Minggu 101. Mengaplikasikan Analisis cara taksiran formatif mengajar 4 untuk mengenalpasti Penilaian pencapaian hasil •Pemulihan/ pembelajaran pembetulan dan2. Mengenalpasti pengukuhan/ teknik pengayaan pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang sesuai
Monitoring Student Learning in the Classroom• Redirection and probing (often researched together) are positively related to achievement when they are explicitly focused, e.g., on the clarity, accuracy, plausibility, etc. of student responses.• Redirection and probing are unrelated to achievement when they are vague or critical, e.g., “That’s not right; try again”; “Where did you get an idea like that? I’m sure Suzanne has through more carefully and can help us.”• Acknowledging correct responses as such is positively related to achievement.• Praise is positively related to achievement when it is used sparingly, is directly related to the student’s response, and is sincere and credible.
Student Attitudes• The cognitive level of questions posed is unrelated to students’ attitudes toward the subject matter.• *Those students who prefer lower cognitive questions perform better in recitations and on tests where lower cognitive questions are posed.• *Those students who prefer higher cognitive questions perform equally well with higher or lower cognitive questions in recitations and on tests.
• What happens when teachers participate• In training designed to help them improve their questioning skills? Research indicates that :• * Training teachers in asking higher cognitive questions is positively related to the achievement of students above the primary grades.• * Training teachers in increased wait-time is positively related to student achievement.• * Training teacher to vary their questioning behaviors and to use approaches other than questioning during classroom discussions (e.g.,silence, making statements) are positively related to student achievement.
Guidelines for Classroom Questioning• Incorporate questioning into classroom teaching/learning practices.• Ask questions which focus on the salient elements in the lesson; avoid questioning students about extraneous matters.• When teaching students factual material, keep up a brisk instructional pace, frequently posing lower cognitive questions.• With older ang higher ability students, ask questions before (as well as after) material is read and studied.• Question younger and lower ability students only after material has been read and studied.• Ask a majority of lower cognitive questions when instructing younger ang lower ability students. Structure these questions so that most of them will elicit corret responses.
Guidelines for Classroom Questioning• Ask a majority of higher cognitive questions when instructing older and higher ability students.• In settings where higher cognitive questions are appropriate, teach students strategies for drawing inferences.• Keep wait-time to about three seconds when conducting recitations involving a majority of lower cognitive questions.• Increase wait-time beyond three seconds when asking higher cognitive questions.• Be particularly careful to allow generous amounts of wait-time to students perceived as lower ability.• Use redirections and probing as part of classroom questioning and keep these focused on salient elements of students’ responses.• Avoid vague or critical responses to student answers during recitations.• During recitations, use praise sparingly and make certain it is sincere, credible, and directly connected to students’ responses.
• Detailed instructions for teaching students to draw inferences is outside the scope of this paper.• However, the model offered by Pearson (1985) does provide some basic steps which can help students make connections between what they know and what they are seeking to learn. Pearson suggests that teachers complete all the steps in this process by way of demonstration, then gradually shift responsibility for all but the first step to the students.3. Ask the inference question.4. Answer it.5. Find clues in the text to support the inference.6. Tell how to get from the clues to the answer (i.e., give a line of reasoning).
• Is discussion the right pedagogy?• What makes discussions effective?• Setting rules of engagement• How to grade discussions• Designing a discussion
Summary : is it the right pedagogy?• Fits your learning outcomes• Goals of the pedagogy fit• Instructor owns a board range of skills (“ people management” )• Instructor comfort with unpredictability• Physical space/online skills
Learning outcomes• Cognitive goals : - Exploring and brainstorming - Defending a position - Considering multiple perspective - Evaluating evidence - Problem-solving• Social/ emotional goals : - Democratic and collaboration skills - Crossing cultural boundaries
Discussion Goals• Reaches all three levels of interaction- student- content, student-instructor, student-student• Higher level of reflective thinking and creative problem solving• Higher retention• Students often prefer active engagement with content
Skills instructor may need• Addressing views diverdent from your own• Challenging factual errors• Drawing in students• Managing emotions• Dealing with disruptive, belliegerent, or domineering students
Discussion may not be best when :• Question has only one correct answer and one right way to get there• Convey or clarify information• Insufficient time, space, technological skills• Path exists that you don’t want to take• Disruptive students are problem• No time to design
Obstacles to Effective Discussion• Students do not know enough about the subject• Students do not know the purpose of the discussion (e.g., learn from one another vs. demonstrate their knowledge)• Students do not know how they are expected to interact (e.g.,answer a question, ask questions, build on others’ comments, challenge other, etc)• Inequitable participation (student who talks too much, or not at all; only 4 out of 50 students talk)• Students are inhibited; e.g. fear of being evaluated, fear of looking foolish, not able to keep up with the discussion, fear of conflict, uneasy talking about topic with strangers, etc.
Effective design• Set ground rules to govern interactions• Clarify your expectations• Establish the purpose• Prepare the groundwork• Group students to fit goals• Ask discussable questions• Give student time to think• Involve students equitably
Develop student skills• Part of the grondwork• Identify the necessary skills - Reading in a discipline - Evaluation - Collaboration• Consider using a student self-evaluation (see handout)
Why set ground rules?• Your actions seem less arbitrary• Can deal with disruptive students• Helps class stay on task• Teach students democratic and collaboration skills (self-policing, consensus-building, civility)• Safety (not the same as comfort)
Set clear expectations• Not an attendance grade• Do you need to grade everything?• Be clear about what you are grading - What constitutes “class participation”? - Why are you grading on “class participation”?• Individual or whole-group, or both? - Tie this decision to your goals - Include a divorce clause for long-term groups• Consider grading product, not discussion
Planning a discussion• Identify the learning outcomes• Identify your pedagogical goals• What set students up to discuss? -Out of class -In class• Draft your questions :
Purposeful Discussion Activity Ideas• Analyze a specific problem• Start with controversy• Show video clip, slide, current event, etc.for focus• Assign sides/role-play• Collectively create a chart or resource• Compare and contrast• Give new ideas and examples• Explain opinions backed by research• Share research findings and reactions• Give questions ahead of time• Break a large issue into smaller parts
Types of question that don’t work• “Guess what I’m thinking” (you have a spesific answer in mind; results in guessing)• Yes/No and Leading questions (one response, at best)• Info retrieval (look up the answer; one response at best)• Rhetorical (own your beliefs; if you believe based on evidence, back your argument)
Asking good questions• Beyond factual recall• Open-ended• Use question prompts• Types of questions –Factual, Convergent, Divergent, Evaluative, and Combination
Tips for success• Learn student names• 10-second rule (“wait time”)• Seat students facing one another• Avoid jargon• Be able to say “ I don’t know”• Promote students helping students• Deal with “over-talkers”• Summarize, summarize, summarize
Learning Framework…but have you answered the questions all learners need to know?• Where do I need to go?• Why should I go there?• How will I get there?• How will I know when I’ve arrived?
Common Test Types And CharacteristicsType Advantages Disadvantages Best UtilizedTrue – False • Easy to construct • Can be ambigeous • To measure recall andYes - No •Can reinforce comprehension of facts incorrect information Enables guessingMultiple Choice • Easy to score and • Difficult to construct • To measure comprehension statistically analyse • Enables students to answer • To measure higher • Can be constructed to by process of unintentionally cognitive skills measure analyse and hidden clues synthesis of informationMatching •Popular with students • Difficult to construct • To measure comprehension •Can be constructed to • Enables students to answer by comparing information include broad range of by process of informationShort Answer Open- Ended •Easy to construct •Difficult to score as more •To measure to recall of facts •Adaptable to specific than one answer may be and specific knowledge subject content correctFill in The Blank •Can be more focused and •Diffuclt to score when more •To measure recall of facts easily scored than one answer may be and specific knowledge correctEssay •Easy to construct •Scoring is quite time •To measure application and •Enables students to consuming higher cognitive skills demonstrate a broad knowledge base
Written Tests Selected- response test Short-answer test Essay testCharacteristics Objective; Choose Objective; Ask to Ask to discuss one or among alternatives; supply into from more related ideas Assess foundational memory; Assess according to certain knowledge foundational criteria knowledgeAdvantages Efficiency Relatively easy to Assess higher-level write; Allow for abilities breadthDisadvantages Focus on verbatim Focus on verbatim Lack of consistency of memorization memorization grading
Way to Measure Student Learning• Written test - Selected-response tests - Short- answer tests - Essay tests• Performance tests - Direct writing assessments - Portfolios - Exhibitions - Demonstrations
Conceptions of learning ( Saljo 1979 )2. Learning as a quantitative increase in knowledge. Learning is acquiring information or “ knowing a lot”3. Learning as memorising . Learning is storing information that can be reproduced.4. Learning as acquiring facts, skills and method that can be retained and used as necessary.5. Learning as making sense or abstracting meaning. Learning involves relating parts of the subject matter to each other and to the real world.6. Learning as interpreting and understanding reality in a different way. Learning involves comprehending the world by re-interpreting knowledge.
(7) Increases in the amount and quality of evidence students offer to support their inferences(8) Increases in contributions by students who do not participate much when wait-time is under three seconds(9) Expansion of the variety of responses offered by students(10) Decreases in student interruptions(11) Increases in student-student interactions(12) Increases in the number of questions posed by students
Analytic Framework : Broad Conceptions of TeachingType CCategory DeDescriptionI Teacher- A Teaching as transmitting concepts of syllabusFocused B Teacher as transmitting teacher’s knowledgeII Student C Teacher as helping students acquire concepts of syllabusFocused D Teacher as helping students acquire teacher’s knowledge
Results : Type I Conception ( Teacher- Focused)“ [ Teaching ] is a transfer of knowledge from somebody who accumulates certain amount of knowledge to people who are recipient[s] of the knowledge” (Professor of Medicine) * Focus on transfer of information * Students’ prior knowledge not considered * Students are passive recipients