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JAPAN, Land of the rising sun


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JAPAN, Land of the rising sun

  1. 1. JAPAN JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki Land of the Rising Sun
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>National Anthem </li></ul><ul><li>Country Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics & Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Background & History </li></ul><ul><li>Culture, Society, &Art </li></ul><ul><li>Language & Dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Food & Beverage </li></ul><ul><li>Legal System, Reporting Requirements, & Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities & Public Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Time Zones, Time Perceptions, Political System </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Cultural Exports </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization & Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Business Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Work Cited </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>For a country that lived in self-imposed isolation until 150 years ago, Japan has not hesitated in making up for lost time. Anyone who's eaten sushi, or used a Sony Playstation feels they know something about this slinky archipelago of some 6800 volcanic islands and yet, from the moment of arrival in Japan, it's almost as if you've touched down on another planet. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  4. 4. National Anthem JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  5. 5. Country Profile <ul><li>Language: Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Government: Parliamentary with constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister: Yukio Hatoyama (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>Flag description: White with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays) in the center </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 127,078,679 </li></ul><ul><li>(2009 est.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>98.5% ethnic Japanese. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 percent are mostly Korean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>considerable numbers of Brazilians, Chinese, and Filipinos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Growth Rate: -0.191% (2009 est.), World Rank: 219 th </li></ul><ul><li>GDP: 4.34 Trillion (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Industries : Consumer electronics, motor vehicles, machine tools, steel, and nonferrous metals </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north </li></ul><ul><li>Exports : Motor vehicles, semiconductors, and office machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture : Rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit, pork, fish </li></ul><ul><li>Currency : Yen </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy : Average: 82, Male: 78.8, Female: 85.6 </li></ul><ul><li>GDP per Capita : $33,800 </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy Rate : 99% </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment Rate : 5.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Oil imports : 5.425 million bbl/day </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Users : 87.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues : Acid rain; Japan is the largest consumer of Amazon rainforest, timberdegrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular sport: Baseball </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  6. 6. Demographics & Geography <ul><li>Japan is an island nation in East Asia comprising a large stratovolcanic archipelago extending along the Pacific coast of Asia, off the coast of Russia &the Korean peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan consists of four main larger islands and more than 4000 smaller islands. The main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. </li></ul><ul><li>The area of Japan is 377,873km2, which makes it slightly </li></ul><ul><li>smaller in land mass than California. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous/ </li></ul><ul><li>Highest pt: Mount Fuji 3,776, </li></ul><ul><li>Natural hazards: many dormant and some active </li></ul><ul><li>volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) </li></ul><ul><li>every year; tsunamis. </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster risks arising from population growth and climate </li></ul><ul><li>change. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is the 19th most densely populated country in the world </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  7. 7. Background & History <ul><li>Japan history begins with the migration of people from the Asian mainland during a period in which the sea separating present day Japan from China and the Korean Peninsula was only partially formed. When the sea rose and the land bridges washed away, these first inhabitants of ancient Japan were left to settle the islands. </li></ul><ul><li>During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki . </li></ul><ul><li>10,000BC – 300BC: Jomon Period </li></ul><ul><li>300BC – 300AD: Yayoi Period </li></ul><ul><li>300AD – 710AD: Kofun Period or the Yamato Period </li></ul><ul><li>710 – 794: The Nara Period </li></ul><ul><li>794 – 1192: Heian Period </li></ul><ul><li>1191 – 1333: Kamakura Period </li></ul><ul><li>1333 – 1573: Muromachi Period </li></ul><ul><li>1600 – 1867: Edo Period </li></ul><ul><li>1868 – 1912: Meiji Period: </li></ul><ul><li>1926 – 1989: Showa Period </li></ul><ul><li>1926 – 1945: Expansionism Period </li></ul><ul><li>1952 – 1989: Post-occupied Japan: Japan entered a period of peace and great economic growth after enacting the Treaty of San Francisco. </li></ul><ul><li>1989 - PresentHeisei Period: Japan's current period named by Emperor Akihito after the death of his father, Hirohito, the Showa Emperor. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Culture <ul><li>Technological sophistication and mass culture have not led to strongly rooted individualism in Japan. Groups are still a very strong source of identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese culture consists of the interaction between a strong original Jōmon culture and subsequent influences from the rest of the world. Culture of China was first mostly influential, starting with the development of the Yayoi culture from around 300BC. </li></ul><ul><li>After several waves of immigration from the continent and nearby Pacific islands (see History of Japan), the inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world under the Tokugawa shogunate until the arrival of &quot;The Black Ships&quot; and the Meiji era. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is one of the world's largest </li></ul><ul><li>exporters of popular culture. Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>cartoons, comic books, fashion, films, </li></ul><ul><li>literature, and music have gained </li></ul><ul><li>popularity around the world, especially </li></ul><ul><li>in the other countries of Asia. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  9. 9. Society <ul><li>Japan is an extremely homogeneous society with non-Japanese, mostly Koreans and Chinese, making up only about 1% of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast majority of the population live on the crowded coastal plains of the main island of Honshū. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese people are primarily the descendants of various peoples who migrated from Asia in prehistoric times; the dominant strain is N Asian or Mongolic, with some Malay and Indonesian admixture. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the earliest groups, the Ainu, who still persist to some extent in Hokkaido, are physically somewhat similar to Caucasians. Japanese is the official language. </li></ul><ul><li>Of major concern to Japanese government policy planners are the expected steady decline in the population during the 21st cent. (the population decreased for the first time in 2005) and the large and growing portion of the population that is elderly. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  10. 10. Art <ul><li>Japan developed a unique original culture in various mediums; </li></ul><ul><li>Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Crafts </li></ul><ul><li>Performances </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ikebana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origami </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ukivo-e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pottery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacquer ware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunraku </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kabuki </li></ul></ul>Traditional Tea Ceremony Onsen Sento JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki <ul><li>Origami </li></ul>
  11. 11. Language and Dialects <ul><li>Japanese is the sixth most spoken language in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese is believed to be linked to the Altaic language family, which includes Turkish, Mongolian and other languages, but also shows similarities to Austronesian languages like Polynesian. </li></ul><ul><li>Dozens of dialects are spoken in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese uses four different writing systems; Kanji (Chinese characters), Hiragana (phonetic alphabet for native words), Katakana (phonetic alphabet for foreign words), and Romaji (western alphabet used to write Japanese) </li></ul><ul><li>Dialects are used in areas, particularly in Kyoto and Osaka, but standard Japanese, based on the speech of Tokyo, has become more popular through the use of television, radio and movies. </li></ul><ul><li>In newspapers, the words of Chinese and origin number greater than the Japanese native words. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese is written using two systems of orthography, Chinese characters and syllabifies. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  12. 12. Religeous Practices <ul><li>There are two principal religions in Japan, Shintoism and Buddhism , officially followed by 54% and 40% of the population respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese people's concern towards religion is mostly related to mythology, traditions, and neighborhood activities rather than as a source of morality or a guideline for one's life. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest new religion is Soka Gakkai, a Buddhist sect, founded in 1930. Its declared motto is peace, culture and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion in Japan tends to be synergetic in nature, and this results in a variety of practices such as parents and children celebrating Shinto rituals, students praying before exams, couples holding a wedding at a Christian church and funerals being held at Buddhist temples. </li></ul><ul><li>Miyajima is universally recognized as being among the top three scenic places in Japan. A short ferry ride from Hiroshima, Myajima island is home to the beautiful Itskushima Shrine, a World Heritage Site, and home to the famous &quot;floating&quot; Torii gate. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  13. 13. Tourism <ul><li>Centuries of excitement await throughout Japan. Experience the beauty and splendor </li></ul><ul><li>of ancient shrines, temples, and traditions as you explore Tokyo, Kyoto, Nara and other </li></ul><ul><li>cities throughout the country. </li></ul>Cherry blossoms frame a pagoda on Miyajima Island in Hiroshima. This is a solar-powered, illuminated rooftop garden at the top of the legendary Tokyo landmark, 115-year-old Imperial Hotel . The famous floating torii at Itsukushima Shrine Sunrise on Mt. Fuji Himeji castle Great Buddha of Kotokuin
  14. 14. Food & Beverage <ul><li>Meals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The typical Japanese meal consists of a bowl of rice (gohan), a bowl of miso soup (miso shiru), pickled vegetables (tsukemono) and fish or meat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bentō, boxed meals in Japan, are very common and constitute an important ritual during lunch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A meal at a more average restaurant costs roughly between 1,000 and 3,000 Yen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sticky, short-grained rice is the staple food, uncooked rice is called kome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice is generally eaten plain or sometimes with nori (dried-pressed seaweed) or furikake (various seasonings). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Japanese restaurants, customers are given a rolled hand towel called oshibori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soybean is a key ingredient without which Japanese food wouldn't exist. Tofu, miso, natto and soy sauce are all made from soybeans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beer is the most popular alcohol beverage in Japan, and Japanese sake (rice wine) is the second most popular, and an important part of Shinto religion and Japanese culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If alcohol is served, DO NOT drink from the bottle. Pour the beverage into a cup or glass provided and then drink Tipping is not customary in Japan. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beverage </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  15. 15. Legal Systems, Reporting Requirements, & Regulations <ul><li>Government type: Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government </li></ul><ul><li>Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor JIMMU) </li></ul><ul><li>National holiday: Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 December (1933) </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution: 3 May 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese Constitution contains thirty-one articles relating to human rights and it also provides for the separation of three powers: Legislative, Judicial and Governmental power. </li></ul><ul><li>The law of Japan was historically heavily influenced by Chinese law </li></ul><ul><li>The modernization of the Law of Japan was based on the European legal system. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  16. 16. Legal Systems, Reporting Requirements, & Regulations <ul><li>A firms ability to borrow may also be based on its personal relationship and rapport with bank officials rather than on typical US standards of credit worthiness. </li></ul><ul><li>For US companies with operations in Japan, teaming up with Japanese partners in a joint venture has been effective as a way to receive better treatment from Japanese Banks. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese government has removed most legal restrictions on exports and foreign investments in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Economic Partnership for growth, the US and Japanese governments have worked to cut regulations in sectors of key economic importance where US firms are globally competitive – telecommunications, medical equipment, energy, information technology, insurance and financial services </li></ul>
  17. 17. Technology <ul><li>Mobile technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile subscriber penetration77.6%, Internet user penetration34.3%, Broadband subscriber penetration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan is a leader in mobile phone ( keitai denwa) technology and usage with about 75% of the population owning one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only foreign phones that work in Japan are some 3G models, however the number of compatible phones is increasing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japanese research and development efforts increasingly stress what one Japanese policymaker calls the &quot;fusion&quot; solution, or combining advances in different technologies to generate new products and innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic goods, such as TVs, stereo sets, cameras and computers are relatively inexpensive at stores like Yamada Denki, Yodobashi Camera, Sakuraya and Bic Camera, and in discount shopping areas like Akihabara in Tokyo. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan leads the world in robotics, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  18. 18. Technology Differences <ul><li>Telephones - main lines in use: 47.579 million (2008)country comparison to the world: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Telephones - mobile cellular: 110.395 million (2008)country comparison to the world: 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general assessment: excellent domestic and international service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>international: country code – 81 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radio broadcast stations: AM 215 (plus 370 repeaters), FM 89 (plus 485 repeaters), shortwave 21 (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Television broadcast stations: 211 (plus 7,341 repeaters); in addition, US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet country code: .jp </li></ul><ul><li>Internet hosts: 47.249 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Internet users: 90.91 million (2008)country comparison to the world: 3 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Infrastructure <ul><li>Transportation in Japan is modern and infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>spending has been large. </li></ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connects major cities and are operated by toll-collecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enterprises. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan has 1,152,207 km of highways with 863,003 km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(including 6,114 km of expressways) paved and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>289,204 km of unpaved ways (1997 est.). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan has left-hand traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>total: 23,506 km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>country comparison to the world: 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each train travels as quickly as 300 kilometers per hour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All trains are known for punctuality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan is the most railway using nation per capita </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waterways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,770 km (seagoing vessels use inland seas) </li></ul></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  20. 20. Infrastructure <ul><li>Airports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 173 airports, and the largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's busiest airport.The largest international gateways are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narita International Airport (Tokyo area), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kansai International Airport (Osaka/Kobe/Kyoto area) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chūbu Centrair International Airport (Nagoya area) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heliports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total: 14, Rank: 15 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marine Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 1770 km of Waterways in Japan; seagoing craft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ply all coastal inland seas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scheduled international passenger routes are to China, Russia, South Korea and Taiwan. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge is the longest-span suspension bridge in the world, whose total length and central span length are 3,911m and 1,991m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pipeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan has 84 km of pipelines for crude oil, 322 km for petroleum products, and 1,800 km for natural gas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiba, Kawasaki, Kobe, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo, Tomakomai, Yohohama </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  21. 21. Utlities & Public Safety <ul><li>Utilities such as gas, water and especially electricity are expensive, and phone rates are high. For international calls, consider internet phones, callback services and other offers for the expat community </li></ul><ul><li>Coal imports by Japan reached 186 Mt [million tonnes - ed] in 2007, which was an increase of 5.2% compared with those of 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>In solar power, Japan ranks third in the world for installed capacity, behind only Germany and Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Crime in Japan is lower than in many other first world countries. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  22. 22. Time Zone, Time Perceptions, & Political Systems <ul><li>What time is it? - Nan ji desu ka. - 何時ですか。 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is 14 hours ahead of New York (standard time) and 9 hours ahead of London. </li></ul><ul><li>Time perception between urban and rural population is observed to be shifting in Japan. People in a bustling city like Tokyo, even being the Eastern city that it is, surely must monitor time more closely and break it down into finer units than they used to as Japan's competitor status in the world market escalates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Japanese believe strongly in 'no hidden surprises' and are committed to a very high degree of predictability and consistent reliability (not just reliability). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is reflected in their business practices and everyday living, such that the train or bus schedule would read &quot;Arrival: 8.23 p.m.&quot; and the train or bus would pull in exactly at that time! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People in Japan, on the other hand, arrive for meetings at least 5 minutes before a scheduled 9:00 a.m. appointment! The simple logic is that it takes about 5 minutes to get seated and settled in and the meeting is support to START at 9 a.m. </li></ul></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  23. 23. Political System <ul><li>The politics of Japan is conducted in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, where Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government. </li></ul><ul><li>The current government is led by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama </li></ul><ul><li>Most political parties in Japan are small and do not have broad, mass memberships; their members are mainly professional politicians. </li></ul><ul><li>The ruling coalition is formed by the liberal Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), the leftist Social Democratic Party and the conservative People's New Party </li></ul><ul><li>The Imperial Household of Japan is headed by Emperor Akihito </li></ul><ul><li>Military: Sixth largest in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close with the United States - Japan maintains close economic and military relations with its key ally and partner, the United States, and therefore the US-Japan security alliance serves as the cornerstone of its foreign policy. </li></ul></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  24. 24. Economy <ul><li>The Japanese economy is one of the largest in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Japan's farming population has been declining steadily and was less than 5% of the total population in 2004; agriculture accounted for less than 2% of the gross domestic product. </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing is highly developed, and the annual catch is one of the largest in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese industry is concentrated mainly in S Honshu and N Kyushu, with centers at Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe, and Nagoya. </li></ul><ul><li>20.1% of outsourcing firms outsourced their job training, compared with 19.7% for information systems, 17.4% for production processes, 14% for accountancy and tax affairs and 13.7% for R&D. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki <ul><li>Exports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars, electronic devices and computers. Most important trade partners are China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the USA, followed by South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and Germany. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most important import goods are raw materials such as oil, foodstuffs and wood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major supplier is China, followed by the USA, Australia, Saudia Arabia, South Korea, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing, construction, distribution, real estate, services, and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are Japan's major industries today. Agriculture makes up only about two percent of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the GNP. Most important agricultural product is rice. Resources of raw materials are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very limited and the mining industry rather small. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Japanese Culture as Export <ul><li>10% of GNP is ‘cultural export’ material </li></ul><ul><li>300% growth in cultural exports between 1996-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Ministry have started traveling abroad to introduce Japanese pop culture to young people overseas. </li></ul><ul><li>Anime, manga and cosplay are part of “Japanese youth culture” and have proven surprisingly popular with young people around the world. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  26. 26. Industrialization & Energy Resources <ul><li>Leading Auto Makers </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  27. 27. Business Protocol <ul><li>Understanding Foreign ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese understand that it is very difficult for foreigners to work in Japan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They will not expect you to speak or read Japanese, or be conversant with their strict cultural nuances and protocol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan has great health care, team culture, and socialization outside office hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationships and Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese prefer to do business on the basis of personal relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to be a good correspondent as the Japanese hold this in high esteem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Meeting Etiquette Japanese prefer to do business on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointments are required and, whenever possible, should be made several weeks in advance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is best to telephone for an appointment rather than send a letter, fax or email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most senior Japanese person will be seated furthest from the door, with the rest of the people in descending rank until the most junior person is seated closest to the door. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always provide a package of literature about your company including articles and client testimonials. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Negotiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese are non-confrontational. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have a difficult time saying 'no', so you must be vigilant at observing their non-verbal communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never lose your temper or raise your voice during negotiations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dress Etiquette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business attire is conservative . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business cards are exchanged constantly and with great ceremony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is wise to have one side of your business card translated into Japanese. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During a meeting, place the business cards on the table in front of you in the order people are seated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat the business card you receive as you would the person </li></ul></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  28. 28. Etiquette <ul><li>Gifts & Gift Giving in Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gifts play a major role in Japanese business. It is customary to exchange gifts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a business situation, avoid framing the gift in such terms, as it denotes the insignificance of the gift and therefore belittles the recipient's worth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is considered good luck to give gifts in pairs, such as a double pen set. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not give gifts in groups of four, as the Japanese word for four means death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap the gift in pastel colors, but not white, as this color is associated with death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not take flowers; they are not considered an appropriate gift. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gifts & Gift Giving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people will ask a guest to open a gift, but if they do not, the Japanese will resist the urge to ask if they can open the gift. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is considered impolite to go to someone's house without a gift. In Japanese this is called tebura ( 手ぶら ? ) (empty-handed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making Payment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of handing a cashier cash from one's hands to the cashier's hands, it is a commonplace practice in Japan to place the money onto a small tray that is placed specifically for the purpose near the cashier machine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phone Etiquette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of mobile phones on public transport is frowned upon, and messages asking passengers not to make calls and to switch their phones to silent mode (&quot;public mode&quot; or &quot;manners mode&quot; in Japanese) are played frequently. </li></ul></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  29. 29. Etiquette <ul><li>The code of etiquette in Japan governs the expectations of social behavior in the country and is considered very important </li></ul><ul><li>Greetings are considered to be of importance in Japanese culture </li></ul><ul><li>When greeting people, always bow before the person, and they will bow to you as well. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ohayō gozaimasu ( おはようございます ? ) or &quot;good morning&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oyasuminasai ( お休みなさい ? ) or &quot;good night&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home Etiquette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of the shoes before entering a house is customary and in even Westernized homes, a room can be found with a tatami (Japanese mat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the winter time, if a guest is wearing a coat or hat, the guest will take it off before the host opens the door. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dining Etiquette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is considered particularly taboo to pass food from chopsticks to chopsticks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In sushi-only restaurants, it is acceptable to use fingers instead of chopsticks to eat the nigiri-zushi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Japan, you say &quot;itadakimasu&quot; (&quot;I gratefully receive&quot;) before eating, and &quot;gochisosama (deshita)&quot; (&quot;Thank you for the meal&quot;) after finishing the meal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is considered polite to clear one's plate, even to the last grain of rice </li></ul></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  30. 30. Housing <ul><li>Two patterns of residences are predominant in contemporary Japan: the single-family detached house and the multiple-unit building, either owned by an individual or corporation and rented as apartments to tenants, or owned by occupants. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the world's most expensive land can be found in central Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>Apartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese rooms are measured by &quot;tatami&quot; (woven thatch flooring); each tatami mat is 6 feet by 3 feet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A standard room is 6 mats, or 9 feet by 12 feet. Some rooms can be as small as three tatami, others as big as 9 or even 12. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a metropolis, expect to pay about 70,000 yen a month for a standard 1-room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The average renter has 2.84 rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dwellings of homeowners in Japan are 121.67 sq. meters (1308 sq. ft.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The average homeowner has 5.91 rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six out of 10 Japanese live in single family houses, the rest live in apartments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 50% provide 1 room for each child </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gardens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garden architecture is as important as building architecture and very much influenced by the same historical and religious background. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Japanese culture, garden-making is a high art, intimately related to the linked arts of calligraphy and ink painting. </li></ul></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  31. 31. Conclusion: What would it be like to conduct a project in Japan? <ul><li>JAPAN IS A MODERN, thriving democracy, yet it retained a long and esteemed imperial tradition. The Japanese take great pride in being &quot;unique,&quot; yet much of Japanese civilization is composed of selective borrowings, from the Chinese written language in the sixth century A.D. to United States semiconductors in the latter half of the twentieth century. </li></ul><ul><li>The scope of Japan's economy is second only to that of the United States.    Japan's continued rapid economic growth since the nation's modernization began in the later half of the nineteenth century has gained the world's attention.    Now that the nation's economy generally is prospering in quantitative terms, the  focus has turned to the improvement of the quality of people's lives.  </li></ul><ul><li>An ancient culture which has evolved within the geographical boundaries of an island has produced a modern day society with unique values, traditions and customs. Doing business in Japan arguably poses the most potential for cross cultural misunderstandings.  </li></ul><ul><li>However, Japan's professionals are well educated in doing business with the West and will try to modify their own behaviors to accommodate you. Nonetheless, doing business in Japan necessitates preparing oneself by understanding areas such as business culture, business etiquette, negotiation and meeting protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy doing business in Japan! </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Harmony is a key value in Japanese society and is the guiding philosophy for the Japanese in family and business settings and in society as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>In Japan, the family is of great importance, and you will often find several generations living under one roof. </li></ul><ul><li>You are expected to respect and honor elders and obey family laws. </li></ul><ul><li>You are not likely to see a Japanese man lose his temper or show immense emotion; this results in a loss of integrity, therefore, a loss of face. </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuality is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese place a great deal of importance into what is not being said, whereas Westerners have a need to fill the gaps in conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese word kimono means &quot;something one wears&quot; and they are the traditional garments of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, despite suffering massive losses during World War II and possessing very little natural resources, Japan has become an economic and technological powerhouse. </li></ul><ul><li>All business and personal dealings in Japan happen only when a strong relationship of trust has been established. Trust is the foundation of any business and a transaction will follow only after the Japanese counterpart has been assured of trust. </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
  33. 33. Works Cited <ul><li> = </li></ul><ul><li> = </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> = </li></ul><ul><li> = </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> = </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li> = </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki