PAYT is the most effective way to reduce trash and increase recycling
Presentation prince george's zero waste january 23, 2013 v4
Moving Prince George’s County towards Zero Waste Suchitra Balachandran Greg Smith Community Research January 23, 2013
Community Research is a Prince George’s County-basednonprofit that conducts public-interest research, education andadvocacy on the environment, public health, sustainability, andother issues.Community Research has helped to set up Zero Waste PrinceGeorge’s, a is group of about 60 activists in the County who areinterested in resource recovery from waste.We are working with Clean Water Action, the Energy JusticeNetwork, and the Institute for Local Self-Reliance to build ZeroWaste Maryland, a statewide campaign and alliance for email@example.com
What is “Zero Waste”?"Zero Waste is a goal that is ethical, economical, efficient andvisionary, to guide people in changing their lifestyles and practicesto emulate sustainable natural cycles, where all discarded materialsare designed to become resources for others to use.Zero Waste means designing and managing products and processesto systematically avoid and eliminate the volume and toxicity ofwaste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and notburn or bury them.Implementing Zero Waste will eliminate all discharges to land,water or air that are a threat to planetary, human, animal or planthealth." -- Zero Waste International Alliance, November 2004.
Nuts and Bolts Definition of Zero WasteZero waste means that: First, the amount of waste generated is systematically reduced Nothing that can be recycled, reused or composted goes into a landfill or an incinerator Green businesses are encouraged to mine resources from what would otherwise be wasted and destroyed through landfilling or incineration For many jurisdictions, the final goal is to reduce landfilling and incineration to less than 10% of the waste produced
Alameda County Waste Management Authority &Alameda County Source Reduction and Recycling Board
Best Practices Study – Mecklenburg County Residential Curbside (City and County) Residential Multi-family Commercial/Industrial/Institutional Construction and Demolition Waste Schools Event Recycling Local Government In-house Recycling Waste Prevention (Reduce, Reuse) Litter
Which companies are interested?• Manufacture of rotary, in-vessel compost units in a range of sizes for commercial generators of organic wastes including animal manures – 30 jobs• Mattress and carpet materials recovery – 30 jobs• Electronic Scrap, hand dismantling and processing of electronic discards – 20 jobs• Industrial Rubber Compounds – 50-65 jobs• Topsoil and compost – 8 jobs• Anaerobic digestion – 8 jobs• Storage and resale of recovered building materials – 20 jobs• Glass processing, industrial grade glass products, container glass – 3 jobs Direct Jobs 200-300; Indirect Jobs 200-300 Alachua County collects about 200,000 tons of waste annually It has about 250,000 residents and covers roughly 970 sq. miles
Safeco Field – Seattle Mariners Recycling rate increased from 17 to 80 percent Stadium has 17 trash cans, 200 recycle bins and 300 compost bins “All that’s left are potato chip bags, condiment containers and wrappers for licorice ropes.” Saved over $100,000 annually in landfill fees. Sustainability initiatives written up on ESPN websiteUnwasted: The Future of Business on Earth (http://sagebug.com/zerowaste/)
Local Initiatives Not everything innovative and inspirational is happening somewhere else• Cheverly - household composting• University Park - food scrap collection• College Park - bulk waste pickup for reuse• Laurel – mandates residential recycling• University of Maryland - Sustainability Initiative• Community Forklift, Eco City Farms
CB-87-2012• Sets 60 percent recycling goal by 2020• Mandates business recycling• Mandates pilot food waste composting program• Revives and expands the Solid Waste Commission and tasks it with resource management• Requires periodic waste audits• Requires convenient recycling in apartments
U.S. municipal waste “disposed” 160.9 million tons in 2009 Source: US EPA, 2009 data (http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/msw99.htm)
What Prince George’s County Probably Landfills -Percentages from Montgomery County Waste Sort MeanCategory Material Composition TonnagePaper Recyclable Paper 17.40% 78300Paper Non-Recyclable Paper 9.90% 44550Ferrous Metal All Ferrous 2.70% 12150Non-ferrous Metal Aluminum Cans 0.50% 2250Non-ferrous Metal Everything Else 0.70% 3150Wood All wood 5.30% 23850Yard Waste Grass - Leaves - Brush - Pruning 3.10% 13950Organics Food Waste 19.20% 86400Organics Textiles & Rugs 6.60% 29700Organics Rubber, Tires, Diapers, Fines 4.60% 20700Organics Misc. Organics 7.00% 31500Glass Clear, Brown, Green, Non-Container 2.50% 11250Plastic PET #1, HDPE #2 1.90% 8550Plastic Polystyrene 1.30% 5850Plastic Other Recyclable Containers/Tubs 0.60% 2700Plastic Film Plastic - Shopping Bags & Other 6.60% 29700Plastic Other Ridge Plastic 3.70% 16650Inorganic Concrete, Sheet Rock, Paint, Electronics 4.20% 18900Hazardous Mostly Medical 1.70% 7650 99.50% 447750
Resources and Dollars LandfilledRecyclable Paper + Metals + Plastics = 192,000 tonsAt $6/ton MRF + $59/ton landfill cost = $12 millionCommodity Prices: $100/ton for paper $60-80/ton for metals $10-15/ton for plasticsFood Waste + Non-recyclable paper + yard waste = 145,000 tonsAt $20/ton for compost assuming 2:1 ratio of waste to compost and$59/ton landfill cost saved = $10 million
Problems with Burning and Burying• Both destroy valuable resources.• Both pollute air, land, water, people and other living things…. upstream and downstream.• Both destroy jobs and often export money from communities• Both increase emissions of greenhouse gases.• Both are subsidized at the expense of recycling, composting and clean renewable energy.• Both tend to be sited in communities with lower incomes, higher percentages of minorities or rural areas.
Even More Problems with Burning• Ton for ton, incineration is the most expensive waste “disposal” option.• Watt for watt, incineration is the most expensive way to generate electricity.• Watt for watt, burning trash emits more greenhouse gases and more of certain toxic air pollutants than burning coal.
Costs to Build, Operate and Maintain a 1500 Ton Per Day Trash Incinerator• Construction costs can exceed $1 billion to build, including interest on 30-year capital debt.• Gross operating and maintenance costs can approach $2 billion over 30 years.• Retrofits to meet new standards or simply to deal with wear and tear can be very expensive.
1,500 TPD recycling facility = $8 million investment Institute for Local Self-Reliance
Job Creation: Reclamation vs. Disposal Type of Operation Jobs/10,000 TPY Computer Reuse 296 Textile Reclamation 85 Misc. Durables Reuse 62 Wooden Pallet Repair 28 Recycling-Based Manufacturers 25 Conventional MRFs 10 Composting 4 Landfills and Incinerators 1MRF = materials recovery facility Institute for Local Self-RelianceTPY = tons per year
Key Steps to Zero Waste• Inform, Inspire, Habituate• Implement Pay As You Throw trash fees• Accept many materials for recycling• Compost• Mandate recycling• Target all sectors• Augment curbside with drop-off• Market materials• Create green jobs by welcoming business that reuse, refurbish, upcycle, recycle and compost Institute for Local Self-Reliance
Policy Framework• Landfill bans of certain materials, e.g., yard waste• Recycling goals and requirements• Beverage container deposits• Recycled-content laws• Creative funding mechanisms• Buy recycled programs• Pay-as-you-throw trash fees• Product bans• Product fees• Extended producer responsibility (EPR) Institute for Local Self-Reliance
Prince Georges County: Current Fee Structure Sends No Clear SignalCharges the same rate to all “single-family” households: Base Charge $33.52 Recycling Charge $58.16 Bulky Trash $20.94 Garbage $234.33 Typical Total $346.96Municipalities - solid waste charge is not broken out
EPA advocates PAYT for Environmental and Economic Sustainability and for Equity
Unit-based Pricing Sends a Clear Message Worcester, MA San Francisco, CA Population 173,000 Population 775,000 Unit based pricing is just a different way of paying for wasteSource: Kristen Brown, Green Waste Solutions, www.thewastesolution.com
Composting & Recycling Collection System Designed for High Diversion Recycled Paper Food Scraps 21% 20% Yard Trimmings 5%Glass and Plastic BottlesAluminum and Steel Cans 5% Compostable Paper 10% Construction and Demolition Waste 25% OtherCourtesy of City of San Francisco 15%
Easy to Understand ProgramCourtesy of City of San Francisco
Designed for Easy Participation Labeled LidsKitchen Pail Wheeled CartCourtesy of City of San Francisco
Recommended Steps Towards Zero WasteIntegrate food scrap compostingSwitch to PAYTStudy feasibility of Resource Recovery ParkConduct and analyze waste auditPost monthly reports on website: landfilled tonnage recycled tonnage revenues obtainedRe-evaluate MRF ContractCommission Zero Waste Strategic Plan
"If it cant be reduced, reused, repaired, rebuilt,refurbished, refinished, resold, recycled orcomposted, then it should be restricted,redesigned or removed from production." -- Berkeley Ecology Center