Neill, L.T. (1999) Scaffolding Emergent Literacy: A Child-Centred Approach for Preschool through Grade 5, Allyn & Bacon Publications, p.107-108. Gibbons, P. (1991) Learning to Learn in a Second Language. Primary English Teaching Association, Australia, ch. 7 „Reading in a Second Language‟. Harker, J. (2005) „Tea with the big bad wolf‟, Child Education, September, Scholastic, pp.28-29. Hyland, F. (2005) Shared reading tips for teachers leaflet. Peregoy, S. F. & Boyle, O. F. (2000) Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers, 3rd ed. New York: Longman, p.253. Tompkins, G.E. (2006) Literacy for the 21st Century: A balanced approach, fourth edition, Pearson Publications, pp.338-352. Tierney, R.J. & Readence, J.E. (2000) Reading Strategies and Practices: A Compendium. Allyn & Bacon, pp.458-461.

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