Japan Ppt


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Japan Ppt

  1. 1. Japan
  2. 2. Geography <ul><li>Japan is an archipelago, or a chain of islands </li></ul><ul><li>It is a small country, about the size of Montana, but ranks 7 th in the world in total population with 127,000,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Tokyo is the capital city </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent fishing waters, key resource </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks many key natural resources, especially minerals and metals which means Japan relies heavily on trade </li></ul><ul><li>Very mountainous, little productive farmland </li></ul><ul><li>Located on the ring of fire, Japan experiences many earthquakes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Map of Japan
  4. 4. Influence from China <ul><li>Buddhism and Chinese culture was introduced to the Japanese beginning around 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted Chinese written language </li></ul><ul><li>Borrowed many ideas on government and the ideas of Confucius </li></ul><ul><li>Art, music, literature, dress, and farming methods were also borrowed from the Chinese </li></ul>
  5. 5. Feudalism <ul><li>New system of government that emerged as a result of political turmoil in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Under this system local lords ruled the land, but owed loyalty to higher lords and the emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor – hereditary position with no real power </li></ul><ul><li>Shogun - powerful military commander </li></ul><ul><li>Daimyo – powerful landowning nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai – warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants, artisans, merchants – majority of the population that make up the lowest social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in frequent warfare </li></ul>
  6. 6. Feudal Structure
  7. 7. Tokugawa Shogunate <ul><li>Centralized the system of feudalism, bringing the daimyo under their control </li></ul><ul><li>Lasting from about 1600-1870, the shoguns created a peaceful and orderly society </li></ul><ul><li>Japan was becoming a unified nation </li></ul><ul><li>Peace allowed Japan to build roads, bridges, and harbors, cities and towns sprang up, and the economy improved </li></ul>
  8. 8. Isolation <ul><li>Japan is an island nation, naturally isolated from the rest of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1600’s, the Japanese banned all foreigners from entering the country </li></ul><ul><li>Any Japanese who left the country could not return </li></ul><ul><li>The government even outlawed the building of oceangoing ships </li></ul><ul><li>In 1853, the US sent a fleet commanded by Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan to open up its ports to foreign trade </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal treaties, such as the Treaty of Kanagawa made Japanese ports open to western nations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Religion <ul><li>Shinto – believe that all living and non-living things contain spirits, or kami. Linked people to the forces of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism – arrived in Japan as a result of cultural diffusion. Divided into different sects, including Zen Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism – Strong emphasis placed on the principles of filial piety (loyalty to parents) and loyalty to the ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Many Japanese practice both Buddhism and Shinto </li></ul>
  10. 10. Meiji Restoration <ul><li>The Japanese felt that the shogun had shown weakness in allowing foreigners to enter into treaties with Japan </li></ul><ul><li>The daimyo and samurai led a rebellion that restored the emperor to power in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>The period from 1868-1912 is known as the Meiji Restoration </li></ul><ul><li>During this time the emperor made many changes that would change Japan forever </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reforms of the Meiji Restoration <ul><li>Borrowing from the west – members of the government traveled abroad to learn about western government, economies, technology, and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development – developed industry, built factories, improved ports, built roads, urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Central Government – a constitution gave the emperor autocratic power and created a two house legislature, one of which was elected. Voting rights were limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Military power – modern army and a strong navy </li></ul>
  12. 12. Growth of Nationalism <ul><li>By 1900, Japan had become a modern industrialized nation </li></ul><ul><li>Japan competed with both the Chinese and Russians for influence in Korea. In 1895, Japan easily defeated China and in 1904-1905 Japan defeated Russia, stunning the western world. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Great Depression hit, Japan was also effected because of their reliance on trade </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Nationalists argued that the Japanese should continue there overseas expansion and a military dictatorship began to emerge </li></ul>
  13. 13. World War II <ul><li>In 1937, the Japanese launched a major drive into China and other parts of southeast Asia (territorial expansion) </li></ul><ul><li>China was source for raw materials and a market for Japanese goods </li></ul><ul><li>While Japan was invading China, Germany and Italy had taken aggressive actions in Europe, sparking WWII </li></ul><ul><li>In 1940, Japan joined an alliance known as the axis powers with Germany and Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Their opponents, the allied powers, included Britain, France, and Russia </li></ul>
  14. 14. War with the United States <ul><li>The US responded to Japanese aggression by cutting off exports to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>While Japanese diplomats negotiated with the United States to avoid war, they were also secretly planning to attack the United States Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes bombed pearl harbor destroying eight battleships and killing 2,500 Americans </li></ul>
  15. 15. War in the Pacific <ul><li>Japan conquered Hong Kong and much of southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The conquests gave Japan much needed raw materials, including rubber, oil, and tin </li></ul><ul><li>Allied forces slowed down the advancing Japanese and slowly turned the tide, forcing the Japanese to retreat from one island after another in what became known as island hopping </li></ul><ul><li>From island bases in the Pacific, the US began bombing Japanese cities </li></ul><ul><li>American submarines destroyed Japanese ships carrying supplies to Japan </li></ul>
  16. 16. Defeat <ul><li>After the defeat of Germany and Italy, the allies called on Japan to surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Japan refused </li></ul><ul><li>On August 6, 1945 an American Bomber, the Enola Gay, dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima killing 80,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Still, the Japanese refused to surrender </li></ul><ul><li>On August 9, 1945 another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, killing 40,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, on August 14, Japan surrendered </li></ul>
  17. 17. WW II Video Clips <ul><li>Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Hiroshima </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hiroshima before the bombing
  19. 19. Hiroshima after the bombing
  20. 20. Hiroshima after the bombing
  21. 21. Japan Today <ul><li>Traditional family relationships are still very much present in Japanese society </li></ul><ul><li>Western styles and culture have a strong influence in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful, modern economy especially in high tech areas (automobiles, computers, electronics) </li></ul><ul><li>Relies heavily on imports from other nations, especially energy resources </li></ul><ul><li>Close trade relationship with United States </li></ul><ul><li>Representative democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Very strong educational system has encouraged growth and development in the economy </li></ul>
  22. 22. Japanese Culture <ul><li>Tea Ceremony – Zen Buddhist tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Haiku – popular form of poetry that consists of only 17 syllables. It is divided into lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Kabuki Theatre – a form of theatre that often was full of drama and dealt with themes like love and revenge </li></ul>
  23. 23. Kabuki Theatre
  24. 24. Haiku’s As the wind does blow Across the trees, I see the Buds blooming in May Falling to the ground, I watch a leaf settle down In a bed of brown.