Solid Waste Management
Definition of Solid waste management
It comprises of purposeful and systematic control of the
generation, storage, collection, transport, separation,
processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid
India’s population is 1.22 billion and the urban population is 38
billion (as per 2011 Census).
The growth rate of population for India in the last decade was
The growth rate of population in rural and urban areas was
12.18% and 31.80% respectively.
The solid waste generated in Indian cities has increased from 6
million tones in 1947 to 48 million tones in 1997 and is
expected to increase to 300 million tones per annum by 2047
Quantity of Solid Waste
Per capita generation of waste varies from 200 gm to 600 gm
per capita/day. Average generation rate at 0.4 kg/capita/day in
0.1 million plus towns with collection efficiency of 50-90% of the
total solid waste generated.
In India per capita waste generation is increasing by 1.3% per
year with urban population increasing by 3.5% per year.
Results in yearly around 5% increase of waste generation.
In USA it is 2 kg/person /day (approx.760kg/capita/year)
excluding hazardous waste.
Japan and European countries generate less than half of the
waste generated by USA.
Composition of solid waste
Composition varies with
The socio economic status ( Lifestyle, consumption pattern)
Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste
These percentages vary from city to city depending on food
Type of Waste Quantity
Compostable / Bio-
30% - 55% (can be converted
Inert material 40% - 45% (to go to landfill)
Recyclable materials 5% - 10% (Recycling)
Composition of urban solid waste
Type of Waste Quantity
Ash & Dust 15-30%
Waste cannot be removed as fast as it is produced, it must be
sorted and transported at specific frequencies.
The removal of waste from individual houses is termed as
collection of waste.
Collection is carried out in five phases
1. House to can
2. Can to truck
3. Truck from house to house
4. Truck routing
5. Truck to disposal
1. Collection points – They depend upon the locality
(residential, commercial, industrial)
2. Collection Frequency- It depends on requirements of
locality, climatic condition, quality of waste container.
Composition of waste
Season -Hot and wet climate – twice a week
Locality - Residential – frequent
Quality – Closed container – 3 days
Open container- daily collection
3. Storage Containers- Efficient collection system requires
careful consideration of type, size and location of containers.
Family – Small containers (manual handling)
Residential units – large – Mechanical handling
Types of containers
1. Stationary containers – Used for contents to be transferred
to collection vehicles at the site of storage.
2. Household Storage- Plastic or metal bucket of 5-6 lit
capacity with lid.
3. Litter bins- provided to enable the citizens to deposit their
behavioral waste while moving along the streets and public
places. (30- 50 lit. capacity) Placed near bus stops, parks.
Made up of fire resistant material and covered to prevent
entry of rain water.
Types of containers
4. Communal container– Compactor collection container.
Fixed/moving. Movable containers are with accessories
provided for lifting mechanism of collection vehicles.
Vehicle can lift and empty mechanically. Capacity is
generally 1-4 m3.
At vegetable markets & large commercial centers, capacity
is 15- 20 m3 and consist of wheels.
Collection vehicle keep empty container before it hauls the
Ideally these should be located 100 -200 m apart for
economic reasons. Fuel consumption increases if vehicle
has to stop at every 50m.
Types of containers
5. Hauled container- Used for contents to be directly
transferred to a processing plant, transfer stations / disposal
sites for emptying.
When mechanical collection system is used the containers are
specifically designed to fit the truck mounted loading
For public health and safety it must be securely covered.
Convenience– must be manageable by residents and collection
It must be appropriate to the terrain, type, density of waste
It also depends on the strength, capability of crew that work
1. Small scale collection/ muscle powered vehicles– For
densely populated areas with narrow lanes.
Area with relatively less volume of waste generated.
small carts, rickshaws pulled by people or animal.
2. Bell ringing system
Collection vehicle is provided with a bell.
Residents from adjoining areas come to the vehicle to deposit
3. Non Compactor truck- Used in small cities when waste
tend to be dense and have little potential for compaction.
Suitable if the distance between collection site and disposal is
less than 15km.
Capacity is 10-12 m3
Covering of waste is required.
Used when labor cost is high.
Three wheeler garbage vehicle
Non Compactor truck
4. Compactor truck
Since the waste is compacted hydraulically the weight of solid
waste per trip is 2-2.5 times larger.
Allows the waste containers to be emptied into vehicles from
Capacity is 12-15 m3.
Inhibits vectors from reaching the waste during collection and
A transfer station is an intermediate station between final
disposal and collection point to increase the efficiency of the
It helps the collection vehicles and crew to remain closer to
It is the best option if the disposal site is far from collection
It is a centralized facility, waste is unloaded from smaller
collection vehicles and transferred to large vehicles for
transport to disposal site.
In some cases transfer station serves as a preprocessing point
where waste are dewatered, compressed.
A centralized sorting, recovery of recyclable material is also
It helps in decreasing the cost of travelling from collection to
disposal site as the collection vehicle size increases.
Selection of transfer station depends on types of waste
received, types of collection vehicles and site topography and
Advantages of transfer station
Lower collection cost
Reduced fuel and maintenance cost for collection vehicle.
Opportunity to recovery and recycle at station.
Disadvantage of transfer station
if waste is not handled properly, attract flies, odor, traffic and
Types of Transfer Station
Depending upon size
1. Small / medium transfer station– capacity less than 100
2. Medium transfer station- capacity range from 100- 500
3. Large transfer stations– For heavy commercial use by
private and municipal collection vehicle.