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Lessons learned from adapting U.S. developed MKT measures for use in NorwayPresentation at the University of Huelva, SpainMay 27th, 2011 Arne Jakobsen Department of Education University of Stavanger, Norway
Disposition History and background (Norway) Students (TIMSS, PISA,…) Teachers’ knowledge is important for students achievement Government decide to invest in Professional development Professional development programs to meet teachers’ needs Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) Our project research question: What are the possibilities and challenges of using the MKT measures in Norway?
The project so far
Translation of items Pilot: 142 (150) teachers measured and 7 focus group interviews
Giving and evaluating explanations Explaining a common procedure Explain a concept or idea Evaluating student explanations for evidence of understanding Characterizing the quality of an explanation
Interpreting and evaluating non-standard methods/ideas and multiple solutions Evaluating a particular non-standard method Evaluating multiple possible solutions for a particular problem
Choosing examples and problems Choosing examples to introduce a concept Choosing examples that use or illustrate a particular idea Choosing examples that lend themselves to particular strategies Changing the context/numbers of a problem without changing the mathematical content Designing a mathematically similar problem Designing a simpler version of a problem Designing a sequence of problems to teach an idea
Tasks withitems (cont.) Choosing and using representations Representing a particular idea in multiple ways Interpreting a particular representation in multiple ways Choosing a diagram/story/model to represent and idea/concept/expression Selecting a representation to match an instructional purpose Analyzing student errors Identifying errors of the same type Evaluating difficulty Choosing and using definitions (+ more.)
MKT - the «egg» Ball, D. L., Thames, M. H., & Phelps, G. (2008, p. 403).
Translation and adaptation MKT, releaseditems Mosvold, R., Fauskanger, J., Jakobsen, A., & Melhus, K. (2009).
The multiple-choice format Focusgroupinterviews. How can Norwegian teachers’ reflections about the MKT items contribute to our understanding of challenges related to the multiple-choice format?
Item ResponceTheory (IRT) How can information about items psychometric properties give new insight when adapting U.S. developed MKT measure for use in Norway? An item performance is described by an item characteristic function (with different difficulty and slopes). Monotonically increasing function – as the MKT increase the probability of correct answer increase. Slope and difficulty is of importance.
IRT findings We found that items can be divided into three groups: Items that do not seem to function in Norway Items that function well, but have relatively high difference in item characteristics in Norway compared to the U.S., and Items that seem to function well and that have item characteristics close to what is reported in the U.S. Quantitative + qualitative analyses!
Teachers’ MKT Focus group interviews: We expected that teachers with strong MKT in one content area would be strong in other content areas relevant for their level of teaching. The teachers argued that some of the content areas were not relevant and more difficult compared to others - our motivation to study correlations
Correlation between NCOP and GEOMETRY is 0.701 (p-value < 0.0005).
Correlations (Pearson, p-value<0.005) Correlations Teachers’ MKT scores in differentcontent areas arecorrelated All correlationsaresignificant – weakestcorrelationbetween PFA and NCOP
Conclusion We find that teachers’ MKT scores in the three content areas are correlated Teachers with high MKT in one content area have high MKT in other content areas and vice versa Despite comments from teachers that not finding PFA items relevant for their teaching, their PFA MKT is related to MKT in the other content areas