Using Clickers to Teach Critical ThinkingRandy J. Malta, Senior Instructional Designer, Center for Teaching & Learning St. Louis Community College - Forest Park
St. Louis CommunityCollege • Founded in 1963 • 29,000+ Credit students Spring 2011 • 4 campuses strategically located throughout the St. Louis, Missouri Metropolitan area. – In the very north Florissant Valley location, – to the citys central corridor at Forest Park, – to the southwest area of the county at the Meramec campus, – to the burgeoning West County area our Wildwood campus -Opened August 2007 • 2 Education Centers and Corporate College Center
449 Full Time Faculty + 1,480 Adjunct Facultydistrict- wide
Session Description• This interactive presentation demonstrates the use of classroom response systems courses to enhance and stimulate critical thinking.• Explore and learn if clickers can be used in your class.
Clickers – Audience Response Systems
What is in a name?Audience Response Systems (ARS)Personal Response Systems (PRS)Student Response Systems (SRS) Clickers
Clickers• Provide a tool to engage students and assess knowledge.• Instructors are able to ask objective and subjective questions. Questions may come from the instructor or as part of a publisher’s textbook package.• Questions are displayed for each student to view and respond to with a remote control device.• A receiver picks up the student’s response and sends it to software loaded on a computer, providing instant feedback to instructor and student.
Critical Thinking• Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness.A Definition Critical thinking is that mode of thinking - about any subject, content, or problem - in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. - National Council on Critical Thinking
Basic Uses• Review of content during class• Access level of understanding• Review for test• Review after test to clear up points• Decrease fear of responses – anonymous• Active learning• Engage students
Clicker Advantages• Engaging multiple • Analyzing and learning styles synthesizing• Increasing visual complexities impact • Increasing• Improving audience spontaneity and focus interactivity• Providing • Increasing wonder annotations and highlights
•• Table of Contents Chapter 1 – Engaging Students with Clickers Resource•• Generating Classwide Discussions Generating Small-Group Discussions Derek Bruff,• Creating Times for Telling•• Structuring Class Time Making Class More Fun Acting• Chapter 2 – Assessing Students with Clickers• Uncovering Student Learning Director,• Evaluating Student Learning• Chapter 3 – A Taxonomy of Clicker Questions Content Questions Vanderbilt• Process Questions•• Chapter 4 – Teaching Choices Use of Class Time Center for• Writing Questions•• Student Response, Participation, and Grading Classroom Choices Teaching• Small Classes• Chapter 5 – Technical and Logistical Choices• Technical Challenges• Vendor Selection and Adoption• Supporting and Promoting the Use of Clickers• Low-Tech Options• High-Tech Options• Chapter 6 – Why Use Clickers?• Increased Student Participation• Increased Student Engagement• Frequent Feedback on Student Learning• Final Suggestions
Teaching with Classroom Response Systems: Creating Active Learning Environments Jossey-Bass, 2009• “If an instructor uses clickers only to take attendance of give quizzes students often object to paying for a device just to make the instructors job easier. If, however an instructor uses the results of a clicker quiz to review the quiz with the students immediately after they take it, focusing on questions most missed by students and exploring popular incorrect answers, students see this as adding value to their learning experience and are more likely to see the clickers as useful. • Derek Bruff, Acting Director of Vanderbilt University’s Center for Teaching from Inside Higher Ed
Best Practice - Start small• Asking simple, information gathering or factual questions to begin
Currently Using Clickers?1.Yes2.No
You are1. Administration2. Faculty 0%3. Instructional Designer4. Support Staff Administra... Faculty Instructio... Support St...
I am from1. Southeast2. Northeast3. Midwest4. South 14% 14%5. Southwest 14% 14%6. Northwest7. West 14% 14% 14% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Desire to have more classroominteraction/engagement while still achieving the Learning Outcomes1. Yes 0%2. No 0%3. Maybe 0%
Best Practice - # of Questions• Most Instructors use –Four to six discussion questions per class.
Question Asked First
Small Group Discussion First
Depending on Answer use both.
Click It and Learn It
New Blooms Taxonomy• Remember -can the student recall or remember the information?• Understand-can the student explain ideas or concepts?• Apply-can the student use the information in a new way?• Analyze-can the student distinguish between the different parts?• Evaluate-can the student justify a stand or decision?• Create-can the student create new product or point of view?
Background Information• Survey issued at the end of F10 semester to 39 nursing students. 44 were currently enrolled, 5 were absent on day of survey• Survey questions adopted from http://conferences.anzmac.org/ANZMAC2007/papers/D%20Lincoln_1a.pdf and other .edu sites, Revised and adapted for my particular class
Student Narratives Most Helpful• “Being able to answer the question independently without people answering out loud”• “It gave an opportunity to stop and answer questions about what we just covered and we could discuss w/classmates about the rationale”• “It gives you a good idea what you need to study more if you have trouble, was a lot more enjoyable class (all instructors should use)”• “I stayed focused and looked forward to coming to class. It helps break up the time and keep me thinking during lecture because I’m anticipating a question”• “NCLEX Style Questions”
Student Narratives Most Helpful• “It was an interactive way to review the material”• “It made you pay attention”• “It was helpful to be able to answer questions and participate anonymously”• “Seeing sample questions pertaining to the present topic and the instructor did not know who you are in the class”• “Helped me determine right away if I was understanding a concept & give me the opportunity to ask questions & clear things up right away”• “Seeing that I was not the only student confused! Anonymity!!”
Student Narratives Least Helpful• “I do not like when the question session (for one question) takes an unnecessary amount of time. (for people to answer).• “Nothing, this was an awesome lecture b/c of the clickers. I feel I could have done better with the other material if the clickers were used!!”• “Question like “So far, does this topic clear?” If I read the book before the class, I might have a couple of questions, but it should be quite cleared”• “It took up some time to get all the answers & discuss it”• “Computer issues”• “Having to go get it ”
Types of Questions
Types of Questions• Misconception Questions
Your sister calls to say she’s having twins. Which of the following is more likely? 1. Twin Boys 2. Twin Girls 3. One boy and one girl 4. All are equally likely 100%Image: “IMG_9936e2,” Abby Bischoff, Flickr (CC) 1