Technique for Tilapia Culture Trịnh Quốc Trọng [email_address] National Breeding Centre for Southern Freshwater Aquacultur...
Outline  <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Biology of Tilapia </li></ul><ul><li>Culture systems </li></ul><ul><li>Tec...
Introduction <ul><li>Tilapia: common name of a group consists of >80 species </li></ul><ul><li>Three main generas: </li></...
Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) Red Tilapia ( Oreochromis  spp.) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
<ul><li>Tilapia aquaculture production and value (FishStat Plus v.2.32) </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
The players (2007) http://www.ridzalmersing.com Top 10 Countries Production (tons) 10 Colombia 27960 9 Honduras 28,356 8 M...
A little comparison <ul><li>Tilapia worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 million tones (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>> US$ 3 billion...
Tilapia culture in Southeast Asia Countries Culture system Culture model Indonesia Integrated – freshwater Extensive Malay...
Biology  <ul><li>Temperature: 25 - 35  C </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved oxygen: as low as 0.5 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Salinit...
Culture systems <ul><li>Semi-intensive culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed- or po...
Semi-intensive culture <ul><li>Usually in ponds  </li></ul><ul><li>Low input: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pond fertilisation (or...
Semi-intensive culture (cont.) <ul><li>Yield: varies </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
 
 
 
 
Intensive culture <ul><li>High density    max yield, less water </li></ul><ul><li>High input </li></ul><ul><li>Ponds or ...
Intensive culture in ponds <ul><li>Water quality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp </li></ul></ul>...
Intensive culture in ponds <ul><li>Density: 30,000; 59,000; 122,000 fish/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Unaerated pond: 8,4 (density...
Yield: 25 tonnes/8,000 m 2  (31.25 tonnes/ha) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
Intensive culture indoor <ul><li>Developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks </li><...
Intensive culture indoor
Intensive, recycling system outdoor <ul><li>Israel or Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Lined, circular ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Com...
Intensive fish pond, Jordan Valley, Israel http://www.ridzalmersing.com
Intensive fish pond, Northern Coastal region, Israel
Cage culture <ul><li>Popular in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Most single important, popular Tilapia culture in the Mekong Delta ...
Advantages and limitations of cage culture <ul><li>Advantages   </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively low investment </li></ul><ul>...
Cage culture: Site selection <ul><li>Good water quality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No acidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No fl...
Engineering  <ul><li>Rectangle is most popular </li></ul><ul><li>Material:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ease of construction, di...
 
Cages of various size and constructions
Net pens http://www.ridzalmersing.com
Feeding in a cage
Tilapia culture in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam <ul><li>Seed: Selective breeding programs </li></ul><ul><li>GIFT </li></ul>...
Cage culture in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam Cage size 5    10    4 m Stocking density (pcs/m 3 ) 100 – 120  Period  All...
Harvest  <ul><li>Netting </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic market: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live-well boat or truck  </li></ul></ul>...
Cage culture in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam Culture period (days) Offspring of GIFT 11 th  generation Existing Nile Tilapi...
http://www.ridzalmersing.com
References  <ul><li>El-Sayed, A-F. M., 2006.  Tilapia culture . CABI Publishing, 277 pp. </li></ul><ul><li>Beveridge, M. C...
MSc. Vo Minh Son Email:  [email_address] Division of Experimental Biology, Research Institute for Aquaculture No.2  3 - 20...
PART II COBIA ( Rachycentron canadum ) CULTURE
<ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Biology characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>3. Farming system </li></ul><ul><li...
1. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>The status of cobia culture </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive candidate for mariculture due to its rapi...
Fig. 1. Global cobia aquaculture production and value (1995-2007) (FAO, 2007)
Fig. 2. Cobia aquaculture compared to another marine fish in 2007 31,359 tons 75,406 tons 1,744,700 tons (FAO, 2007)
Table 1. Cobia aquaculture production of some countries in 2007 Countries Cobia production (tons) China 25,855 Taiwan 3,99...
<ul><li>In Vietnam, cobia reproduction commenced in 1998 and the first commercial seed production were obtained in 2002 </...
<ul><li>North part: from Vinh Ha Long Bay and Bai Tu Long bay in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>North central part: Nghe An ...
2. BIOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Division:  Chordata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class: Pisces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Size/weight/age </li></ul><ul><li>Max length: 200 cm TL male/unsexed; common length: 110 cm TL male/unsexed; max. ...
<ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>- Habitats: mud, sand and gravel bottoms; over coral reefs, off rocky shores and in mang...
Fig. 3. Gain weight of cobia cage culture in Vietnam Initial weight: 10-15g/fish Harvest size: 6-6,5kg Culture period: 18 ...
Concrete pond or  Bricky pond (hard sides, soft bottoms with mud, sands, or mixed matters; 1,5-3 m depth) Earthen pond wit...
Tank culture for cobia Floating net cage culture http://www.ridzalmersing.com
In Taiwan, the cobia is commonly cultured in either ponds or marine cages: <ul><li>Pond Culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Muddy b...
4. TECHNIQUES FOR COBIA NET CAGE CULTURE http://www.ridzalmersing.com
Fig. 4. Family-owned cobia cage farm in Taiwan. Fig. 5. Commercial cobia cage farm in Taiwan.
Rearing tank (10m 3 ) (5g/fish)  Nursery in cage  or ponds (2000m 2 ) (30-50g/fish) Cage culture (6x6x3m) (100-500g/fish) ...
Key points of successful floating net cage <ul><li>Set the facilities in a suitable site. </li></ul><ul><li>Procure health...
a. Site Location  Good site (If strong wind only slow wave) <ul><li>A calm inlet or bay with sandy or rocky bottoms with s...
Site selection <ul><li>Site selection for mariculture involves numerous variables:  </li></ul><ul><li>Current pattern; for...
<ul><li>Use only good quality material, available, cheap, and has long-term economic value.  </li></ul><ul><li>The size of...
Cage culture in Vung Tau province, Vietnam Too crowded Inhabitant zone Pond shrimp culture Estuary zone
Culrure area Fishing ship Inhabitant zones Inhabitant zones Nha Trang
Quang Ninh
Phu Qui islands Coral reef Binh Thuan
Khanh Hoa
Buoy (200L) Two bar of wood (0,3m) 6m 6m b. Design of draft of floating net cage 0.5-1m Storehouse Lab Accomod-ation Livin...
Anchor Fig. 7. Cage design for marine fish rearing and growout
Equipment for commercial cage culture  Boat using for transportation of feed, trash fish, freshwater, visitors, etc. Elect...
Net cleaning area Storehouse House for workers Boat Fig. 8. System design for cobia culture in Vung Tau, Vietnam
Fig. 9. Floating net cage for Cobia culture in Vietnam http://www.ridzalmersing.com
Floating net cage in Vietnam
Different types of FNC in Indonesia http://www.ridzalmersing.com
c. Cage preparation Cage size: 3x3x3m, 4,5x4,5x4,5, 6x3x3m, 6x6x3m, 12x6x4m depending fish size Net size: PE 380D/15, 380D...
Table 2. Mesh size of nets according to fish size (In Vietnam) Fish weight (g) Cage size (m) Mesh size (cm) < 50 2 x 2 x 2...
Select good quality of the seeds for culture stock <ul><li>Free from disease (VNN virus, bacteria, and protozoa) </li></ul...
Key seed transportation to success 1. Size of Seed  9-12 cm TL 2. To enrich feed with Vit-C, before transportation  3. Sto...
Table 3. Size and density of fish for transportation http://www.ridzalmersing.com Fish size (cm) Density (fish/L) Groupers...
+ Transportation with plastic bag (close system) - Water :Oxygen 1:2 or 1:3 - By plane  or car 6-24 hour, survival rate: 9...
+ Seed Transportation with  Tank or boat and Aeration  (open system)  - Temp. : 22-24oC - Transporting by car or boat (<12...
Table 4. Fish size and stock density in FNC Fish size (g/fish) Stock density (fish/m 3 ) < 50 50-500 500-2.000 2.000-4.000...
e. Feeding management <ul><li>Trash fish  </li></ul><ul><li>Formulated feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist feed </li></ul></u...
Table 5. Body weight and feeding rate of fish fed trash fish and artificial feed Fish size (g/fish) No. of feeding times (...
Buying trash fish from fisherman Frozen trashfish Preparation trash fish
Problems related to using trash fish <ul><li>Trash feed is very short storage life. </li></ul><ul><li>The nutritional qual...
New and better practises – use of formulated feed Formulated feeds are of two types: 1. ‘Moist’ feeds, that can be produce...
Benefits of using formulated feed <ul><li>Economic advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Fish grow faster and are healthier in comp...
Protein requirement of groupers and cobia Protein requirement of grouper species (%) Cromileptes altivelis  54.2 Epinephel...
f. Fish Health Management in FNC Water quality requirement  <ul><li>pH  :  7,5-8,5 </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature  :  26,0-...
Net maintenance Change of the net Drying Cleaning the net Grading of fish Grading Grading Grading
Disease prevention Dipping in fresh water about 5-15 minutes every month for treatment of parasites ( Benedenia  sp)  Dipp...
Medical treatment  Mixed antibiotic in pellet Mixed vitamin c in dry pellet with sprayer Mixed vit mix in trash fish Mixed...
5. Common diseases and treatment method http://www.ridzalmersing.com
1. Clinical signs of vibriosis <ul><li>Lost of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Darkening of body coloration </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Prevention and control of vibriosis: <ul><li>Maintain of good water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Good husbandry procedures </...
2. A gram-negative rods infection <ul><li>Species infected:   Rachycentron canadum ,  Lates calcarifer </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Prevention and Control <ul><li>The bacteria have not been succesfully isolated yet, the most appropriate antibiotic cannot...
A. Parasites 1. Trichodina infection <ul><li>Clinical signs  </li></ul><ul><li>Usually not visible when fish are only slig...
<ul><li>Causative agents  </li></ul><ul><li>Two genera of skin monogenetic trematodes,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benedenia   ...
FISH BEHAVIOR VISUAL DIAGNOSE NORMAL ABNORMALITY <ul><li>Haemorage on mouth, scale and fins </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcer </li><...
g. Harvesting and marketing After 15-18 months (10g to 6,500g/fish), fish was harvested for local market or exporting to J...
Table 6. Economic analysis for cobia cage culture in Vietnam Order No. Component Parameters Prices (USD) 1usd = 18.000 vnd...
References Liao, I.C., T.-S. Huang, W.-S. Tsai, C.-M. Hsueh, S.-L. Change, E.M. Leano. 2004.  Cobia culture in Taiwan: cur...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION http://www.ridzalmersing.com
Full name :  VO MINH SON Sex :  Male Institution :  Research Institute For Aquaculture No.2 Address for Correspondence: 11...
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  • because formulated feeds provide a nutritionally complete diet.
  • Changing the net for every 2-3 months, Checking plastic drum, wood frame, anchor , net, etc. Monitoring fish body weight to calculate feeding rate.
  • 105000 usd
  • Transcript of "Tilapia And Cobia Culture Trong And Son"

    1. 1. Technique for Tilapia Culture Trịnh Quốc Trọng [email_address] National Breeding Centre for Southern Freshwater Aquaculture http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Biology of Tilapia </li></ul><ul><li>Culture systems </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques for cage culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>site selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed: seed quality, stocking density, size at stocking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fish health management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feed management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harvest (size, method, post-harvest) </li></ul></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Tilapia: common name of a group consists of >80 species </li></ul><ul><li>Three main generas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oreochromis : maternal mouth-brooders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarotherodon : paternal or biparental mouth-brooders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilapia : substrate spawners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Among the first fish cultured (Masser, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular cultured species: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesser extent: red Tilapia ( O . spp) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Tilapia ( O. aureus ) </li></ul></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    4. 4. Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) Red Tilapia ( Oreochromis spp.) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    5. 5. <ul><li>Tilapia aquaculture production and value (FishStat Plus v.2.32) </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    6. 6. The players (2007) http://www.ridzalmersing.com Top 10 Countries Production (tons) 10 Colombia 27960 9 Honduras 28,356 8 Malaysia 32258 7 Taiwan Province of China 76,087 6 Brazil 95,091 5 Thailand 190258 4 Philippines 241183 3 Indonesia 248305 2 Egypt 265,862 1 China, Hong Kong SAR ( S pecial A administrative R egion) 1134080
    7. 7. A little comparison <ul><li>Tilapia worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 million tones (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>> US$ 3 billions </li></ul><ul><li>Tra catfish in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 million tones (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>US$ 1.5 billions </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    8. 8. Tilapia culture in Southeast Asia Countries Culture system Culture model Indonesia Integrated – freshwater Extensive Malaysia Tanks, cages Intensive Myanmar Mono – ponds, tanks Extensive Singapore Mono – cages (brackish) Intensive Taiwan Mono – tanks Intensive Thailand Mono – integrated, freshwater Intensive Vietnam Integrated – VAC Mono – cages, net pens, ponds Semi- to intensive
    9. 9. Biology <ul><li>Temperature: 25 - 35  C </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved oxygen: as low as 0.5 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wide range depends on species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in general O. mossambicus > O. spp > O. niloticus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juveniles: 30 – 40% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult: 20 – 30% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broodstock : 35 – 45% </li></ul></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    10. 10. Culture systems <ul><li>Semi-intensive culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed- or poly-culture (e.g. with other fish or with Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) in ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated culture (fish cum duck/chicken/pig, VAC, rice-fish, etc.) in ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensive culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net pens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks and race-way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-circulation system </li></ul></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    11. 11. Semi-intensive culture <ul><li>Usually in ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Low input: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pond fertilisation (organic and inorganic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilisation & feed supplement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop residuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Might integrated with husbandry, crop, or other cultured species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mullets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catfsih </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prawns or shrimps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periphyton-based culture </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    12. 12. Semi-intensive culture (cont.) <ul><li>Yield: varies </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    13. 17. Intensive culture <ul><li>High density  max yield, less water </li></ul><ul><li>High input </li></ul><ul><li>Ponds or cages </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    14. 18. Intensive culture in ponds <ul><li>Water quality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul><ul><li> water exchange and engineering (paddle wheels, aeration) are essential </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Stocking density </li></ul>
    15. 19. Intensive culture in ponds <ul><li>Density: 30,000; 59,000; 122,000 fish/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Unaerated pond: 8,4 (density 59,000/ha) – 11,0 (122,000) tonnes/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Aerated pond: 6.3 (density 30,000/ha) – 20.5 (111) t/ha </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    16. 20. Yield: 25 tonnes/8,000 m 2 (31.25 tonnes/ha) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    17. 21. Intensive culture indoor <ul><li>Developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raceways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heated water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Completely use of pelleted feed </li></ul>
    18. 22. Intensive culture indoor
    19. 23. Intensive, recycling system outdoor <ul><li>Israel or Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Lined, circular ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Completely or partially recycle of water </li></ul>Intensive pond, Bet Shean Valley, Israel Intensive pond, Central Israel http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    20. 24. Intensive fish pond, Jordan Valley, Israel http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    21. 25. Intensive fish pond, Northern Coastal region, Israel
    22. 26. Cage culture <ul><li>Popular in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Most single important, popular Tilapia culture in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Case size and type </li></ul><ul><li>High stocking density </li></ul><ul><li>Pelleted feed </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    23. 27. Advantages and limitations of cage culture <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively low investment </li></ul><ul><li>High production, faster growth </li></ul><ul><li>Easy observation and management </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Movement and re-location </li></ul><ul><li>Use available water resources </li></ul><ul><li>Easy harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum use of feed </li></ul><ul><li>High stocking density </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pressure on land </li></ul><ul><li>Control reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Control predator and competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of theft </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of fish lost </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases outbreak and control </li></ul><ul><li>Low tolerance to poor water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to apply in rough weather </li></ul><ul><li>Water exchange is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid fouling </li></ul><ul><li>Feed lost </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts (feed lost, fish waste) </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    24. 28. Cage culture: Site selection <ul><li>Good water quality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No acidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No fluctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH 6.5 – 8.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO > 5 mg/l </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COD 10 mg/l </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Straight and constant current (0.2 – 0.5 m/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not obstruct navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Far from discharges water of industry and cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid: deep current, turbidity, aquatic plants, </li></ul><ul><li>Close to transportation (feed, materials, fish, etc.) </li></ul>
    25. 29. Engineering <ul><li>Rectangle is most popular </li></ul><ul><li>Material: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ease of construction, disinfection, no side-effect to fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wooden, fiberglass, metallic frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stainless steel net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bouy: plastic or metallic containers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small: 3  5  3 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium: 5  10  4 m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>House on top, fish compartment submerged </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    26. 31. Cages of various size and constructions
    27. 32. Net pens http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    28. 33. Feeding in a cage
    29. 34. Tilapia culture in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam <ul><li>Seed: Selective breeding programs </li></ul><ul><li>GIFT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIFT generation 10 th from WFC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two generation selected in Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Red Tilapia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base population from Ecuador </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First generation produced in Vietnam </li></ul></ul>
    30. 35. Cage culture in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam Cage size 5  10  4 m Stocking density (pcs/m 3 ) 100 – 120 Period All year round Size at stocking 20 – 100 pcs/kg Culture period 4 – 6 months Harvest size 500 – 700 Pelleted size (mm) 1.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 Crude protein content (%) 35, 30, 28, 25 Feeding time (per day) 2 – 3 Cage cleaning and (parasite) disinfection Once/week Logging Daily Daily monitoring Yes
    31. 36. Harvest <ul><li>Netting </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic market: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live-well boat or truck </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processing plants (export) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice-killing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boats or trucks </li></ul></ul>
    32. 37. Cage culture in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam Culture period (days) Offspring of GIFT 11 th generation Existing Nile Tilapia strain Cage 1 (2009) Cage 2 (2009) 2008 – 2009 BW (g) Daily growth (g/day) BW (g) Daily growth (g/day) BW (g) Daily growth (g/day) 0 12.5 12.5 12.5 30 60.0 1.6 60.0 1.6 40.0 0.9 45 125.0 4.3 125.0 4.3 60.0 1.3 60 200.0 5.0 200.0 5.0 90.0 2.0 75 265.0 4.3 265.0 4.3 125.0 2.3 90 340.0 5.0 340.0 5.0 170.0 3.0 105 420.0 5.3 420.0 5.3 220.0 3.3 120 521.0 6.7 521.0 6.7 280.0 3.6 150 677.0 5.2 631.0 5.0 400.0 4.0 180 832.0 5.1 - - 500.0 3.3
    33. 38. http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    34. 39. References <ul><li>El-Sayed, A-F. M., 2006. Tilapia culture . CABI Publishing, 277 pp. </li></ul><ul><li>Beveridge, M. C. M., and McAndrew, B. J., 2000. Tilapias: Biology and Exploitation , Fish and Fisheries Series 25, Kluwer Academic Publishers, the Netherlands, pp. 505. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching materials from Dr. Phạm Văn Khánh, National Breeding Centre for Southern Freshwater Aquaculture. </li></ul>
    35. 40. MSc. Vo Minh Son Email: [email_address] Division of Experimental Biology, Research Institute for Aquaculture No.2 3 - 2010 http://www.ridzalmersing.com TECHNIQUES ON COBIA CULTURE
    36. 41. PART II COBIA ( Rachycentron canadum ) CULTURE
    37. 42. <ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Biology characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>3. Farming system </li></ul><ul><li>4. Techniques for cage culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cage preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvesting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Common diseases in Cobia </li></ul><ul><li>6. Economic analysis </li></ul>OUTLINE
    38. 43. 1. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>The status of cobia culture </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive candidate for mariculture due to its rapid growth and succulent flesh. </li></ul><ul><li>Global aquaculture production of cobia has been increasing rapidly, up to 3000-fold over a 10-year period (1997-2007), while captures have remained stable around 10,000 tons . </li></ul><ul><li>Cobia have been cultured in Taiwan in 1990s, while US have been succeeded in spawning by using hormone injection. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently research and production has been considered or initiated in the EU, Brazil, and Panama. </li></ul><ul><li>Exporting market: Japan , China </li></ul>
    39. 44. Fig. 1. Global cobia aquaculture production and value (1995-2007) (FAO, 2007)
    40. 45. Fig. 2. Cobia aquaculture compared to another marine fish in 2007 31,359 tons 75,406 tons 1,744,700 tons (FAO, 2007)
    41. 46. Table 1. Cobia aquaculture production of some countries in 2007 Countries Cobia production (tons) China 25,855 Taiwan 3,998 Vietnam 1,500
    42. 47. <ul><li>In Vietnam, cobia reproduction commenced in 1998 and the first commercial seed production were obtained in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>The techniques including broodstock management, larval rearing, fry transportation and cage culture have been improved. </li></ul><ul><li>Cobia production estimated about 1500MT in 2008, the third largest producer of farmed cobia in the world, after China and Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>Grow-out production of cobia were cultured in both small scale wooden raft cages and in high density polyethylene circular floating net cages. </li></ul>
    43. 48. <ul><li>North part: from Vinh Ha Long Bay and Bai Tu Long bay in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>North central part: Nghe An </li></ul><ul><li>Central part: Van Phong bay, Khanh Hòa Province </li></ul><ul><li>South of VN: Ba Ria- Vung Tau; Kieng Giang </li></ul>Cobia culture zone in Vietnam http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    44. 49. 2. BIOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Division: Chordata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class: Pisces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order: Perciformes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family: Rachycentridae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genus: Rachycentron </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species: R. canadum (Linnaeus, 1766) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common name: Cobia, black kingfish, black salmon, cabio, crabeater, cubbyyew, kingfish, lemonfish, ling,prodigal son, runner. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnamese name: Cá Bớp, Cá giò </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 50. <ul><li>Size/weight/age </li></ul><ul><li>Max length: 200 cm TL male/unsexed; common length: 110 cm TL male/unsexed; max. published weight: 68.0 kg; max. reported age: 15 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 1200 m </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>- Worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Western Atlantic: Canada to Bermuda and Massachusetts, USA to Argentina, including the Gulf of Mexico and entire Caribbean. </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Hokkaido, Japan to Australia </li></ul>
    46. 51. <ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>- Habitats: mud, sand and gravel bottoms; over coral reefs, off rocky shores and in mangrove sloughs; inshore around pilings and buoys, and offshore around drifting and stationary objects; occasionally in estuaries. </li></ul><ul><li>- Feed on crabs, fishes, and squids </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    47. 52. Fig. 3. Gain weight of cobia cage culture in Vietnam Initial weight: 10-15g/fish Harvest size: 6-6,5kg Culture period: 18 months Feed: trashfish FCR: 7-8
    48. 53. Concrete pond or Bricky pond (hard sides, soft bottoms with mud, sands, or mixed matters; 1,5-3 m depth) Earthen pond with aeration system 3. FARMING SYSTEM http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    49. 54. Tank culture for cobia Floating net cage culture http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    50. 55. In Taiwan, the cobia is commonly cultured in either ponds or marine cages: <ul><li>Pond Culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Muddy bottoms </li></ul><ul><li>Depth: 1.5 to 3 m </li></ul><ul><li>Feed: formula feed </li></ul><ul><li>Stocking Density: 1-1,5 fish/m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Good aeration facilities installed in the pond. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding: 2 times/day, </li></ul><ul><li>To compare it with pond culture, the cage culture requires more in capital and technology. Its practice is risky but highly profitable. </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    51. 56. 4. TECHNIQUES FOR COBIA NET CAGE CULTURE http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    52. 57. Fig. 4. Family-owned cobia cage farm in Taiwan. Fig. 5. Commercial cobia cage farm in Taiwan.
    53. 58. Rearing tank (10m 3 ) (5g/fish) Nursery in cage or ponds (2000m 2 ) (30-50g/fish) Cage culture (6x6x3m) (100-500g/fish) Polyethylene circular floating net cages (12x4m) (>6kg/fish) 15-18 months Fig. 6. Cobia culture operation in floating cage in Vietnam Wood cage culture (6x6x3m) (> 6000g/fish) 15-18 months
    54. 59. Key points of successful floating net cage <ul><li>Set the facilities in a suitable site. </li></ul><ul><li>Procure health juveniles as seed </li></ul><ul><li>Feed the fish with good quality food </li></ul><ul><li>Control parasitic and bacterial diseases </li></ul>Several problems in Floating Net Cages <ul><li>Slow growth </li></ul><ul><li>Low survival rate </li></ul>
    55. 60. a. Site Location Good site (If strong wind only slow wave) <ul><li>A calm inlet or bay with sandy or rocky bottoms with slow wave </li></ul><ul><li>2. Water depth is between 10-30 m in the high tide or low tide. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Current velocity between 10-30 cm/s. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Transparency more than 5 m. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Distance from possible source of water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>6. Have a source of feed every time </li></ul><ul><li>7. Infrastructure must be present </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable site selection implies successful mariculture in future </li></ul>Bad site (Strong Wave) Bad site (Muddy water in rain season) Bad site (Turbid water)
    56. 61. Site selection <ul><li>Site selection for mariculture involves numerous variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Current pattern; for good water circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>There is buffer zone between raft unit with buffer zone among floating net cages. </li></ul><ul><li>Good lay out for easy work facilitate. </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to hygiene mariculture environment </li></ul><ul><li>Limited number of floating net cages which considering carrying capacity for sustainable aquaculture. </li></ul>
    57. 62. <ul><li>Use only good quality material, available, cheap, and has long-term economic value. </li></ul><ul><li>The size of raft is not too big (10x10 m), so that easy to move if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Using anchor and other things that cannot be rusty, with limited number, and placed in certain area that can not harm the environment/coral. </li></ul><ul><li>Buoy can be made from Styrofoam, plastic drum; plastic drum is injected by Styrofoam. </li></ul><ul><li>Design and lay out of floating net cages is made to make easier operational </li></ul>Design and lay out of floating net cages Design and lay out of floating net cages is need to consider several variables : CONDITION IN TANJUNG PUTUS Pond culture Pond Unit lay out not regulated nicely
    58. 63. Cage culture in Vung Tau province, Vietnam Too crowded Inhabitant zone Pond shrimp culture Estuary zone
    59. 64. Culrure area Fishing ship Inhabitant zones Inhabitant zones Nha Trang
    60. 65. Quang Ninh
    61. 66. Phu Qui islands Coral reef Binh Thuan
    62. 67. Khanh Hoa
    63. 68. Buoy (200L) Two bar of wood (0,3m) 6m 6m b. Design of draft of floating net cage 0.5-1m Storehouse Lab Accomod-ation Living room Cleaning area
    64. 69.
    65. 70. Anchor Fig. 7. Cage design for marine fish rearing and growout
    66. 71. Equipment for commercial cage culture Boat using for transportation of feed, trash fish, freshwater, visitors, etc. Electric generator: 10Kwh Water compressor machine (15HP): for spraying and washing nets Air pump: 500W Scale: 1kg, 5kg, 60kg
    67. 72. Net cleaning area Storehouse House for workers Boat Fig. 8. System design for cobia culture in Vung Tau, Vietnam
    68. 73. Fig. 9. Floating net cage for Cobia culture in Vietnam http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    69. 74. Floating net cage in Vietnam
    70. 75. Different types of FNC in Indonesia http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    71. 76. c. Cage preparation Cage size: 3x3x3m, 4,5x4,5x4,5, 6x3x3m, 6x6x3m, 12x6x4m depending fish size Net size: PE 380D/15, 380D/18, 380D/21, mesh size (2a = 0,5-10cm), net weight (15-23kg) http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    72. 77. Table 2. Mesh size of nets according to fish size (In Vietnam) Fish weight (g) Cage size (m) Mesh size (cm) < 50 2 x 2 x 2 0.5 50-500 3 x 3 x 3 1-2 500-2000 4 x 4 x 3 2-3 2000-4000 6x6x3 4-5 4000-6000 12x6x4 5-7 > 6000 12x6x4 7-10
    73. 78. Select good quality of the seeds for culture stock <ul><li>Free from disease (VNN virus, bacteria, and protozoa) </li></ul><ul><li>Stocking size: 50-500 g/fish </li></ul><ul><li>Normal body (not deformity) </li></ul>Juvenile of humpback grouper infection by VNN Juvenile of tiger grouper infection by Protozoa d. Seed management
    74. 79. Key seed transportation to success 1. Size of Seed 9-12 cm TL 2. To enrich feed with Vit-C, before transportation 3. Stop feeding 1-2 day before transported 4. Estimation of stocking density 5. Temperature 22-25 ºC http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    75. 80. Table 3. Size and density of fish for transportation http://www.ridzalmersing.com Fish size (cm) Density (fish/L) Groupers Cobia 4-6 7-8 9-12 12-15 20-30 10-15 - - - - 10-15 7-10
    76. 81. + Transportation with plastic bag (close system) - Water :Oxygen 1:2 or 1:3 - By plane or car 6-24 hour, survival rate: 95-98% Seed transportation
    77. 82. + Seed Transportation with Tank or boat and Aeration (open system) - Temp. : 22-24oC - Transporting by car or boat (<12 hours) - Survival rate: 95-100% http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    78. 83. Table 4. Fish size and stock density in FNC Fish size (g/fish) Stock density (fish/m 3 ) < 50 50-500 500-2.000 2.000-4.000 4.000-6.000 > 6.000 30 18 14 8 5 4
    79. 84. e. Feeding management <ul><li>Trash fish </li></ul><ul><li>Formulated feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial feed </li></ul></ul>Trashfish Dry pellets
    80. 85. Table 5. Body weight and feeding rate of fish fed trash fish and artificial feed Fish size (g/fish) No. of feeding times (time/day) Feeding rate (%) (trash fish) Feeding rate (%) (Pellet feeds) < 50 50-200 300-1.000 1.000-3.000 >3.000 5 4 3 2 1 17 13 9 7 5 5 2-3 0,5-0,7
    81. 86. Buying trash fish from fisherman Frozen trashfish Preparation trash fish
    82. 87. Problems related to using trash fish <ul><li>Trash feed is very short storage life. </li></ul><ul><li>The nutritional quality of trash fish will decline within a few week. </li></ul><ul><li>Trash fish supply is not stable, dependent to season. </li></ul><ul><li>Trash fish readily break up into small pieces when eaten, around 30-50% of trash fish can be lost during the feeding process. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding losses from trash fish are 2 to 4 times higher than for pelleted feeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Localized pollution and water quality degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of parasites and diseases. </li></ul>
    83. 88. New and better practises – use of formulated feed Formulated feeds are of two types: 1. ‘Moist’ feeds, that can be produced on the farm; and 2. Commercially produced pellets that must be purchased from a feed manufacturer http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    84. 89. Benefits of using formulated feed <ul><li>Economic advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Fish grow faster and are healthier in comparison to fish fed trash fish. </li></ul><ul><li>The FCR for cobia conditioned to eating formulated dry pelleted feed should be less than 2:1, comparison with the fish fed trash fish, the FCR is 6:1 or higher. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Less pollution, stable water quality, reducing disease problems. </li></ul>
    85. 90. Protein requirement of groupers and cobia Protein requirement of grouper species (%) Cromileptes altivelis 54.2 Epinephelus akaara 49.5 Epinephelus areolatus 60 Epinephelus malabaricus 50.2 Epinephelus malabaricus 47.8 Epinephelus striatus > 55 Epinephelus coioides 43 Epinephelus salmoides 50 Cobia 42-45
    86. 91. f. Fish Health Management in FNC Water quality requirement <ul><li>pH : 7,5-8,5 </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature : 26,0-30,0 o C </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity : 22,0-34,0 ppt </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolve Oxygen (DO) : 4,0-8,0 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrite NO 2 N : 0,0-0,05 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia (NH 3 ) : <0,02 ppm </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    87. 92. Net maintenance Change of the net Drying Cleaning the net Grading of fish Grading Grading Grading
    88. 93. Disease prevention Dipping in fresh water about 5-15 minutes every month for treatment of parasites ( Benedenia sp) Dipping with formalin 30 – 60 ppm about 3-5 ours for treatment protozoa
    89. 94. Medical treatment Mixed antibiotic in pellet Mixed vitamin c in dry pellet with sprayer Mixed vit mix in trash fish Mixed antibiotic Mixed in moist pellet Mixed vit c and egg in pellet
    90. 95. 5. Common diseases and treatment method http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    91. 96. 1. Clinical signs of vibriosis <ul><li>Lost of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Darkening of body coloration </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhagic septicemia (blood poisoning) </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcerative lesions on the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Necrotic fins </li></ul><ul><li>Eye opacity </li></ul><ul><li>Exophthalmia </li></ul><ul><li>Pale gills </li></ul><ul><li>Red spots in tanks (in hatchery) </li></ul>A. Bacteria
    92. 97. Prevention and control of vibriosis: <ul><li>Maintain of good water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Good husbandry procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Lower stocking densities </li></ul><ul><li>Administration of antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination/Immunoprophylaxis </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    93. 98. 2. A gram-negative rods infection <ul><li>Species infected: Rachycentron canadum , Lates calcarifer </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs: </li></ul><ul><li>Swollen abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Sluggish swimming near the water surface </li></ul><ul><li>Resting on the tank bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercle in the liver with numerous </li></ul><ul><li>Rod-shaped bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Causative agent </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly Pasteurella piscicida (Photobacterium damsela ), the causative agent of bacterial pseudotuberculosis in marine fish. </li></ul>
    94. 99. Prevention and Control <ul><li>The bacteria have not been succesfully isolated yet, the most appropriate antibiotic cannot be chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefuran (a wide antibacterial spectrum) may be useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxolinic acid is effective to reduce the mortality due to Pasteurella infection in sea bream juvenile. </li></ul>http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    95. 100. A. Parasites 1. Trichodina infection <ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><li>Usually not visible when fish are only slightly infected </li></ul><ul><li>Excess mucus production on the gills and body surface due to irritation caused by the cilia and hooks of the parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic observation of gills filament and mucus taken from the body surface can confirm parasitic infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Causative agents </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliated protozoa, Trichodina spp., cause this disease. The parasite has a saucer-like shape, up to 100  m in diameter, with a fringe of cilia around the perimeter. The parasite locates on the surface of the gills and skin with a spinning motion, which damages the host tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>When a serious infestation occurs, a bath with 25-30 ppm formalin for 1-2 day is recommended to remove the parasites. Infection of this parasite can be prevented by maintaining good conditions in the fish rearing tank. </li></ul>
    96. 101. <ul><li>Causative agents </li></ul><ul><li>Two genera of skin monogenetic trematodes, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benedenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neobenedenia , </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Bathing in 5 ppt brackishwater for 15 minutes is recommended for removing the parasites. If the fish has a mechanical injury on the body or eyes, administration of antibiotics is also necessary. </li></ul>2. Benedenia and Neobenedenia http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    97. 102. FISH BEHAVIOR VISUAL DIAGNOSE NORMAL ABNORMALITY <ul><li>Haemorage on mouth, scale and fins </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcer </li></ul><ul><li>Less appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Irreguler swimming behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Some mortality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak swimming behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay on the bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark color and empty stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal morfology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pale body color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratching on the net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opaque eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wounded body </li></ul></ul>LABORATORIAL DIAGNOSA PREVENTION / TREATMENT <ul><li>Gram-negatif bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VIBRIO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FLEXIBACTER </li></ul></ul>VIRUS Gram- positif bac. STREPTOCCOCUS DIFORMITY/ MALNOURISHED <ul><li>PARASITE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benedenia sp </li></ul></ul>Skilled technician Prevention or Treatment Method for Disease and Abnormality at RIM’s FNCs
    98. 103. g. Harvesting and marketing After 15-18 months (10g to 6,500g/fish), fish was harvested for local market or exporting to Japan, China, Taiwan, HongKong. Fish is starved for one day period to harvest Right after harvest, fish was killed , bled and chilled prior to transporting to processing plants. Products: live fish for local market and frozen fillet for exporting Marketing: China, Japan, HongKong http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    99. 104. Table 6. Economic analysis for cobia cage culture in Vietnam Order No. Component Parameters Prices (USD) 1usd = 18.000 vnd Total (USD) A Cost 84,366 1 Fingerling size 14-16 cm 2 Culture period 18 months 3 Survival rate 50% 4 No. of fingerling 10,000 fish 0,66 6,600 5 Feed = (50%) x BW (6kg) x FCR = 7 210,000 kg 0.3 63,000 6 Labor cost (15 months) 6 workers 66.6 6,000 7 Equipment maintenance 22 cages 166.6 3,666 8 Freshwater cost, fuel cost 18 months 166.6 3,000 9 Equipment, and disease treatment 18 months 55.5 1,000 10 Other 1,100 B Gross profit 0.3USDx5000fishx6kg/con 105,000 B-A Net profit 20,634
    100. 105. References Liao, I.C., T.-S. Huang, W.-S. Tsai, C.-M. Hsueh, S.-L. Change, E.M. Leano. 2004. Cobia culture in Taiwan: current status and problems. Aquaculture 237 (2004) 155–165. Holt, G.J., C.K. Faulk, M.H. Schwarz. 2007. A review of the larviculture of cobia Rachycentron canadum, a warm water marine fish. Aquaculture 268 (2007) 181–187. Cobia ( Rachicentron canadum ) aquaculture in Vietnam. Recent developments and Prospects. Lavi’09 – Fish and Shelfish Laviculture Symposium. Training course. Dissemination of sustainable mariculture technology. 2005. Research Institute Techniques on cobia culture in Vietnam (Vietnamese language). 1007. Science and Technology Information.
    101. 106. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION http://www.ridzalmersing.com
    102. 107. Full name : VO MINH SON Sex : Male Institution : Research Institute For Aquaculture No.2 Address for Correspondence: 116 Nguyen Dinh Chieu, Dist 1, Ho Chi Minh, City Vietnam Office Phone/Fax. : +84-8- 3 8 229592 ; fax 84-8-8226807 Home Phone/Mobile : +84 982949827 E-mail: vominhson @ yahoo.com Field/ Specialization : Aquaculture Experience s : Livefood (algae, rotifer); seed production of grouper, seabass, clam, probiotics and fish immunity .

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