1. The Industrial Revolution led to a new round of imperialism by the world’s major industrial powers. a. The tremendous growth of industry promoted a greater demand for raw materials to be used in manufacturing. b. Improved transportation made it possible for these materials to be shipped from greater distances.
White Mans Burden1. European colonizers believed they had an economic and social right to take over as many lands as possible for the glory and wealth of their nations. a. Europeans also believed that it was their duty to educate the uneducated.2. Those who were colonized, however, often saw the European control of wealth and society as a destructive force, one that devalued their own economic and social traditions.
The Exploitation of African Resources1. Europeans discovered that Africa had large deposits of valuable resources. a. Oil, coal, iron ore, copper, gold and diamonds.2. Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, and Portugal all raced to est. colonies in Africa. a. These colonies meant economic power, they also meant prestige and political power for the countries holding them.
3. In 1885, the European powers divided Africa among themselves without consulting the African people. a. Native Africans suffered displacement as well as tribal conflict from being grouped together with tribes with which they had little in common.3. Colonial Rule of Africa brought wealth and power to Western Nations, it devastated traditional ways of life in Africa. a. European languages, customs, dress, and religion were seen as civilizing forces to be applied to native Africans.
Revolution and Reform in China1. During the 1800s China became a site of economic competition between; Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia.2. Each established spheres of influence, in which they had exclusive right to invest in mines, railroads, and factories.3. The United States developed the Open Door Policy. a. The open door policy was supposed to keep China from being colonized. b. It worked, but China was clearly dominated by foreign countries.
Rebellion in China1. Taiping Rebellion- Disagreements among the Chinese over how to deal with foreign influence and the ancient political system led to further instability. a. Million of Chinese died as a result of the Rebellion. b. Resulted in political reforms, but the reforms didn’t help much. Wars and instability remained a basic fact of Chinese life.
2. A feeling of nationalism began to unite the Chinese people against outsiders.3. In 1900 Boxer Rebellion targeted Europeans and Americans for death. a. It took an army made up of soldiers from 8 countries, including the U.S., to crush the Boxers. b. After the Boxer Rebellion China’s rulers tried to reform and modernize the Chinese government one last time.
4. In 1905 China formed a United League. a. The goal of the league included throwing out foreigners, replacing the old rulers with a democratic government, and improving the lives of common Chinese citizens.4. Oct. 1911, Chinese troops sympathetic to the United League stages a revolt. a. Sun Yixian was elected president of the Republic of China. b. The last emperor of China was a six-year-old boy named Pu Yi.
The Modernization of Japan1. For hundreds of years, Japan isolated itself from the rest of the world.2. Japan was ruled by shoguns of the Tokugawa clan. a. Tokugawa shogunate was a feudal system, in which each shogun distributed land to other lords in exchange for political loyalty and military support. b. Shoguns kept foreign visitors isolated, refused most cultural change, and allowed very little technology.
3. Commodore Matthew Perry and the U.S. Navy arrived in 1853 and intimidated the shogun enough to open trade between the two nations. a. Perry’s steam-powered ships, which the Japanese had never seen before, and the advanced weapons these ships displayed, made Japan fear that it would be colonized by Western nations.3. Many Japanese were angry because of the deals made between the shogunate and U.S. a. They felt that the U.S. had too much control over Japanese commerce.
5. In 1867 nobles forced the shogun to resign and returned the emperor to power in the Meiji Restoration. a. Leaders of the Meiji Restoration quickly developed plans to industrialize their nation, learn Western ways, and build a military to defend Japan against Western powers. i. Sent Japanese scholars to Western nations, founded Universities. ii. Connected the nation with the telegraph and Railroad. iii. Est. National postal system.5. Within 50 years, Japan was completely transformed into an industrialized nation that no longer feared imperialistic powers.