Geography• Japan is an archipelago (Chain Of Island )• It is a small country about size of Montana, but ranked 7th in the World in total population.• Tokyo is the capital city.• Excellent fishing water, key resources.• Lacks many natural resources.• Very mountainous, and located on ring of Fire.
Influence from china• Buddhism and Chinese culture were introduced to the Japan around 500 AD.• Adopted Chinese written language.• Borrowed many Ideas on government and ideas of Confucius.• Art, literature, dress, farming etc were borrowed from China.
Feudalism• New system of government emerged as a result of political turmoil in Japan.• Under this system local lord rule the land, but owned loyalty to higher lord and emperor.• Emperor-hereditary position with no real power.• Shogun: Powerful military commander.• Damiyo: Powerful land owning nobility.• Samurai: Warrior.• Resulted in frequent war.
Tokugawa Shogunta• Centralized the system of feudalism. Bringing the Daimyo under their control.• Lasting from 1600-1870 AD, the shoguns created the peaceful and orderly society.• Peace allowed Japan to built road, Bridges etc and thus economy improved.
Isolation• Japan is an island nation, so naturally separated from the rest of Asia.• During the 1600s, Japan banned all foreigner from entering their country.• Any Japanese who left the country could not return.• In 1853, the US sent a fleet commanded by the Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan to open up its port to foreign trade.• Unequal treaties like treaty of kanagawa made Japanese port open to western nation.
Religion• Shinto- believes all living and non living things contain spirits, or kami. Linked people to the forces of nature.• Buddhism: Arrived in Japan as a result of cultural diffusion. Divided into different sect, including Zen Buddhism.• Confucianism: Strong emphasis placed on filial piety ( loyalty to parents ) and loyalty to ruler.• Many Japanese practice both Shinto and Buddhism.
Meji Restoration• The Japanese felt that the shogun had shown weakness in allowing foreigners to enter into the treaties with Japan.• The damiyo and samurai led a rebellion that restored the emperor to power in Japan.• The period from 1868 to 1912 is known as Meiji Restoration.• During this time emperor made many changes that would change Japan forever.
Reforms of Meiji Restoration• Borrowing from the west: Member of the government travelled abroad to learn about the western government, economics, technology and customs.• Economic Development: developed industries, Built Factory, Improved port, built road.• Strong central Government: a constitution gave the government autocratic power and created a two house legislature, one of which was elected. Voting rights were limited.• Military power: modern army and strong navy.
Growth Of Nationalism• By 1900 Japan had become a modern Industrialized nation.• Japan competed with both Chinese and Russian for influence in Korea. 1895 Japan easily defeated China and in 1904-05, Japan defeated Russia Stunning the Western World.• When Great Depression Hit Japan was also effected because of their reliance on Trade.• Extreme Nationalism argued that Japanese should continue their overseas expansion and military dictatorship began to emerge.
World War II• In 1937, Japan launched major drive into China and other Southeast Asian Nation.• China was a source of raw material and market for Japanese Goods.• While Japan was invading China, Germany and Italy were taking aggressive action in Europe Sparking World War II• In 1940 Japan Joined alliance known as axis power with Germany and Italy.• On December 7,1941 Japanese planes bombarded Pearl Harbor destroying battleship and killing 2500 American.
World War II• On August 6, 1945 an American Bomber Enola Gay, dropped the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima killing 80000 people.• Still, Japan Refused to Surrender.• On August 9,1945 another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, killing 40000 people.• Finally on August 14 Japan Surrendered.
Japan Today• Traditional Family relationship are still very much present in Japan.• Western style and culture have very strong influence on Japan.• Relies heavily on Import.• Representative democracy.• Very Strong educational system has encouraged growth and development in economy.
System Of Government.• Japan has Prime Minister as well as Emperor, who hails from as imperial family.• Currently, the name of emperor in Akihito.• It is a democratic as well as constitutional monarchy.• Voting right is given only to the citizen of Japan whose age is above 20 years.
Government Structure National Prefectural Local
Political PartiesLiberal Democratic Party (LDP)• Currently, the LDP is ruling. It has formed government on 16 December 2012.• The current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who took office on 26 December 2012.Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ)• 2 September 2011 to 26 December 2012
Government Role in Economy• Every major decision in Japan is taken by the bureaucrats.• The bureaucrats in Japan enjoy royal treatment even post retirement, they are being offered a plum job both in government and the private sector after the retirement.