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The Principles and the Cycle of Problem-based Learning


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The Principles and the Cycle of Problem-based Learning

  1. 1. Satu Öystilä & Matleena Laakso 2015 The Principles of Problem-based Learning and the Phases of the PBL Cycle Eduta Oy Puh. +35850 564 4887
  2. 2. PBL as a strategy of the pedagogical development process • Curriculum development • Collaborative learning process • New learning culture • The change of the teacher’s role
  3. 3. PBL as an educational strategy • PBL currculum is organized according to the subject frame or a defined interdisciplinary • The aims are: – Learning in small groups (tutorials) – Self-directed learning – Critical thinking – Life-long learning – Self and peer assessment – Inquiry-based learning
  4. 4. PBL as an educational strategy • Student-centred learning environment • Individual and collaborative learning processes in the PBL curriculum • Less contact teaching and more facilitation
  5. 5. Constructive Alignment in PBL Curriculum PBL curriculum: – The substance and the aims – Collaborative learning methods and individual learning processes – Both summative and formative assessment – Interpersonal skills – The organizational culture The aim and the substance Learning methods Assessment and evaluation Constructive alignment
  6. 6. Constructing theme-based PBL curriculum qualification 1 qualification 2 qualification 3 qualification 4 qualification 5 qualification 6 qualification 7 qualification 8 qualification 9 qualification 10 • Theme A • Theme B • Theme C subject 1 subject 2 subject 3 subject 4 subject 5 subject 6 Subject 7 subject 8 ?
  7. 7. Studies Course PBL Cycle The structure of the problem-based curriculum
  8. 8. How to implement problem-based curriculum? 1. Team, where all the expert groups are representative 2. Formulation of all the qualifications, which are relevant in the work life (core qualifications) 3. Specification of the learning areas 4. Specification of the themes 5. Definition the contents and subjects of each theme 6. Designing the learning cycles
  9. 9. PBL is inquiry-based learning I 1. The learners are responsible for their own learning and the group work - the ownership of the learning 2. Using problems (cases, scenarios, triggers) as starting points for learning
  10. 10. PBL is inquiry-based learning II 3. Integrating different knowledge areas and themes 4. Collaboration is essential part of learning and assessment 5. Shared knowledge construction and independent knowledge acquisition are chronologically separated
  11. 11. PBL is inquiry-based learning III 6. Shared knowledge construction produces shared understanding and meaning negotiation 7. The self and peer assessment are included in the process
  12. 12. PBL is inquiry-based learning IV 9.PBL curriculum improves interpersonal skills and work life competencies of learners 10. PBL is a strategy, not only a learning method
  13. 13. Assessment Learning process Problem solving process Group process Starting point Brainstorming Best ideas Learning objects Knowledge sharing Visual synthesis Self-study PBL learning task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tutorial I Tutorial II
  14. 14. PBL cycle: the tutorials • 6-10 students and the PBL tutor (facilitator) • Working time 2 hours • The PBL tutorial is not the same as PBL but the small group study phase of the PBL curriculum • Two tutorials: The PBL object in the first tutorial and the synthesis in the second • The indvidual learning phase and the data acquistion between the tutorials
  15. 15. The roles in the PBL tutorial The grouping and the ground rules for the tutorial The discussion leader • leading the discuss • taking care of the the timetable The recorder • writing up ideas/synthesis The observer • observing members of the tutorial and giving them feedback
  16. 16. PBL-tutorial, 1. phase: PBL starting point • To become familiar with the starting point/case • Different ways to present the starting point: a case, a story, a cartoon, a drama, etc. • The starting point is a surprise • The starting point is not a question
  17. 17. Different types of starting points • scenario: gives the perspcetive to the future • case: a concrete case of the real life • trigger: for example a picture • problem: leading the collaborative problem solving • impulse, stimulus: a starting point to the brain storming
  18. 18. PBL tutorial, 2. phase: Brainstorming • Producing new ideas • Connecting the knowledge achieved earlier • Activating • Innovative connections • No critisism • No long explanations • No analysing
  19. 19. PBL tutorial, 3. phase: Choosing the ideas Everyone has 5 points in order to choose the best ideas.
  20. 20. PBL tutorial, 4. phase: Defining the learning object Picking up the ideas which have most points and defining the learning object together
  21. 21. PBL tutorial, 5. phase: Defining the shared PBL learning task Just one and shared PBL task: • What should we learn? • What do we know already? • What we do not know? • What is most important? • What is most interesting? • How do we acquise the new knowledge? • Which are the best references? • How much time do we have?
  22. 22. Assessment and feedback in PBL tutorials The learning process, the problem solving and the group process. • What are we observing? • The observer gives the feedback individually to each member of the group and to the tutor • ”Just nice” or ”okay” is not feedback • The feedback is not the truth • Everyone listens the feedback without interrupting • After the round everyone has the possibility to comment the feedback
  23. 23. PBL-tutorial, 6. phase: Self-study Each member of the tutorial group writes an individual PBL learning task and sends it to all other members and the tutor before the deadline. Each member and the tutor reads all the tasks before the next tutorial. Preparing to the tutorial is essential.
  24. 24. The PBL tutorial, 6. phase: Self study Teaching Lectures Seminars Group work Exercises Reading the books, articles Writing an essay Working life Learning at work Excursions Benchmarking Expert interviews Discussions Media, Social media Library Internet
  25. 25. PBL tutorial, 7. phase: Knowledge sharing • New roles • The short starting round (star ideas, 1 minute/member) • Dialogic reflections • Argumenting • It is important that everyone has orientated and learned the task • The recorder writes up the core points
  26. 26. PBL tutorial, 8. phase: the visual synthesis • Modelling shared learning • Problem solving and learning process becomes evident • The summary and the comparison with the starting point • Visualising gives the shared symbol to the common process • It is also possible to make a theoretised modell
  27. 27. The observer´s feedback and self assessment 1. tutorial • How did you give new perspectives to the group work? • How did you continue the others´ ideas? • Did you present innovative ideas? 2. tutorial • How did you question? • How did you support others? • How did you learn from others?
  28. 28. The final review • Did you deal with the right issues? • How did you find the atmosphere of the tutorial? • Did you say what you wanted to? • Have you been heard?
  29. 29. CC-licensies: CC BY-SA (these slides): You can also contact us to get more rights • Satu Öystilä: • Matleena Laakso: Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0)