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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Shree K.K. Shashtri Gov. Sci. College
Environmental Science
Solid Waste Management
Definition of Solid waste management
It comprises of purposeful and systematic control of the
generation, storage, collection, transport, separation,
processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid
waste.
Introduction
India’s population is 1.22 billion and the urban population is 38
billion (as per 2011 Census).
The growth rate of population for India in the last decade was
17.64%.
The growth rate of population in rural and urban areas was
12.18% and 31.80% respectively.
The solid waste generated in Indian cities has increased from 6
million tones in 1947 to 48 million tones in 1997 and is
expected to increase to 300 million tones per annum by 2047
(CPCB, 2000).
Quantity of Solid Waste
Per capita generation of waste varies from 200 gm to 600 gm
per capita/day. Average generation rate at 0.4 kg/capita/day in
0.1 million plus towns with collection efficiency of 50-90% of the
total solid waste generated.
In India per capita waste generation is increasing by 1.3% per
year with urban population increasing by 3.5% per year.
Results in yearly around 5% increase of waste generation.
In USA it is 2 kg/person /day (approx.760kg/capita/year)
excluding hazardous waste.
Japan and European countries generate less than half of the
waste generated by USA.
Composition of solid waste
Composition varies with
The socio economic status ( Lifestyle, consumption pattern)
Geographical Location
Season
Collection Frequency
Population diversity
Public attitude
Legislation
Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste
These percentages vary from city to city depending on food
habits
Type of Waste Quantity
Compostable / Bio-
degradable matter
30% - 55% (can be converted
into manure)
Inert material 40% - 45% (to go to landfill)
Recyclable materials 5% - 10% (Recycling)
Composition of urban solid waste
Type of Waste Quantity
Organics 40-50%
Paper 3-5%
Ash & Dust 15-30%
Textile 3-7%
Plastic 1-10%
Glass 1%
Metal 1%
Other 7-10%
Waste cannot be removed as fast as it is produced, it must be
sorted and transported at specific frequencies.
The removal of waste from individual houses is termed as
collection of waste.
Collection is carried out in five phases
1. House to can
2. Can to truck
3. Truck from house to house
4. Truck routing
5. Truck to disposal
Collection components
1. Collection points – They depend upon the locality
(residential, commercial, industrial)
2. Collection Frequency- It depends on requirements of
locality, climatic condition, quality of waste container.
Composition of waste
Season -Hot and wet climate – twice a week
Locality - Residential – frequent
Quality – Closed container – 3 days
Open container- daily collection
Collection components
3. Storage Containers- Efficient collection system requires
careful consideration of type, size and location of containers.
Family – Small containers (manual handling)
Residential units – large – Mechanical handling
Types of containers
1. Stationary containers – Used for contents to be transferred
to collection vehicles at the site of storage.
2. Household Storage- Plastic or metal bucket of 5-6 lit
capacity with lid.
3. Litter bins- provided to enable the citizens to deposit their
behavioral waste while moving along the streets and public
places. (30- 50 lit. capacity) Placed near bus stops, parks.
Made up of fire resistant material and covered to prevent
entry of rain water.
Types of containers
4. Communal container– Compactor collection container.
Fixed/moving. Movable containers are with accessories
provided for lifting mechanism of collection vehicles.
 Vehicle can lift and empty mechanically. Capacity is
generally 1-4 m3.
 At vegetable markets & large commercial centers, capacity
is 15- 20 m3 and consist of wheels.
 Collection vehicle keep empty container before it hauls the
filled container.
 Ideally these should be located 100 -200 m apart for
economic reasons. Fuel consumption increases if vehicle
has to stop at every 50m.
Types of containers
5. Hauled container- Used for contents to be directly
transferred to a processing plant, transfer stations / disposal
sites for emptying.
When mechanical collection system is used the containers are
specifically designed to fit the truck mounted loading
mechanisms.
For public health and safety it must be securely covered.
Convenience– must be manageable by residents and collection
crew.
Collection Vehicles
It must be appropriate to the terrain, type, density of waste
generation points.
It also depends on the strength, capability of crew that work
with it.
1. Small scale collection/ muscle powered vehicles– For
densely populated areas with narrow lanes.
Area with relatively less volume of waste generated.
small carts, rickshaws pulled by people or animal.
2. Bell ringing system
Collection vehicle is provided with a bell.
Residents from adjoining areas come to the vehicle to deposit
the waste.
Collection Vehicles
3. Non Compactor truck- Used in small cities when waste
tend to be dense and have little potential for compaction.
Suitable if the distance between collection site and disposal is
less than 15km.
Capacity is 10-12 m3
Covering of waste is required.
Used when labor cost is high.
Three wheeler garbage vehicle
Non Compactor truck
Collection Vehicles
4. Compactor truck
Since the waste is compacted hydraulically the weight of solid
waste per trip is 2-2.5 times larger.
Allows the waste containers to be emptied into vehicles from
rear.
Capacity is 12-15 m3.
Inhibits vectors from reaching the waste during collection and
transport.
Refuse compactor
Collection Vehicles
Transfer Station
A transfer station is an intermediate station between final
disposal and collection point to increase the efficiency of the
system.
It helps the collection vehicles and crew to remain closer to
routes.
It is the best option if the disposal site is far from collection
area.
It is a centralized facility, waste is unloaded from smaller
collection vehicles and transferred to large vehicles for
transport to disposal site.
Transfer Station
In some cases transfer station serves as a preprocessing point
where waste are dewatered, compressed.
A centralized sorting, recovery of recyclable material is also
carried out.
It helps in decreasing the cost of travelling from collection to
disposal site as the collection vehicle size increases.
Selection of transfer station depends on types of waste
received, types of collection vehicles and site topography and
access.
Transfer Station
Advantages of transfer station
Lower collection cost
Reduced fuel and maintenance cost for collection vehicle.
Opportunity to recovery and recycle at station.
Disadvantage of transfer station
if waste is not handled properly, attract flies, odor, traffic and
noise.
Types of Transfer Station
Depending upon size
1. Small / medium transfer station– capacity less than 100
tons/day
2. Medium transfer station- capacity range from 100- 500
tons/day.
3. Large transfer stations– For heavy commercial use by
private and municipal collection vehicle.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Process

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Municipal Solid Waste Management Process

  • 1. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Shree K.K. Shashtri Gov. Sci. College Environmental Science
  • 2. Solid Waste Management Definition of Solid waste management It comprises of purposeful and systematic control of the generation, storage, collection, transport, separation, processing, recycling, recovery and disposal of solid waste.
  • 3. Introduction India’s population is 1.22 billion and the urban population is 38 billion (as per 2011 Census). The growth rate of population for India in the last decade was 17.64%. The growth rate of population in rural and urban areas was 12.18% and 31.80% respectively. The solid waste generated in Indian cities has increased from 6 million tones in 1947 to 48 million tones in 1997 and is expected to increase to 300 million tones per annum by 2047 (CPCB, 2000).
  • 4. Quantity of Solid Waste Per capita generation of waste varies from 200 gm to 600 gm per capita/day. Average generation rate at 0.4 kg/capita/day in 0.1 million plus towns with collection efficiency of 50-90% of the total solid waste generated. In India per capita waste generation is increasing by 1.3% per year with urban population increasing by 3.5% per year. Results in yearly around 5% increase of waste generation. In USA it is 2 kg/person /day (approx.760kg/capita/year) excluding hazardous waste. Japan and European countries generate less than half of the waste generated by USA.
  • 5. Composition of solid waste Composition varies with The socio economic status ( Lifestyle, consumption pattern) Geographical Location Season Collection Frequency Population diversity Public attitude Legislation
  • 6. Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste These percentages vary from city to city depending on food habits Type of Waste Quantity Compostable / Bio- degradable matter 30% - 55% (can be converted into manure) Inert material 40% - 45% (to go to landfill) Recyclable materials 5% - 10% (Recycling)
  • 7. Composition of urban solid waste Type of Waste Quantity Organics 40-50% Paper 3-5% Ash & Dust 15-30% Textile 3-7% Plastic 1-10% Glass 1% Metal 1% Other 7-10%
  • 8. Waste cannot be removed as fast as it is produced, it must be sorted and transported at specific frequencies. The removal of waste from individual houses is termed as collection of waste. Collection is carried out in five phases 1. House to can 2. Can to truck 3. Truck from house to house 4. Truck routing 5. Truck to disposal
  • 9. Collection components 1. Collection points – They depend upon the locality (residential, commercial, industrial) 2. Collection Frequency- It depends on requirements of locality, climatic condition, quality of waste container. Composition of waste Season -Hot and wet climate – twice a week Locality - Residential – frequent Quality – Closed container – 3 days Open container- daily collection
  • 10. Collection components 3. Storage Containers- Efficient collection system requires careful consideration of type, size and location of containers. Family – Small containers (manual handling) Residential units – large – Mechanical handling
  • 11. Types of containers 1. Stationary containers – Used for contents to be transferred to collection vehicles at the site of storage. 2. Household Storage- Plastic or metal bucket of 5-6 lit capacity with lid. 3. Litter bins- provided to enable the citizens to deposit their behavioral waste while moving along the streets and public places. (30- 50 lit. capacity) Placed near bus stops, parks. Made up of fire resistant material and covered to prevent entry of rain water.
  • 12. Types of containers 4. Communal container– Compactor collection container. Fixed/moving. Movable containers are with accessories provided for lifting mechanism of collection vehicles.  Vehicle can lift and empty mechanically. Capacity is generally 1-4 m3.  At vegetable markets & large commercial centers, capacity is 15- 20 m3 and consist of wheels.  Collection vehicle keep empty container before it hauls the filled container.  Ideally these should be located 100 -200 m apart for economic reasons. Fuel consumption increases if vehicle has to stop at every 50m.
  • 13. Types of containers 5. Hauled container- Used for contents to be directly transferred to a processing plant, transfer stations / disposal sites for emptying. When mechanical collection system is used the containers are specifically designed to fit the truck mounted loading mechanisms. For public health and safety it must be securely covered. Convenience– must be manageable by residents and collection crew.
  • 14. Collection Vehicles It must be appropriate to the terrain, type, density of waste generation points. It also depends on the strength, capability of crew that work with it. 1. Small scale collection/ muscle powered vehicles– For densely populated areas with narrow lanes. Area with relatively less volume of waste generated. small carts, rickshaws pulled by people or animal. 2. Bell ringing system Collection vehicle is provided with a bell. Residents from adjoining areas come to the vehicle to deposit the waste.
  • 15. Collection Vehicles 3. Non Compactor truck- Used in small cities when waste tend to be dense and have little potential for compaction. Suitable if the distance between collection site and disposal is less than 15km. Capacity is 10-12 m3 Covering of waste is required. Used when labor cost is high. Three wheeler garbage vehicle Non Compactor truck
  • 16. Collection Vehicles 4. Compactor truck Since the waste is compacted hydraulically the weight of solid waste per trip is 2-2.5 times larger. Allows the waste containers to be emptied into vehicles from rear. Capacity is 12-15 m3. Inhibits vectors from reaching the waste during collection and transport. Refuse compactor
  • 18. Transfer Station A transfer station is an intermediate station between final disposal and collection point to increase the efficiency of the system. It helps the collection vehicles and crew to remain closer to routes. It is the best option if the disposal site is far from collection area. It is a centralized facility, waste is unloaded from smaller collection vehicles and transferred to large vehicles for transport to disposal site.
  • 19. Transfer Station In some cases transfer station serves as a preprocessing point where waste are dewatered, compressed. A centralized sorting, recovery of recyclable material is also carried out. It helps in decreasing the cost of travelling from collection to disposal site as the collection vehicle size increases. Selection of transfer station depends on types of waste received, types of collection vehicles and site topography and access.
  • 20. Transfer Station Advantages of transfer station Lower collection cost Reduced fuel and maintenance cost for collection vehicle. Opportunity to recovery and recycle at station. Disadvantage of transfer station if waste is not handled properly, attract flies, odor, traffic and noise.
  • 21. Types of Transfer Station Depending upon size 1. Small / medium transfer station– capacity less than 100 tons/day 2. Medium transfer station- capacity range from 100- 500 tons/day. 3. Large transfer stations– For heavy commercial use by private and municipal collection vehicle.