Oral Language Assessment In The Classroom 20080415
Oral Language Assessment in the Classroom Bulter, F. A. & Stevens, R. (1997). Oral language assessment in the classroom. Theory into Practice, 36 (4), 214-219. Irene Polly Elly
Oral Language Assessment in the Classroom <ul><li>Preface </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Language Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Language Profiles </li></ul>Irene
<ul><li>Children’s self-image often are impacted if they can communicate with their family, peers and teachers effectively and appropriately. </li></ul>Preface <ul><li>Cannale & Swain (1980) depicted that 4 communicative skills are embodied in the notion of “communicative competence” which demonstrate their ability to express themselves and understand what the interlocutors wish to convey. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Being communicatively competent entails being able to adjust one’s language to specific audiences and situations. </li></ul>Preface <ul><li>It is essential with learning and assessment for teachers to create stimulating classroom . </li></ul>
Oral Language Assessment <ul><li>Educators look for alternative assessments in general and for innovative approaches to assessing language skills in particular. </li></ul><ul><li>This paper takes the position that evaluation works best when it is seen as a continuous, day-to-day, week-by-week process. </li></ul>
Oral Language Assessment <ul><li>An open classroom environment where students are free to use oral language provides teachers with opportunities to monitor how well students are developing their communicative skills. </li></ul>
Oral Language Profiles <ul><li>When students are willing to take risks such as telling original jokes in front of the class, they are beginning to recognize and appreciate variety in language use, and they are becoming confident in their own ability to use language for different purposes. </li></ul>
Oral Language Profiles <ul><li>Oral language profiles kept formally or informally can provide information about students’ language skill. </li></ul>
Oral Language Profiles <ul><li>An example of language incidents </li></ul>Dan: Look deep into my eyes. What do you see? (open his eyes very wide) Steve: I see a spoiled, selfish, rotten, mean kid. Dan: Too deep.
Oral Language Profiles <ul><li>Samples of students’ oral language tasks may come from individual tasks or from group or interactive tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>In selecting oral samples for a profile, teachers would also consider the continuum of formal and informal language that is represented in the classroom. </li></ul>
Oral Language Profiles <ul><li>This broad-based, integrative approach, captured in oral language profiles, supports the development and assessment of communicative competence across the skill areas. </li></ul>
Evaluation Criteria <ul><li>Evaluation Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>1. Book talks </li></ul><ul><li>2. Group Discussion Task </li></ul>Polly
Evaluation Criteria <ul><li>The first step in designing performance assessments is the selection of criteria . </li></ul>
Evaluation Criteria <ul><li>When students are actively involved in establishing assessment criteria for tasks, they not only have a better understanding of what is expected of them when they perform the tasks, but they are able to more fully appreciate why the criteria are important. </li></ul>1. Book talks 2. Group Discussion Task
Book Talks <ul><li>It’s an oral book report that provides an opportunity to measure growth in a formal presentation of a particular type of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Book talks can involve the use of drawings, pictures, objects, or costumes for illustration, and they generally become longer and more elaborate as grade levels increase. </li></ul>
Procedures of Book Talks Students select the books set by the teacher. (mystery, adventure, biography, fiction) Students will be evaluated based on all the pieces of information they provide and deliver. The criteria might include: 1. Title and author 2. Characters (description) 3. Setting (description) 4. Plot- a brief retelling of the story 5. Recommendation – Did they like the book? Why? Would they recommend the book to others?
Procedures of Book Talks One of four ratings students might receive: S – secure behavior (covers 4 of the 5 criteria) D – developing behavior (covers 3 of the criteria) B – beginning behavior (covers 2 of the criteria) N – no behavior (covers 1 or none of the criteria) For assessment delivery, four points might be considered: ◆ maintains eye contact with audience ◆ demonstrates good posture ◆ uses appropriate language for a formal presentation ◆ uses appropriate voice level The feedback received from classmates and the teacher can help demonstrate to students how assessment can be a valuable part of the learning process.
Group Discussion Task <ul><li>A group discussion technique is a useful assessment approach for extending students’ communicative ability to a peer-to-peer situation where students must analyze and persuade others in an interactive setting. </li></ul>
Procedures of Group Discussion Students are shown a brief film or video, or are read a story which leaves the ending unresolved. Students then participate in a group discussion to resolve the ending. Teacher can observe their use of language in a negotiation activity.
Procedures of Group Discussion Teacher then asks students to take a vote on the best solution. The discussion is tape-recorded for later evaluation. <ul><li>The dimensions should be based on: </li></ul><ul><li>the quality and quantity of information contribute </li></ul><ul><li>during each discussion turn, </li></ul><ul><li>(b) effectiveness in communicating and articulating information, </li></ul><ul><li>(c) the ease and flow of the student’s speech. </li></ul>
Scale for evaluating a group discussion Irrelevant comments having nothing or little to do with the discussion or introduced into the discussion without context or explanation; may be complete or incomplete sentences or one or two words. 1 Simple comments, opinions, solutions or replies; not necessarily a complete sentence. 2 Elaborated comments, opinions, solutions. Opinions with reasons, solutions with detail, generalization with reasons, comments with details. 3 Very elaborate comments, opinions, solutions, with greater elaboration of reason, solution. (e.g., weighting the alternatives, pro and cons). 4 Quality and Quantity of Information Descriptor Rating
Conclusion <ul><li>What information is needed about the person being assessed? </li></ul><ul><li>How can that information best be obtained? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the information be used? </li></ul>Elly
Conclusion <ul><li>What information is needed about the person being assessed? </li></ul>the focus of this article has been on assessing the oral, communicative language ability of students K-6 .
Conclusion <ul><li>How can that information best be obtained? </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate and varied ways </li></ul><ul><li>the book talk and a group discussion task </li></ul> How to record or track students’ performance? <ul><li>systematic approach </li></ul> The oral language profile or portfolio approach
Conclusion <ul><li>How will the information be used? </li></ul>the real value of assessment in an educational setting is how the information ultimately guides teaching and learning . It is critical part of the teaching, learning, and assessment process that the student and teacher working together use assessment information to set individual goals and monitor progress .
Efficient Applications <ul><li>Multiple measures over time in appropriate settings provide a more accurate picture of student ability. </li></ul>
Efficient Applications <ul><li>It is essential to establish criteria for the dimensions of performance for students at a given time. </li></ul><ul><li>The trap of judging student performance should be avoided . </li></ul>Ex: participation alone or irrelevant dimensions that are not developmentally appropriate.
Efficient Applications <ul><li>Students should be aware of evaluation criteria ahead of time so they will understand what they are being asked to do and why, and will care about reaching goals. </li></ul>