Feedback 360


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Instructors spend many hours giving feedback to students on paper, online and in face-to-face interactions. But feedback is often underutilized, misinterpreted and misapplied by students. This presentation looks at a hybrid model of feedback. 360-degree feedback is multisource assessment where the feedback comes from all around a student in contrast to a traditional performance model of downward feedback from teacher to student. These practices can be used for instructor-to-student, and student-to-/student (peer) feedback situations and is based on the presenter’s adaptation of current feedback theory in online and traditional courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

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  • The Prisoner's Dilemma game was first proposed by Merrill Flood in 1951. It was formalized and defined by Albert W. Tucker. The name refers to the following hypothetical situation:Two criminals are captured by the police. The police suspect that they are responsible for a murder, but do not have enough evidence to prove it in court, though they are able to convict them of a lesser charge (carrying a concealed weapon, for example). The prisoners are put in separate cells with no way to communicate with one another and each is offered to confess.If neither prisoner confesses, both will be convicted of the lesser offense and sentenced to a year in prison. If both confess to murder, both will be sentenced to 5 years. If, however, one prisoner confesses while the other does not, then the prisoner who confessed will be granted immunity while the prisoner who did not confess will go to jail for 20 years.What should each prisoner do?
  • (Adapted from Flemming and Levie.A different application of feedback in education is the system for "continuous improvement" of engineering curricula monitored by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)
  • (Adapted from Flemming and Levie.[7])A different application of feedback in education is the system for "continuous improvement" of engineering curricula monitored by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)[8]
  • Feedback 360

    1. 1. Feedback 360<br />Ken Ronkowitz<br />
    2. 2. What is an example of feedback that you received at some time in your life that has remained clear in your memory over the passage of years?<br />Examples of Feedback<br />360 Degree Feedback<br />
    3. 3. How would you categorize that feedback?<br />POSITIVE<br />NEGATIVE<br /><ul><li>In the past year
    4. 4. 2 - 5 years ago
    5. 5. 6+ years ago
    6. 6. Oral
    7. 7. Written</li></ul>Did it have an emotional component?<br />Was it connected to an evaluation or grade?<br />Did it come from an individual or a group?<br />
    8. 8. Prior knowledge and prior experiences with feedback are powerful predictors for success.<br />
    9. 9. Feedback is essential to improvement<br />People are more comfortable giving and receiving “positive” feedback.<br />But “constructive feedback” (criticism) has a negative connotation with most people.<br />Athletes and performers receive daily constructive feedback and it is accepted as a coaching technique in a way that students do not expect (or accept?) from teachers.<br />Are there teaching situations that come closer to “coaching” situations? Does that change the way feedback is used?<br />
    10. 10. 360 Feedback<br /><ul><li>Most commonly used in human resources or industrial/organizational settings.
    11. 11. Also known as "multi-rater feedback," "multisource feedback," or "multisource assessment“
    12. 12. It is feedback that comes from all around an employee - by subordinates, peers, and supervisors
    13. 13. and includes self-assessment and, perhaps, feedback from external sources (customers, suppliers etc.)</li></li></ul><li>Zero Sum Feedback (see game theory)<br />zero-sum describes a situation in which a participant's gain or loss is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the other participant(s). If the total gains of the participants are added up, and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero.<br />It’s a winner / loser situation.<br />Your loss is my gain.<br />
    14. 14. Zero Sum Feedback<br />Cutting a cake is zero sum, because taking a larger piece reduces the amount of cake available for others.<br />The “Prisoner’s Dilemma” game is a popular way to illustrate the concept of non-zero sum games.<br />When feedback is “zero sum” feedback, all participants are not benefitting from the process. In fact, one may be benefitting at the expense of another.<br />
    15. 15. NON- Zero Sum Feedback (see game theory)<br />In contrast, non-zero-sum describes a situation in which the interacting parties' aggregate gains and losses is either less than or more than zero. <br />Should feedback be a zero <br />or non-zero sum activity?<br />
    16. 16. Teacher to students<br />Students to teacher<br />Student to Student or Teacher to Student<br />1:1 followed by 1 to many<br />Feedback 360 requires feedback to come from different people.<br />
    17. 17. Is Reinforcement Also Feedback?<br />Types of “reinforcement” that can be used in student assessment:<br />Confirmation <br />Corrective<br />Explanatory<br />Diagnostic <br />Elaborative <br />
    18. 18. Who founded the city of Paterson in 1792?<br />Confirmation Your answer was incorrect. <br />Corrective Your answer was incorrect. The correct answer is Alexander Hamilton. <br />Explanatory Your answer was incorrect. William Paterson was then Governor of NJ but since Hamilton helped found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures which in turn founded the city, he is given credit.<br />Diagnostic Your answer was incorrect. Your choice of Paterson suggests that you guessed at the answer since his name does not appear in the reading on the industrial revolution. <br />Elaborative Your answer, Hamilton, is correct. Note that Hamilton’s role in founding S.U.M. encouraged the harnessing of energy from the Great Falls of the Passaic, to secure economic independence from Britain and made the city key in the industrial revolution in America.<br />
    19. 19. Feedback messages too often focus on answering What and less often deal with the domains of Why and How<br />360 Degree Feedback<br />Confirmation, Corrective, Explanatory, Diagnostic and <br />Elaborative might be considered a type of taxonomy of higher level feedback domains.<br />
    20. 20. Structuring Feedback <br /><ul><li>Feedback should be specific, relevant and non- generic. Subjective opinions will not have the same, if any, impact.
    21. 21. Feedback is a skill that needs to be modeled.
    22. 22. Feedback should be accompanied by examples that refer to the specific situations.
    23. 23. Feedback givers need to ensure that the feedback has been understood clearly.
    24. 24. Focusing on the behavior, not the person is highly recommended.
    25. 25. Computer-mediated feedback can be very effective because of its immediacy, but can be limited in specificity.
    26. 26. Feedback should be a two-way communication.</li></li></ul><li>Improving Feedback-Giving<br />Feedback should be given frequently <br />and be timely. (formative versus summative; daily versus end of semester) <br />However, it should not be given in anger – if a delay is necessary to gather one's thoughts & review what happened in order to provide feedback in a calm and objective manner, the delay is warranted.<br />Give developmental feedback in a private setting. Praise publicly, but criticize privately.<br />Results are usually delivered to the recipient only.<br />
    27. 27. FEED-FORWARD<br />Feed-forward is feedback that outlines the behaviors you would like to see going forward. <br />Focusing on the past makes people defensive, while focusing on the future makes people more receptive.<br /> The 360 degree feedback process should be used as a developmental tool not a performance appraisal. By taking a developmental focus, the 360 feedback process provides individuals with actionable, “job-related” feedback.<br />
    28. 28. 360 in a classroom<br />Train the raters to give feedback (has positive effects on their reception of criticism)<br />Use evaluative instruments (rubrics, checklists, surveys)<br />Establish a developmental rather than evaluative setting. (disconnect from grading; use developing assignments)<br />Future; action plans; next steps<br /><ul><li>RATERS
    29. 29. Instructor
    30. 30. Students (self & others)
    31. 31. Program/dept leaders
    32. 32. Prepared outside evaluators (other faculty, industry…)</li></li></ul><li>(360) Feedback is not effective when<br /><ul><li>there is no clear purpose for the process.
    33. 33. it is not fully supported by the leader(s)
    34. 34. individuals have not been in their roles (or trained) long enough to provide valid feedback (peer to peer)
    35. 35. there is mistrust or cynicism in the process
    36. 36. the goal for the feedback process is not focused on development or growth</li></li></ul><li>Feedback 360<br />This presentation is available online at<br /><br />Kenneth Ronkowitz<br />
    37. 37. Feedback 360presented by Ken RonkowitzMarch 2010<br />