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Tilapiametric

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Tilapiametric

  1. 1. TILAPIA CULTURE by Leonard Lovshin Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Auburn University, AL 36849 U.S.A.
  2. 2. Tilapia are native to Africa, Israel and Jordan Water Temperatures for: Best growth- above 250C Spawning - above 200C Death- 10 to 120C
  3. 3. Popular Cultured Tilapias Nile Tilapia Mozambique Tilapia Blue Tilapia Red Tilapia
  4. 4. Food Habits Tilapia feed low on the food chain phytoplankton zooplankton
  5. 5. Tilapia can be cultured in fresh and salt water. 1. All tilapia can be grown in fresh water. 2. Mossambique tilapia and red tilapia with Mossambique tilapia genes can be grown in salt water.
  6. 6. Females incubate eggs Reproduction Males dig and defend a nest and defend the fry
  7. 7. Tilapia can be spawned in: 1. ponds 2. cages ( hapas ) 3. tanks
  8. 8. Fry can be harvested: 1. 18 days after stocking brood fish 2. 40 days after stocking brood fish
  9. 9. Fry can be: 1. partial harvested 2. completely harvested
  10. 10. Eggs can be removed from females: Incubating tilapia eggs Yolk-sac tilapia fry
  11. 11. Tilapia can be cultured as: 1. Mixed sexes - males and females together 2. Mono-sex - only males
  12. 12. Grow-out: Mixed-sex Culture Advantages: 1. Technically easy Disadvantages: 1. Small harvest weight 2. Mixed sizes at harvest
  13. 13. Mono-sex culture Advantages: 1. Large harvest weight 2. Uniform size at harvest Disadvantages: 1. Technically difficult
  14. 14. Stocking a predacious fish with mixed-sex tilapia will control tilapia density and increase final harvest weight. Largemouth bass in the U. S. A. Peacock bass in South America
  15. 15. Mono-sex male tilapia populations can be produced by: 1. Visual selection 2. Hybridization 3. Sex-reversal 4. Genetic manipulation Male Populations
  16. 16. Visual Selection of the Genital Papilla Female papilla with oviduct anus Male papilla anus
  17. 17. Hybridization Male Hornorum tilapia ZZ XZ XX Female Nile tilapia All-male hybrid tilapia
  18. 18. Sex Reversal of Tilapia Fry
  19. 19. Genetic Manipulation 1) XXF + XYM estrogen XXF + XY”F” 2) XY”F” x XYM XXF + 2 XYM + YYM 3) XXF x YYM
  20. 20. Tilapia are raised in: Small earthen ponds
  21. 21. Tilapia are raised Large earthen ponds in: Harvested tilapia are held in net enclosures while waiting to be loaded onto trucks for transport to processors.
  22. 22. Tilapia are raised in: Floating cages
  23. 23. Tilapia are raised in: Circular tanks with partial water exchange and mechanical aeration
  24. 24. Tilapia are raised in: Raceways with constant water exchange
  25. 25. Tilapia are raised in: Indoors with water reuse, mechanical aeration and oxygen injection
  26. 26. Tilapia ponds can be fertilized with organic and inorganic fertilizers to increase yield
  27. 27. Tilapia can be fed to increase yield
  28. 28. Tilapia can be fed Agricultural by-products Pelleted feeds sinking cottonseed meal wheat bran rice bran floating
  29. 29. Tilapia can be sold to Neighbors and Friends
  30. 30. Tilapia can be purchased At supermarkets and fish shops fresh and frozen fillets whole on ice
  31. 31. Tilapia farming in the U. S. 1. Most production is from enclosed, water reuse systems because of cold winter water temperatures. 2. Production costs are high. 3. Most tilapia are sold live or whole iced. 4. Presently, U. S. producers can’t compete with producers in tropical climates for processed tilapia. 5. Fresh fillets are imported from Central and South America. 6. Frozen whole tilapia and fillets are imported from Asia.
  32. 32. Advantages of Farming Tilapia 1. feeds low on the food chain 2. accepts wide range of feeds 3. resistant to poor water quality, disease and handling 4. good flesh quality 5. fingerlings easy to produce year round
  33. 33. Disadvantages of raising tilapia 1. sensitive to low water temperatures 2. reach sexual maturity at a young age 3. males grow faster than females 4. difficult to harvest from earthen ponds with a seine 5. low dressout percentage of fillet
  34. 34. Over 2.0 million mt of farmed tilapia were harvest world-wide in 2004. China>Egypt>Indonesia U. S. tilapia Production 2004: 9,000 MT
  35. 35. EAT MORE TILAPIA

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