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360 Degree Feedback

A useful method of employee development and appraisal

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360 Degree Feedback

  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Contemporary 360-degree methods have roots as early as the 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>360-degree performance appraisal has historical roots within a military context. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1950s and 1960s this trend continued in the United States within the Military service academies. </li></ul><ul><li>At the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, the midshipmen used a multi-source process called “peer grease” to evaluate the leadership skills of their classmates. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1960s and 1970s, organizations like Bank of America, United Airlines, Bell Labs, Disney, Federal Express, Nestle, and RCA experimented with multi-source feedback in a variety of measurement situations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is 360-degree feedback? <ul><li>A gift - a chance to see ourselves as others see us </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Concept
  5. 5. 360-Degree Feedback <ul><li>Provides performance data from multiple points of reference </li></ul><ul><li>Like a compass, it is a navigational tool </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful, reliable and accurate as compared to traditional, single source feedback processes </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The feedback tends to not only be more balanced, but harder to dismiss due to its' broader range of input </li></ul><ul><li>360° feedback answers three basic questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should I improve my performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I need to improve? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I improve? </li></ul></ul>360-Degree Feedback
  7. 7. Behaviour & Results <ul><li>Poor job fit? </li></ul><ul><li>New to job? </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks technical </li></ul><ul><li>skills? </li></ul>The Keepers What are you doing to retain them? How much longer can you carry them? Development? Why is this group so hard to deal with? Results (what) Behaviour (how)
  8. 8. FORMAL INFORMAL Courses Education Distance Learning Coaching 360-Feedback Mentoring Job Enrichment Job Rotation Job Transfer Individual & Team Assignments Teaching Others Networking Style Assessments TRAINING EXPERIENCE Options For Development
  9. 9. Feedback Input & Report Outputs External Colleagues’/ Customers’ Perception Internal Colleagues’ / Peers’ Perception Direct Reports’ Perception Manager’s Perception Strengths and development opportunities 360 How leadership behaviour impacts on others Performance against business competencies Comparison of self perceptions against those of others
  10. 10. 360 Degree Feedback: What is and isn’t it? <ul><li>Combining meaningful observations from others in the form of feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>It is multi-directional. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also self assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Other names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-rater feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-source feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-circle appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group performance review </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 360-Degree Feedback <ul><li>Provides well rounded feedback. It is not just feedback from the supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces opportunity for the halo or horn affect. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps team members work more effectively together. </li></ul><ul><li>A great way to understand organizational needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps identify developmental needs. </li></ul><ul><li>IS NOT AN EVALUATION </li></ul>
  12. 12. So, why do it? <ul><li>Because without feedback: </li></ul><ul><li>How would we know if we need to change? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know if our team is truly effective? </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to assess the quality of leadership. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Not just a performance system <ul><li>… 360-degree feedback should be regarded as an organizational process rather than a mechanical tool. </li></ul>
  14. 14. How its being used ……. <ul><li>Leadership development programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Team assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational Change </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of training needs </li></ul><ul><li>Assist performance management </li></ul>
  15. 15. What does it measure? <ul><li>Self Development </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Creative/ Innovative Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Leader People </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting Information </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing Others </li></ul>The skills and behaviours we expect of our Leaders/ managers. These could include: <ul><li>Managing and Leading Change </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and Developing Others </li></ul><ul><li>Building Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the Organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Business Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Brand </li></ul>
  16. 16. Four Kinds of Feedback <ul><li>Known areas of strength. </li></ul><ul><li>New areas of strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Known areas for development. </li></ul><ul><li>New areas for development. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Benefits <ul><li>For the organisation: </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes constructive feedback and open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a culture of continuous performance improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Builds leadership/ managerial capability </li></ul><ul><li>Embeds values and expected working competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a powerful trigger for change </li></ul><ul><li>Provides feedback about leadership and management ‘strength’ </li></ul>
  18. 18. Benefits <ul><li>For the individual: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering the blind spots </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the strengths and opportunities for development </li></ul><ul><li>Taking ownership and control of own development </li></ul><ul><li>Helps managers to know how to get it ‘right’ </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pitfalls <ul><li>When used in lieu of performance management, …… </li></ul><ul><li>When “laid” on supervisors ………….. </li></ul><ul><li>When requested of skeptical employees, ….. </li></ul><ul><li>When not connected to organizational or leadership strategy, …. </li></ul><ul><li>When respondents don’t know how to provide constructive feedback, …….. </li></ul><ul><li>When there is insufficient information, ….. </li></ul><ul><li>When the focus is on the negative, …… </li></ul><ul><li>When there is workplace overload, …….. </li></ul><ul><li>When implemented as fad without systemic support ……. </li></ul><ul><li>When there is unethical behaviour in the organisation…. </li></ul>
  20. 20. A typical feedback process <ul><li>Setup Development </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation Reassessment </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Interpretation & Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring and Reporting </li></ul>
  21. 21. How does it work? <ul><li>Step 2 – Provider: </li></ul><ul><li>Invites responders </li></ul><ul><li>Collates feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Chases poor responders </li></ul><ul><li>Produces report </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Participant: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies who they want feedback from </li></ul><ul><li>Completes a Self Report </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Participant: </li></ul><ul><li>Receives report 4 weeks later </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews Feedback, draws conclusions and produces a Development Plan </li></ul>
  22. 22. Strategies for Success <ul><li>Don't force it on people </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what it is, what it does, how it's used, and its' benefits to all concerned, continually </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnect it from any compensation decisions (raises, bonuses, etc.) - make it developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Provide information on its purpose and process to assessors </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct structured feedback workshops for feedback recipients </li></ul><ul><li>Spend time with those people having difficulty with their feedback </li></ul>
  23. 23. Strategies for Success (Contd) <ul><li>Know the instrument you're using thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Provide seamless coordination and support for distributing and collecting the assessment instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Be trained in how to facilitate a 360° process. There's more to it than meets the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Align your 360° process with the organization's culture, procedures, and practices. Support and reinforce it. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your vendor provides back-up support in case problems occur with the instruments or the process </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>If implemented with care and training, 360 degree feedback can be a powerful tool in performance management. </li></ul><ul><li>It can greatly aid in promoting individual and organizational growth. </li></ul><ul><li>If done haphazardly, this form of feedback can be a disaster, taking years to recover. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Can I Do 270 Degree Feedback? <ul><li>Yes, you can ask for feedback in selected areas without hurting the integrity of the 360 degree principle. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Why are Companies not adopting 360 degree approach? <ul><li>It is time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional attachment in peers leads to no proper response. </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisees are not ready to take feedback </li></ul><ul><li>In our culture we don't disrespect elders, thus subordinates never provide negative results. </li></ul>
  27. 27. “ 360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL” An outlook
  28. 32. Purposes of Appraisal <ul><li>Evaluate recent performance + </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate job improvement plan + </li></ul><ul><li>Identify problems/opportunities in the job + </li></ul><ul><li>Improve communication + </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback on job performance + </li></ul><ul><li>Identify training & development needs + </li></ul><ul><li>A rationale for salary review - </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion possibilities - </li></ul>
  29. 33. Appraisal Styles <ul><li>Tell </li></ul><ul><li>Tell & sell </li></ul><ul><li>Tell & listen </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul>Tells &sells &listens &shares
  30. 34. <ul><li>The Appraisers </li></ul>
  31. 35. Superiors <ul><li>Its Contribution: </li></ul><ul><li>The 1st line supervisor is often in the best position to effectively carry out the full cycle of performance management. </li></ul><ul><li>The supervisor may also have the broadest perspective on the work requirements and be able to take into account shifts in those requirements. </li></ul>SUPERIORS <ul><li>Cautions to be addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>Superiors should be able to observe and measure all facets of the work to make a fair evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors should be trained. They should be capable of coaching and developing employees as well as planning and evaluating their performance. </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>The developmental focus of self-assessment is a key factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-ratings contribute “to a great or very great extent” to fair and well-rounded PA. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-appraisals are particularly valuable in situations where the supervisor cannot readily observe the work behaviors and task outcomes. </li></ul>Self Its Contribution: Cautions to be addressed:
  33. 37. <ul><li>Self-ratings tend to be consistently higher. This discrepancy can lead to defensiveness and alienation if supervisors do not use good feedback skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes self-ratings can be lower than others’. In such situations, employees tend to be self-demeaning and may feel intimidated and “put on the spot.” </li></ul><ul><li>Self-ratings should focus on the appraisal of performance elements, not on the summary level determination. </li></ul>Self Cautions to be addressed:
  34. 38. Peers <ul><li>Its Contribution: </li></ul><ul><li>Employees resent “making the boss look good” as opposed to meeting the unit’s goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer ratings have been an excellent predictors of future performance and “manner of performance”. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple raters in the peer dimension tends to average out the possible biases of any one member of the group of raters. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of self-directed teams, peer evaluations are central input to the formal appraisal because the supervisor is not directly involved in the day-to-day activities of the team. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer feedback can help move the supervisor into a coaching role rather than a purely judging role. </li></ul>
  35. 39. Peers <ul><li>Cautions to be addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>Peer evaluations appropriate for developmental purposes - to emphasize them for pay, promotion, or job retention purposes may not be prudent always. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, the identities of the raters should be kept confidential to assure honest feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential that the peer evaluators be very familiar with the team member’s tasks and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of peer evaluations can be very time consuming. When used in PA, the data would have to be collected several times a year in order to include the results in progress reviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the culture of the organization, peer ratings have the potential for creating tension and breakdown rather than fostering cooperation and support. </li></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>Gives supervisors a more comprehensive picture of employee issues and needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees feel they have a greater voice in organizational decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>The feedback from subordinates is particularly effective in evaluating the supervisor’s interpersonal skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Combining subordinate ratings can provide the advantage of creating a composite appraisal from the averaged ratings of several subordinates. </li></ul>Subordinates Its Contribution: Cautions to be addressed:
  37. 41. <ul><li>The need for anonymity is essential, as this will ensure honest feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors may feel threatened and perceive that their authority has been undermined. </li></ul><ul><li>Precautions should be taken to ensure that subordinates are appraising elements of which they have knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Only subordinates with a sufficient length of assignment under the manager should be included in the pool of assessors. Subordinates currently involved in a disciplinary action or a formal performance improvement period should be excluded from the rating group. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations currently undergoing downsizing and/or reorganization should avoid this source of PA. </li></ul>Subordinates Cautions to be addressed:
  38. 42. CUSTOMERS <ul><li>Its Contribution: </li></ul><ul><li>Customer feedback should serve as an “anchor” for almost all other performance factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Including a range of customers in PA program expands the focus of performance feedback in a manner considered absolutely critical to reinventing the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Cautions to be addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>Generally the value of customer service feedback is appropriate for evaluating team output (there are exceptions). </li></ul><ul><li>Customers, by definition, are better at evaluating outputs as opposed to processes and working relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a time-consuming process. </li></ul>
  39. 43. Problems – 360 Degree Appraisal <ul><li>Most costly and time consuming type of appraisal. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be somewhat shocking to managers at first- described as the &quot;SARAH reaction: Shock, Anger, Rejection, Acceptance, Help&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The problems may arise with subordinate assessments where employees desire to “get the boss” or may alternatively “scratch the back” of a manager for expected future favors. </li></ul><ul><li>The organization implementing this type of performance appraisal must clearly define the mission and the scope of the appraisal. Otherwise it might prove counter productive. </li></ul>
  40. 44. 5 things to consider before you start 360 degree appraisal <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarify why and what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communicate to everyone. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Culture – are you ready? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have a mature enough team dynamic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you open enough? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those involved need to feel comfortable & supported. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Timing of introduction – also link with the planning cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Roll out – champion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to generate buy-in? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve everyone early. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Confidentiality for appraisees and raters – non-attributable. </li></ul>
  41. 45. 7 Deadly Sins of Managing an Organisation <ul><li>Thinking that: </li></ul><ul><li>You can control everything </li></ul><ul><li>You can make your future happen </li></ul><ul><li>All meaningful results can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone must accept the decisions from above </li></ul><ul><li>People must give an account of their actions to anyone who is more senior </li></ul><ul><li>You need to extract maximum effort & energy from each individual </li></ul><ul><li>The interests of the individual are subordinate to the organisation </li></ul>
  42. 46. Thank you and good day …