Waste analyses and characterization study (wacs for wte project) greenergy solutions


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The presentation would provide for technical knowhow on the conduct of Waste Analysis Characterization study preparatory to the development of Waste-to-energy projects

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Waste analyses and characterization study (wacs for wte project) greenergy solutions

  2. 2. Waste Analysis and Characterization StudyThis presentation is prepared mainly for the purposeof development of Material Resource and EnergyFacility (MREF) and Waste-to-energy (WTE) facilityusing Municipal Solid Waste as feedstock. The resultof the WACS will be the basis for the conduct of thePreliminary Engineering Design Study (PEDS) todetermine the capacity of a proposed MREF or WTEfacility.The accuracy of the WACS is very important in thedesign of the proposed facility. www.greenergyph.com
  3. 3. Waste Analysis and Characterization Study  Data quality objectives.  Determination of a representative sample.  Statistical methods to be employed in the analyses.  Waste generation and handling processes.  Constituents/parameters to be sampled.  Physical and chemical properties of the waste.  Accessibility of the unit.  Sampling equipment, methods, and sample containers.  Quality assurance and quality control (e.g., sample preservation and handling requirements).  Chain-of-custody.  Health and safety of employees. www.greenergyph.com
  4. 4. Why do WACS?Waste characterization is comprisedof a waste stream compositionprofile by material types (i.e. paper,plastic, etc.) and corresponding solidwaste weight estimates that can beused to evaluate the current solidwaste management system andassist in determining future programwaste diversion and conversionprocess. It is necessary to recharacterizewaste in order to accurately makewaste management decisions andevaluate environmental risk. www.greenergyph.com
  5. 5. The WACS for the Waste-to-Energy Facility Project,why it is necessary. Knowing the physical and chemical properties of a waste using sampling and analysis techniques is the cornerstone upon which subsequent steps in the waste management are planned. It is necessary for gauging what is the design capacity and a waste might pose to surface water, ground water, and air and drives waste management unit design and operating decisions. Knowing the composition of the waste is also necessary when determining the constituents for which to test. Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of the waste is crucial in identifying pollution prevention opportunities. www.greenergyph.com
  6. 6. The Waste Covers the entire waste stream – from source to final disposal and/orStream conversion facility. Sanitary landfill or Households dumpsite Markets Establishments (schools, hospitals, offices) Final disposal Sources Business institutionsof wastes Agricultural areas (farms) Industries, processing plants Biomass/waste- to-energy facility www.greenergyph.com
  7. 7. Waste Source Categories Households • Residentials in urban centers Service • Hotel/Inns • Residentials in rural areas centers • Other service centers • Resorts/Hotels • Main public market Recreation • Small Resorts/HotelsPublic Market • Medium public market • Parks • small/Satellite Centers • Gyms/Sports Centers •Major Food Establishment Health • Hospitals (fastfood Outlets, restaurants) Related • Clinics/Health Centers/Pharmacies/ Food •Other food establishment Sources Drug StoresEstablishment (carinderias/eateries, food stalls, bakeries) Agricultural • Big plantation farms Farms • Animal farms • Major general stores General (groceries,malls,department stores Stores • Other general stores (sari- Slaughterhouse • Urban centers sari stored • Rural centers • Major industries • Rice mills Industries • Other industries Mill Industries • Corn mills and Mining • Sugar mills areas • Gold mines, coal mines, etc •Municipal Hall, other government offices Institutions •Private offices, banks •Church •Schools, colleges/universities Residual from MRFs www.greenergyph.com
  8. 8. Waste Characterization Activity www.greenergyph.com
  9. 9. Methodology Total LGU Municipal Solid Waste Daily Fresh Landfilled/ dumped Waste Waste Barangay Barangay Barangay 1 2 3 Characterize landfilled/dumped Characterize daily fresh waste waste Characterize total waste www.greenergyph.com
  10. 10. Database required  Data are organized for systematic and easy access and processing;  Excel template are preferred as database www.greenergyph.com
  11. 11. Data Recording Data consolidation/ Data encoding: data summarizing: Data analysis: What gathered in actual Computing for unit do WACS data mean WACS are entered waste generation – in relation to waste into database for by waste source, by diversion, SWM processing composition – in Facilities and SWM collection area and strategies whole LGU www.greenergyph.com
  12. 12. Sampling and Analysis Plan The sampling plan is usually a written document that describes the objectives and details of the individual tasks of a sampling effort and how they will be performed. Background information on the processes that generate the waste and the type and characteristics of the waste management unit is essential for developing a sound sampling plan. Knowledge of the unit location and situation (e.g., geology, exposure of the waste to the elements, local climatic conditions) will assist in determining correct sample size and sampling method. Sampling plan design will depend on whether the sampling of waste prior to disposal in a waste management unit or whether the sampling of waste is from an existing unit. When obtaining samples from an existing unit, care should be taken to avoid endangering the individuals collecting the samples and to prevent damaging the unit www.greenergyph.com
  13. 13. Sampling Plan requirement Location of Total area the of the sampling sampling area size Total population LGU of the officials sampling involve size www.greenergyph.com
  14. 14. Methodology • For example, waste arising from a small barangay may be split into two waste areas: residential and farms; • Each of these ‘waste sources’ has a different waste composition – office (mostly food waste and Divide the areas into farm waste), mostly organic sectors /barangays waste; with similar waste • For example, waste arising from composition (these residential areas will be similar in are referred to as composition. ‘Waste Sources’. The • Residentials are then chosen as a ‘waste source’ within towns and number of sources cities from which a specific will depend on the character of waste arises. area and population of the local government unit. www.greenergyph.com
  15. 15. The Sampling Process  Identify all waste sourcesSelect a central ‘wastecollection area’ where all within the local areawaste generation can be  Householdscollected, sorted weighedand characterized for the  Public marketduration of the wasteanalysis study.  General StoresThis area should be  Industriescovered, if possible to  Institutionsprovide shelter fromadverse weather conditions.  Service centersIdeally it should also be  Recreation centersclose to the current waste  Slaughterhousemanagement facilities tominimize disruption to the  Health –related centersdaily running of the site. www.greenergyph.com
  16. 16. Characterization of daily freshwaste collected from barangays Bring mixed waste to the if it collected thru trucks, area assigned for unload the content of characterization, LGU truck into the assigned shall identify an area for area and characterize the the waste characterization whole load of truck. www.greenergyph.com
  17. 17. Sampling Process Gather the necessary equipment to aid in the waste sampling process. Clear waste bags/boxes should be available at each ‘waste source’ to allow wastes to be collected. Pens and labels should also be distributed to each ‘waste source’. The ‘waste characterization area’ should contain a weighing scale (with a range from 0 to 20kg, with accuracy to 0.1kgs)), several containers for holding and sorting the waste, shovels, a brush, a first aid kit, clipboard, labels, pens and worksheets. Several copies of the ‘Waste Collection Area Worksheets’ should be on hand for each day of the survey. Health and safety issues should also be considered. All members of the waste analysis team should wear protective clothing (such as rubber gloves, heavy duty shoes, safety glasses and coveralls) and precautions should be taken to ensure that the waste does not come into contact with food or drink. www.greenergyph.com
  18. 18. Conducting the SurveyOnce these tasks have been addressed, the wastecharacterization analysis survey may begin. At each‘waste source’, two categories of waste will begenerated:(a) Segregated waste streams – These waste streamswill be homogenous and consist of material of a singletype, for example cardboard, paper, plastic, food wasteetc.(b) Mixed waste streams – These waste streams will beheterogeneous in nature and consist of mixed waste ofvarious types. The characterization of this waste streamis more difficult. www.greenergyph.com
  19. 19. STEP SELECT SAMPLE FOR WASTE ONE CHARACTERIZATION Secure Materials and Equipment: a. b. Calibrate the volume of Procure/secure the following: plasticI. IDENTIFY pails (10,15,liter capacity) rake, plastic pails; weigh and recordTHE WASTE garden forks, trowel,plastic plastic empty weigh of each pail.COLLECTION liners, garbage bags, weighingAREA scales (10-100 kg capacity) Landfills/dumpsites Barangays Towns/cities Procure rubber globes and nose masks for those who will do the sampling; Provide first –aid kits for emergencies and injuries. www.greenergyph.com
  20. 20. The layout ofMethodology waste The layout of the area should characterization Barangay 1 be based on the number of barangays in every LGUDETERMINE THECOLLECTIONROUTES/TRIPSAND CLUSTER THECOLLECTION Barangay LGU waste characterization barangay2ROUTE/TRIP; 4 area The site for the waste characterization activity The barangays, should not be enclosed by residential and walls on all sides, Barangay establishments preferably roofed ( or a tent 3 should be can be set up) and can be accessible to collection informed about vehicle. the activity. www.greenergyph.com
  21. 21. Methodology The WACS Team Every Barangay must create a team that will conduct the WACS or Train all members of Weighers must be Prepare WACS the WACS team on data form and create Barangay how to segregate familiar with the orient assigned waste and the whole use of weighing WACS Team WACS process. A dry scale recorders on their run is encourage. use.Identify who willperform the followingtasks:Team leaderRecorderWeighers/scalersSortersIn-charge of logisticsupportWaste collectors www.greenergyph.com
  22. 22. Methodology As the labelled mixed waste arrives at the Weigh the ‘waste empty characterization area’ containers/plas Record these all waste bags/boxes weights on each should be weighed tics bags that container/plastic and the details the sorted bag. recorded in the ‘Waste waste will be Characterization Worksheet. placed into. www.greenergyph.com
  23. 23. Only representative samples of mixed wasteMethodology must be sorted and weighed. • During the survey period randomly take samples of mixed waste (>10kg) from each of the ‘waste sources’. • The number of samples, which are sorted and characterized from each ‘waste source’, should be representative of the total volume of waste produced from each ‘waste source’. • For example, if ten bags of mixed waste arise from the offices of an organisation per day and only two bags of mixed waste are produced from the canteen then the sampling regime should reflect this ratio. • The greater the number of mixed waste samples which are characterized, the more accurate the results will be. Attempt to characterize as many samples as time allows. www.greenergyph.com
  24. 24. I. The over-all leader in the Municipal WACS team shallMethodology distribute plastic bags to sample barangay waste one day before the WACS; II. The plastic bags must be properly labelled with the following: Name of Barangay where samples are collected;The waste The total volume of samples ;characterization Waste source categories : residential, mixed,process is agricultural;described for: Date of sampling1.Waste III. Collect the bags fromgenerated in every barangay at anBarangays agreed time of the collection.2. Wastegenerated inPublic market IV. Deliver to sorting area; the proper location as3. Waste assigned for sorting area.generated fromdumpsites/landfills4. Residuals www.greenergyph.com
  25. 25. Methodology Only representative samples of mixed waste must be sorted and weighed. The number of samples, which are sorted and characterized from During the survey each ‘waste source’, should be The greater the number period randomly take representative of the total volume of mixed waste samples samples of mixed of waste produced from each which are characterized, ‘waste source’. For example, if ten the more accurate the waste (>10kg) from bags of mixed waste arise from the offices of an organisation per results will be. Attempt each of the ‘waste day and only two bags of mixed to characterize as many sources’. waste are produced from the canteen then the sampling regime samples as time allows. should reflect this ratio. www.greenergyph.com
  26. 26. Step MethodologyTwoActual Weigh the waste samples fromCharacterization each source;of waste Record the total weight and volume on field data entry Waste samples must be a one-day waste generation Open the bags. Segregate the waste on sorting mats into the following: Biodegrable waste Non-biodegrable /Residual waste Special waste www.greenergyph.com
  27. 27. What are Biodegrable wastes: These are materials readily compostableAgricultural WasteManures FoodPlant stalks waste YardRice hulls and straws Wet paper trimmings and cartons (leaves, twigs)Corn stoversCoconut husksSugar cane trash and Yard waste Vegetablebagasse and fruitsYard waste Agricultural wasteWet paper andcartoons www.greenergyph.com
  28. 28. Non-biodegrable Materials, special wastes Bottles, vials, Rubber, usedMetals, steel, and broken copper, Plastics, tires gloves, Textile glass PETS, PES boots and aluminum, (including trimmingsiron, brass; thick PVCs mats and cullets and sheets, bubug) Ashes and soots Household toxic and hazardous waste Styrofoam Spent fluorescent tubes and bulbs Tattered textile Spent dry and wet cell batteries Paper and other packaging materials Laminates and composite materials Expired drugs and chemicals; Disposable diapers asbestos materials Broken ceramics Bulky waste, used furnitures, worn out appliances, Glazed materials consumer electronics www.greenergyph.com
  29. 29. Moisture content determination  After the sorting and weighing the individual waste stream, secure the samples in an area for the next ten (10) for another weighing process to determine the moisture content.  Moisture content formula: MC= weight (fresh waste) weight (after drying for 10 days) x 100 www.greenergyph.com
  30. 30. Waste Characterization FormName of LGU as waste sourceBarangayDate of Sampling/characterizationTotal volume of waste samplesWaste stream Initial weight Percentage Weight after Moisture after sorting Volume of the ten (10) days content (fresh) samplesFood wasteplasticsglassmetalspaperAgricultural/plant wasteAnimal waste Prepared by: www.greenergyph.com
  31. 31. For more information, please contactRUTH P.BRIONES Rm. 401/411,Verde Oro Bldg. Commonwealth Ave. Diliman, Quezon City. Phone Nos:+632Chairman/CEO 456 2293/ +6324979452 /+63915 300 7363 Email: gsiwte@gmail.comGreenergy Solutions Inc. Website: www.greenergyph.com www.greenergyph.com