Hatchery technology on tilapia


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Hatchery technology on tilapia

  1. 1. Hatchery Technology on Tilapia
  2. 2. Taxonomic classification of tilapia. kingdom: Animalia phylum: Chordata class: Osteichtthyes order: Cichliformes family: Cichlidae genus: Oreochromis species: Niloticus English Name: Nile Tilapia
  3. 3. Tilapia, its brief history:  Common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe.  Mainly freshwater fish, inhabiting shallow streams, ponds, rivers and lakes, and less commonly found living in brackish water.  The common name tilapia is based on the name of the cichlid genus Tilapia, which is itself a latinisation of thiape, the Tswana word for "fish".  Historically, they have been of major importance in artisan fishing in Africa and the Levant, and are of increasing importance in aquaculture and aquaponics.  has become the third most important fish in aquaculture after carp and salmon; worldwide production exceeded 1,500,000 metric tons in 2002 and increases annually.
  4. 4.  Tilapia fisheries originated in Africa. The accidental and deliberate introductions of tilapia into Asian freshwater lakes have inspired outdoor aquaculture projects in various countries with tropical climates, most notably Honduras, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Indonesia.  Tilapiines are among the easiest and most profitable fish to farm due to their omnivorous diet, tolerance of high stocking density, and rapid growth.  In some regions the fish can be raised in rice fields at planting time and grow to edible size (12–15 cm, 5–6 inches) when the rice is ready for harvest. Unlike salmon, which rely on highprotein feeds based on fish or meat, commercially important tilapiine species eat a vegetable or cereal-based diet.
  5. 5.  the third most important fish in aquaculture after carp and salmon.  Father of tilapia is Raphael Guerrero III.  They are best considered for farming because they have met the criterias for species selection; they show excellent growth rates on low protein diets, whether cropping natural aquatic production or receiving supplementary food. They can tolerate wide ranges of environmental conditions, show little susceptibility to disease and are amenable to handling and captivity. Tilapia are also multiple spawners, most of all they enjoy wide acceptance as food fish because of their high palatability.  It is a fast growing fish reaching an average weight of 120 to 200grams in four months with at least 80% survival. Most will grow in brackish water and some will adapt to full strength sea water. These characteristics make tilapia suitable for culture in most developing countries. They are most often grown in ponds, cages and rice fields.  Nile tilapia is a tropical species that prefers to live in shallow water. The lower and upper lethal temperatures for Nile tilapia are 11-12 °C and 42 °C, respectively, while the preferred temperature ranges from 31 to 36 °C. It is an omnivorous grazer that feeds on phytoplankton, periphyton, aquatic plants, small invertebrates, benthic fauna, detritus and bacterial films associated with detritus.
  6. 6. Physical Characteristics of Tilapia  have laterally compressed, deep bodies  their lower pharyngeal bones are fused into a single tooth-bearing structure  A complex set of muscles allows the upper and lower pharyngeal bones to be used as a second set of jaws for processing food (cf. morays), allowing a division of labor between the "true jaws" (mandibles) and the "pharyngeal jaws". This means they are efficient feeders that can capture and process a wide variety of food items.  Their mouths are protrusible, usually bordered with wide and often swollen lips.  The jaws have conical teeth. Typically tilapia have a long dorsal fin, and a lateral line which often breaks towards the end of the dorsal fin, and starts again two or three rows of scales below.
  7. 7. Classification of Tilapia Species used in Aquaculture 1. Genus Tilapia -(Substrate spawners) Both parents guard, protect, aerate the breed, and help move clutch to different nest sites. Fry at first feeding are 4-5 mm and show feeble swimming ability. Fry survival relatively low.
  8. 8. 2. Genus Sarotherodon (Paternal/biparental). Both parents stay close to each other. Eggs and fry brooded in oral cavity up until they are ready for release. Brood may not be collected once released. Fry are between 7-9 mm at first breeding, well developed fins for swimming. Fry survival high. 3. Genus Oreochromis (Maternal). Female solely involve in brood care. After spawning, female leaves nest to rear her clutch in safety. Fry brooded up until free swimming. There is an extended period of care during which fry seek shelter in buccal cavity for safety. First feeders have welldeveloped fins for swimming. Fry survival high.
  9. 9. Sex Identification
  10. 10. Most common cultured species: Male (top) and female Tilapia O. mossambicus Male (top) and female O. aureus
  11. 11. Male (top) and female Red Tilapia Male (top) and female Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
  12. 12. Environmental requirements 1. Salinity All tilapia are tolerant to brackish water. The Nile tilapia is the least saline tolerant of the commercially important species, but grows well at salinities up to 15 ppt. The Blue tilapia grows well in brackish water up to 20 ppt salinity, and the Mozambique tilapia grows well at salinities near or at full strength seawater. Therefore, the Mozambique tilapia and some mossambicus derived red tilapia are preferred for saltwater culture.
  13. 13. 2. Water Temperature Tilapia generally stop feeding when water temperature falls below 63⁰ F. Reproduction is best at water temperatures higher than 80⁰ F. Optimal water temperature fortilapia growth is about 85 to 88⁰ F. 3. Dissolved oxygen concentration Tilapia survive routine dawn dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations of less than 0.3 mg/L 4. pH In general, tilapia can survive in pH ranging from 5 to 10 but do best in a pH range of 6 to 9.
  14. 14. Important requirements and Characteristics of Sexually Mature Tilapia     4 to 6 months WEIGHT : 5 to 100 grams LENGTH : 10 to 12 cm SPAWNING TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM 25 to 30⁰C MINIMUM 21⁰C  EGG PRODUCTION PER FEMALE 100 g female tilapia – 100 eggs per spawning 100-600 g female tilapia – 1000 to 1500 eggs per spawning.  BEST SIZE FOR BROODSTOCK 100 to 200 g
  15. 15. Spawning Process The following sequence characterizes the mating behavior of Tilapia. 1. Brood stock become acclimated to their surroundings 3 to 4 days after stocking. 2. Males define and defend territories on the bottom, and form a nest by cleaning a circular area 20 to 30 cm. Wide. In ponds with soft bottoms, the nest excavated 5 to 8 cm deep by digging with the mouth. 3. The female is attracted to the nest where the male courts her. 4. A mating pair of Tilapia
  16. 16. 5. The female lays her eggs in the nest after which they are fertilized by the male. 6. The female picks up the fertilized eggs in her mouth and leaves the nest. The male continues to guard the nest and attract other females for mating. Courtship and mating require less than a day. 7. Eggs are incubated for 2 to 5 days in the female’s mouth before they hatch. Young fry stay with their mother for an additional 5 to 7 days. They hide in her mouth when danger threatens. The female does not eat while incubating her eggs or caring for the new fry.
  17. 17. 8. A female guards her young for 5 to 7 days. They hide in her mouth when danger threatens. 9. The female will be ready to mate again about one week after she stops caring for the fry. 10. Fry from schools after leaving their mother and can be easily harvested with small mesh nest at this time. Large schools of fry may be seen 13 to 18 days after broodstock have been introduced to their new surroundings.
  18. 18. Tilapias Fingerling Production: For the purposes of farming tilapia there are two sources from which tilapia fingerlings are obtained: collection from the wild and by breeding in nurseries established in countries where tilapia is farmed. Countries which do not have either of these sources they import their requirements from countries that has them.
  19. 19. Sex Reversal Materials: Seven (7) inverted (mosquito) nets, Formula SRT-95 (hormone). Method: Place in the inverted nets (in the pond) the newly hatched fingerlings from the mouth of the mother tilapia. Feed them with the formula. Do this in 21 days. A kilo of hormone can feed 6,000 fingerlings.
  20. 20. Thank you for listening….
  21. 21. Group of Tilapia;     Ritchel L. Cercado Axl Rose Rabadon Jim Torrevillas Christian Ulyses Castillo