Coasts CSEC Geography

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Coasts CSEC Geography

  1. 1. RM ACCOUNTS ED Geography notes CSEC rm accounts ed ram@2013
  2. 2. Coasts Waves rm accounts ed ram@2013
  3. 3. Wave Formation  Frictional force between the wind and the sea surface  Transfers circular motion to the water  In open water we get swells  As swells approach the shore waves are formed  Waves break when the depth of the water is less than the wave height rm accounts ed ram@2013
  4. 4. rm accounts ed ram@2013
  5. 5. rm accounts ed ram@2013
  6. 6. Type of waves Two types  Constructive – These build beaches by depositing sand, shingles and pebbles  Destructive – These remove material from the shore rm accounts ed ram@2013
  7. 7. Destructive Waves  These plunge against the shore rm accounts ed ram@2013
  8. 8. Characteristics - destructive  Backwash  > is greater than the swash Backwash > Swash 9 per minute  Short wave lengths  Plunge against the shore rm accounts ed ram@2013
  9. 9. Constructive Waves  These spill onto the shore rm accounts ed ram@2013
  10. 10. Characteristics - constructive  Swash  < is greater than the Backwash Swash > Backwash 9 waves per minute  long  Spill wave lengths onto the shore rm accounts ed ram@2013
  11. 11. Coasts Wave Processes rm accounts ed ram@2013
  12. 12. Wave Processes Erode Transport Deposit rm accounts ed ram@2013
  13. 13. Wave Erosion  Hydraulic alone  Attrition – Load knock against each other  Abrasion shore  Solution the rock Action – force of the water or Corrasion – Load erodes the – Sea water disolves minerals in rm accounts ed ram@2013
  14. 14. rm accounts ed ram@2013
  15. 15. Wave Transportation  The movement of material can be either of three ways: in, out and along    In, deposition of material to form beaches Out, removal of material from the shore out to sea by the undertow Along the shore is called longshore drift rm accounts ed ram@2013
  16. 16. Longshore Drift rm accounts ed ram@2013
  17. 17. The effect of Groynes / Groines along a beach rm accounts ed ram@2013
  18. 18. Wave Deposition  Deposition is the laying down of transported material  Constructive waves and gently sloping shorelines are associated with deposition  Where rivers discharge into the sea rm accounts ed ram@2013
  19. 19. Coasts Coastal Features rm accounts ed ram@2013
  20. 20. Types of Coastal features  Erosional – those produced by erosion  Examples: cliff, notch, wave-cut platform, headland and bay, caves, arches, stacks and blowholes  Depositional – those produced by deposition  Examples: beaches, spit, tombolo and bars rm accounts ed ram@2013
  21. 21. Cliff, Notch and Wave-cut Platform rm accounts ed ram@2013
  22. 22. Headland and Bay rm accounts ed ram@2013
  23. 23. deposition erosion rm accounts ed ram@2013
  24. 24. Headland and Bay cont’d rm accounts ed ram@2013
  25. 25. What happens next? rm accounts ed ram@2013
  26. 26. Wave Refraction The change in the direction of the waves as they approach the shore, converging on headlands and diverging as they approach the bay Stronger on the headlands Weaker in the bay rm accounts ed ram@2013
  27. 27. rm accounts ed ram@2013
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  30. 30. rm accounts ed ram@2013
  31. 31. Depositional Features  What are the two main conditions which lead to the formation of depositional features?   Constructive waves and gently sloping shorelines are associated with deposition Where rivers discharge into the sea rm accounts ed ram@2013
  32. 32. rm accounts ed ram@2013
  33. 33. A Beach A beach is a depositional feature. What material is laid down to form a beach?  What is a bay-head beach?  Draw a diagram to illustrate a beach. rm accounts ed ram@2013
  34. 34. Other Depositional features  Spit  Bar  Tombolo  Draw well labelled diagrams of the features identified above. rm accounts ed ram@2013
  35. 35. rm accounts ed ram@2013 Borrowed from: http://imgcdn.geocaching.com/cache/large/23a79aff-4609-43ed-a383-011910ee6680.jpg
  36. 36. A Spit rm accounts ed ram@2013
  37. 37. A Tombolo rm accounts ed ram@2013
  38. 38. A Bar – Baymouth Bar rm accounts ed ram@2013
  39. 39. rm accounts ed Borrowed from: greenfieldgeography.wikispaces.com - ram@2013
  40. 40. rm accounts ed ram@2013
  41. 41. A Bar – Offshore Bar rm accounts ed ram@2013
  42. 42. thanks  Physical Geography in Diagrams – R B Bunnett  Dale Franklin – for the teaching concepts and the initial powe-rpoint. rm accounts ed ram@2013

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